ORPHIC FRAGMENT 210 - OTTO KERN
ORPHIC FRAGMENT 210 - OTTO KERN
For links to many more fragments: The Orphic Fragments of Otto Kern.
SUMMARY: Many fragments concerning the dismemberment of Diónysos by the Titans.
210. (198. 199) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 35 a (II 145, 18 Diehl):
ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα δημιουργήματα αὐτοῦ πάντα μεμερίσθαι φησὶν (sc. Ὀρφεύς) ὑπὸ τῶν διαιρετικῶν θεῶν, μόνην δὲ τὴν καρδίαν ἀμέριστον εἶναι προνοίαι τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς· ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ὑφίστησι μὲν καὶ νοῦς καὶ ψυχὰς καὶ σώματα, ἀλλὰ ψυχαὶ μὲν καὶ σώματα δέχονται πολλὴν τὴν πρὸς ἑαυτὰ διαίρεσιν καὶ τὸν μερισμόν, νοῦς δὲ ἡνωμένος μένει καὶ ἀδιαίρετος ἐν ἑνὶ τὰ πάντα ὢν καὶ μιᾶι νοήσει τὰ ὅλα τὰ νοητὰ περιέχων, μόνην τὴν νοερὰν οὐσίαν καὶ τὸν νοερὸν ἀριθμὸν ἀπολελεῖφθαί φησιν ὑπὸ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς σεσωσμένον·
a μούνην γὰρ κραδίην νοερὴν λίπον,
φησίν, ἄντικρυς νοερὰν αὐτὴν προσαγορεύων. εἰ τοίνυν ἡ |146 Diehl ἀμέριστος καρδία νοερά ἐστι, νοῦς ἂν εἴη δηλαδὴ καὶ νοερὸς ἀριθμός, οὐ μέντοι πᾶς νοῦς, ἀλλ᾽ ὁ ἐγκόσμιος· οὗτος γάρ ἐστιν ἡ καρδία ἡ ἀμέριστος, ἐπειδὴ καὶ τούτου δημιουργὸς ἦν ὁ μεριζόμενος θεός. τὸν μὲν δὴ νοῦν ἀμέριστον οὐσίαν τοῦ Διονύσου καλεῖ, τὸ δὲ γόνιμον αὐτοῦ τὴν μεριστὴν αὐτὴν περὶ τὸ σῶμα ζωὴν φυσικὴν οὖσαν καὶ σπερμάτων οἰστικήν, ἣν καὶ τὴν Ἄρτεμίν (v. fr. 188) φησι τὴν πάσης προεστῶσαν τῆς ἐν τῆι φύσει γεννήσεως καὶ μαιευομένην τοὺς φυσικοὺς λόγους ἄνωθεν διατείνειν ἄχρι τῶν ὑποχθονίων, δυναμοῦσαν αὐτῆς τὴν γόνιμον δύναμιν, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν τοῦ θεοῦ σῶμα πᾶν τὴν ψυχικὴν σύστασιν, εἰς ἑπτὰ καὶ τοῦτο διηιρημένον·
b ἑπτὰ δὲ πάντα μέλη κούρου διεμοιρήσαντο,
φησὶν ὁ θεολόγος περὶ τῶν Τιτάνων, καθάπερ καὶ ὁ Τίμαιος εἰς ἑπτὰ διαιρεῖ μοίρας αὐτήν. καὶ τάχα ἂν τὸ διὰ παντὸς τοῦ κόσμου τεταμένην εἶναι τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ Τιτανικοῦ μερισμοῦ τοὺς Ὀρφικοὺς ἀναμιμνήσκοι, δι᾽ ὃν οὐ μόνον ἡ ψυχὴ περικαλύπτει τὸ πᾶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τέταται δι᾽ αὐτοῦ παντός. εἰκότως δὴ οὖν καὶ ὁ Πλάτων ἀμέριστον οὐσίαν ἀπεκάλεσε τὴν προσεχῶς ὑπὲρ ψυχὴν καὶ ὡς συντόμως εἰπεῖν τὸν μεθεκτὸν ἀπὸ ψυχῆς νοῦν, τοῖς Ὀρφικοῖς ἑπόμενος ἑπτὰ δὲ πάντα μέλη κούρου διεμοιρήσαντο, φησὶν ὁ θεολόγος περὶ τῶν Τιτάνων, καθάπερ καὶ ὁ Τίμαιος μύθοις καὶ οἷον ἐξηγητὴς τῶν ἐν ἀπορρήτοις λεγομένων εἶναι βουλόμενος.
“He (Ὀρφεύς) says, however, that all the other fabrications of the God, were distributed into parts by the deities who are of a dividing characteristic; but that the heart alone was undivided through the providence of Minerva (Ἀθηνᾶ). For since he constituted intellects, souls, and bodies, but souls and bodies receive much division and separation into parts in themselves, and intellect remains united and indivisible, being all things in one, and comprehending intelligible wholes in one intellection; hence he says, that the intellectual essence alone, and the intellectual number, were left preserved by Minerva. For he says,
‘The intellectual heart alone remain'd.’
Clearly calling it intellectual. If therefore the undivided heart is intellectual, it will evidently be intellect and an intellectual number, yet not every intellect, but that which is mundane. For this is the undivided heart; since of this also the divided God was the Demiurgus. Orpheus, therefore, calls the intellect of Bacchus (Διόνυσος), the impartible essence of the God. But he denominates his genitals, the life which is divisible about body; this being physical and productive of seeds. This also he says Diana (Ἄρτεμις), who presides over all the generation in nature, and obstetricates (i.e. relating to childbirth) physical reasons, extends as far as to the subterranean realms, distributing the prolific power of Bacchus. But all the remaining body of the God, forms the psychical composition, this likewise being divided into seven parts.
‘All the seven parts they scatter'd of the boy;’
says the theologist concerning the Titans; just as Timaeus also divides the soul into seven parts. Perhaps too he reminds us of the Orphic Titanic distribution into parts, when he says that the soul is extended through the whole world; through which the soul not only circularly covers the universe as with a veil, but likewise is extended through the whole of it. Hence Plato very properly calls the essence which is proximately above soul, impartible. And, in short, he thus denominates the intellect which is participated by the soul, following the Orphic fables, and wishing to be as it were, the interpreter of arcane and mystical assertions.” (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1820)
σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 35 b (II 197, 24 Diehl):
καὶ γὰρ ὁ ἀριθμὸς κοινός ἐστιν ἀμφοτέροις ἡ ἑβδομάς, ἐπεὶ καὶ τὸν Διόνυσον οἱ θεολόγοι μεριζόμενον εἰς ἑπτὰ μερισθῆναι λέγουσιν· ἑπτὰ
ἑπτὰ δὲ πάντα μέλη κούρου διεμοιρήσαντο.
διεμοιρήσαντο καὶ τῶι Ἀπόλλωνι τὴν ἑπτάδα ἀνεῖσαν, ὡς συνέχοντι πάσας τὰς συμφωνίας· ἐν γὰρ μονάδι καὶ δυάδι καὶ τετράδι πρῶτον τὸ δὶς διὰ πασῶν, ἐξ ὧν ἡ ἑβδομάς.
“For the hebdomad (group of seven) is a number common to both these divinities, since theologists also say that Bacchus (Διόνυσος) was divided into seven parts:
‘Into seven parts the Titans cut the boy.’
“And they refer the heptad (group of seven) to Apollo, as containing all symphonies. For the duple (two beats) diapason (grand burst of harmony) first subsists in the monad (1), duad (2), and tetrad (4), of which numbers the hebdomad consists.” (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1820)
σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Παρμενίδου Πλάτωνος 130 b p. 808, 25 Cous.:
διὸ καὶ οἱ θεολόγοι τὸν μὲν νοῦν ἐν τοῖς σπαραγμοῖς τοῖς Διονυσιακοῖς ἀμέριστον προνοίαι τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς σώζεσθαι λέγουσι, τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν μερίζεσθαι πρώτως, καὶ ἡ εἰς ἑπτὰ γοῦν τομὴ ταύτης ἐστὶ πρώτης· οἰκεῖον οὖν αὐτῆι καὶ τὸ εἶδος τῆς διαιρετικῆς καὶ τὸ θεωρεῖν μεταβατικῶς.
“Wherefore also the theologians say that the mind, at the tearing apart of Diónysos, was saved undivided by Athîná (Ἀθηνᾶ), but the soul was first to be divided, and the need for cutting into seven is foremost (to it); and in fact this form is thus suitable, having ability in itself of division and seeing things analytically.” (trans. by the author)
σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 406 b. c p. 109, 19:
καὶ ἐν τῆι διασπαράξει τῶν Τιτάνων μόνη ἡ καρδία ἀδιαίρετος μεῖναι λέγεται, τουτέστιν ἡ ἀμερὴς (Boiss.] ἀμερις codd., ἀμέρισ<τος> dubitanter Pasqu.) τοῦ νοῦ οὐσία,
“They say that with the cutting apart (of Diónysos) the heart alone remained undivided, that is to say, without parts.” (trans. by the author)
σχόλιον Πρόκλου επὶ Ἀλκιβιάδου αʹ Πλάτωνος 344, 31 Cous.:
ἀνάγκη τοίνυν κατὰ τὴν τῶν ἄκρων ἀναλογίαν καὶ τὸν Ἀλκιβιάδην ἐν ψυχῆι λογικῆι τάττειν, ἧς ἐξήρτηται μὲν ἔτι τὰ πάθη καὶ αἱ ἄλογοι δυνάμεις, οἷον ἐπιβουλεύουσαι τῆι λογικῆι ζωῆι καὶ Τιτανικῶς αὐτὴν ἐπιχειροῦσαι σπαράττειν· ὑπερίδρυται δὲ ὁ νοῦς Ἀθηναϊκῶς ἀνέχων αὐτὴν ἀπὸ τῆς ῥοπῆς καὶ τῆς εἰς τὸ ἔνυλον φορᾶς. Ἀθηναϊκὸν γὰρ τὸ σώιζειν ἀμέριστον τὴν ζωήν, ἐξ οὗπερ Σώτειρα ἐπεκλήθη Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη· Τιτανικὸν |345 Cous. δὲ τὸ μερίζειν αὐτὴν καὶ προκαλεῖσθαι περὶ (πρὸς Lob. I 560) τὴν γένεσιν.
Necessity dictates, therefore, following the highest analogy, that we place Alkiviádîs (Ἀλκιβιάδης) in the order of the intellectual soul, dependent upon the passions and irrational powers, contrived against a life of reason, and the Titánæs (Τιτᾶνες) setting themselves to divide it. But superior to this is mind, which, like Athîná (Ἀθηνᾶ), lifts up (the soul), and keeps it from losing balance and from being carried off into matter. For it is Athîná who preserves life without division, for which Pallás Athîná (Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη) is called the Deliverer; but of the Titánæs, they divide it up and call it forth to generation.” (trans. by the author)
in Tim. prooem. E (III 169, 3 Diehl) fr. 107 p. 171 infra. Ἀπορίαι καὶ λύσεις περὶ τῶν πρώτων ἀρχῶν Δαμασκίου 94 (I 236, I Rue.):
ὁ γὰρ Ζεύς, φέρε εἰπεῖν, τοῦς πολλοὺς ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ παραγαγὼν κατὰ μέρη θεούς, ἐπὶ τούτωι τῶι ὁλοτελεῖ μερισμῶι τὴν μεριστὴν ὁλότητα παρήγαγεν, καὶ τοὺς ὑπὸ ταύτηι πολλοὺς τεταγμένους θεούς; ἢ οὐχὶ καὶ τοὺς Τίτανας ὁ Ζεὺς ἐγέννησεν ἐν τῶι οἰκείωι διακόσμωι κατὰ τὴν Ὀρφικὴν παράδοσιν; οὕτω δὴ καὶ ὁ Κρόνος ἐπὶ πολλῆι γενεᾶι τῆι πρότερον͵ ἐπ΄ ἐσχάτωι παράγει τὸν ὅλον Δία (διὰ codd.; corr. Kopp) τῆς ἑτέρας ἐξάρχοντα βασιλείας· τὰ δὲ ὅμοια καὶ τὸν Οὐρανὸν ὑφιστῶντα παραδίδωσι μετὰ τοὺς ὅλους Οὐρανίδας τὸν Κρόνον ἔσχατον·
“Zefs, for example, generated many Gods from himself, arranging them also into parts. And upon this quite complete division, he has set in place divisible wholeness, and the many deities arrayed beneath. Wherefore, did not also Zefs produce the Titans in their familial order in the Orphic tradition? Thus Krónos, as regards his great family from an earlier generation, brought forward at last the complete Zefs to commence the next command. And in a like manner, (it is said that) Ouranós produces the entire Ouranídai, and the final one, Krónos.” (trans. by the author)
Cf. Lob. I 614 n. ο (fr. 278 Abel). Cf. etiam Nonn. Abbas in orat. II contra Iulian. 35 (Migne 36, 1053):
Περὶ θεῶν διεσπασμένων· Περσεφόνη γεννᾶι τὸν Ζαγραῖον Διόνυσον, ἐκ τοῦ Διὸς συλλαβοῦσα αὐτόν. τοῦτον γεννηθέντα οἱ Τιτᾶνες --- δαιμονίων (an δαιμόνων?) τάξεις αὗται --- φθονήσαντες τῶι Διονύσωι ὡς ἐκ Διὸς ἔχοντι τὴν γέννησιν, διασπαράσσουσιν αὐτόν· ἄλλοι δὲ λέγουσιν, ὅτι καθʼ ὑπόθεσιν τῆς Ἥρας διεσπάσθη ὑπὸ τῶν Τετάνων ὁ Διόνυσος.
“About the tearing asunder of the Gods: Pærsæphónî (Περσεφόνη) begets Zagréfs-Diónysos (Ζαγρεὺς Διόνυσος), who was conceived from Zefs (Ζεύς) himself. The Titans, regarding this birth, formed a battle-line; they bore malice to Diónysos, who was begotten from Zefs, and rended him to pieces. However others say, the proposed idea being that Diónysos was torn apart by the Titans under the instigation of Íra (Ἥρα).” (trans. by the author)
Mythi de Baccho a Titanibus perempto nulla extat memoria antiquior quam Onomacriti fr. IV (test. nr. 194), cui accedunt, quae Orphicis vetustioribus (v. frr. 34-36) ascripsi. Exscribo hic Schol. ad Lycophr. 208 p. 98, 5 Scheer:
ἐτιμᾶτο δὲ καὶ Διόνυσος ἐν Δελφοῖς σὺν Ἀπόλλωvι οὑτωσί· οἱ Τιτᾶνες τὰ Διονύσου μέλη σπαράξαντες Ἀπόλλωνι (Et. Gen.) άδελφῶι ὄντι αὐτοῦ παρέθεντο ἐμβαλόντες λέβητι, ὁ δὲ παρὰ τῶι τρίποδι ἀπέθετο (Etym. M. 255, 14) ὥς φησι Καλλίμαχος (fr. 374) καὶ Εὐφορίων (fr. 12 Scheidw.) λέγων·
‘ἂν πυρὶ Βάκχον δῖον ὑπερφίαλοι ἐβάλοντο’.
But also Diónysos is honored at Dælphí (Δελφοί) along with Apóllôn (Ἀπόλλων) for this reason: the Titánæs (Τιτᾶνες) having torn apart the limbs of Diónysos, Apóllôn himself, being his brother, placed them in a cinerary urn, and then stowed it away beside the tripod, so said Kallímakhos and Efphoríôn (Εὐφορίων):
‘The arrogant are overcome by the fire of divine Vákkhos (Βάκχος)’ ” (trans. by the author)
Cf. etiam Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορικὴ Διοδώρου Σικελιώτου V 75, 4:
τοῦτον δὲ τὸν θεὸν (sc. Διόνυσον) γεγονέναι φασὶν ἐκ Διὸς καὶ Φερσεφόνης κατὰ τὴν Κρήτην (cf. Eurip. 1.1.), ὃν Ὀρφεὺς κατὰ τὰς τελετὰς παρέδωκε διασπώμενον ὑπὸ τῶν Τιτάνων·
“It is said that this God (Διόνυσος) was born of Zefs (Ζεύς) and Pæsæphónî (Περσεφόνη) in Krítî (Κρήτη); Orphéfs (Ὀρφεὺς) has handed this down in the Mystery rites, that he was torn apart by the Titans.” (trans. by the author)
Ἠθικὰ Πλουτάρχου· Περὶ σαρκοφαγίας I 996 c:
τὰ γὰρ δὴ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον μεμυθευμένα πάθη τοῦ διαμελισμοῦ καὶ τὰ Τιτάνων ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν τολμήματα, κολάσεις τε τούτων καὶ κεραυνώσεις γευσαμένων τοῦ φόνου, ἠινιγμένος ἐστὶ μῦθος εἰς τὴν παλιγγενεσίαν. τὸ γὰρἐν ἡμῖν ἄλογον καὶ ἄτακτον καὶ βίαιον οὐ θεῖον ἀλλὰ δαιμονικὸν οἱ παλαιοὶ Τιτᾶνας ὠνόμασαν, καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἔστι κολαζομένου καὶ δίκην διδόντος.
“... for the stories told about the sufferings and dismemberment of Dionysus and the outrageous assaults of the Titans upon him, and their punishment and blasting by thunderbolt after they had tasted his blood — all this is a myth which in its inner meaning has to do with rebirth. For to that faculty in us which is unreasonable and disordered and violent, and does not come from the Gods, but from evil spirits, the ancients gave the name Titans, that is to say, those that are punished and subjected to correction. . .” (trans. William C. Helmbold, 1957, but in the Public Domain)
Περὶ ὀρχήσεως Λουκιανοὺ 39 de saltationum mimicarum argumentis:
Δευκαλίωνα . . ., εἷτα Ἰάκχου σπαραγμὸν (cf. Ὀρφέως σπαραγμόν test. nr. 256) καὶ Ἥρας δόλον καὶ Σεμέλης κατάφλεξιν καὶ Διονύσου ἀμφοτέρας τὰς γονάς, καὶ ὅσα περὶ Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ ὅσα περὶ Ἡφαίστου κτλ.
“He must know of Deucalion, (in whose days the whole world suffered shipwreck, of that single chest wherein were preserved the remnants of the human race, of the new generation born of stones;) of the rending of Iacchus, the guile of Hera, the fiery death of Semele, the double birth of Dionysus; of Athene and Hephaestus (and Erichthonius, of the strife for the possession of Athens, of Halirrhothius and that first trial on the Areopagus, and all the legendary lore of Attica).” (trans. H. W. and F. G. Fowler, 1905)
Ὕμνος Ἀθηνᾶς Ζʹ Πρόκλου 11-15 p. 151 Ludw. (Lob. I 561 cf. Wilamowitz Sitzungsber. Akad. Berlin 1907, 273):
ἣ κραδίην ἐσάωσας ἀμιστύλλευτον ἄνακτος
αἰθέρος ἐν γυάλοισι μεριζομένου ποτὲ Βάκχου
Τιτήνων ὑπὸ χερσί --- πόρες δέ ἑ πατρὶ φέρουσα,
ὄφρα νέος βουλῆισιν ὑπ' ἀρρήτοισι τοκῆος
ἐκ Σεμέλης περὶ κόσμον ἀνηβήσηι Διόνυσος.
“You (Ἀθηνᾶ) rescued the heart, not yet cut into pieces, of the Lord,
in the dells of heaven, when at the dividing up of Vákkhos (Βάκχος)
at the hands of the Titans --- you suffered to offer it to his father,
in order that, by means of the unutterable determination of his sire,
from Sæmǽlî (Σεμέλη), all around the kózmos, a new Diónysos would grow from youth again!” (trans. by the author)
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