A - An Illustrated Glossary of Hellenic Polytheism
BEING A DICTIONARY OR BRIEF ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HELLENISMOS, THE ANCIENT PAGAN GREEK RELIGION
PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology , the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.
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ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE
380 CE - In 380 CE a vicious mob of Christians attempted to lynch the hierophants Nestorius and Priskus. Then aged 95, Nestorius terminated the Ælefsinian (Eleusinian) Mysteries announcing "the predominance of mental darkness over the human race."
529 CE - In 529 CE, the Emperor Justinian I closed the Akathimeia (Academy; Gr. Ἀκαδήμεια) of Platohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), although the closing is questioned as there is evidence that the Akathimeia existed in diminished form for some years after. Nonetheless, some scholars mark this as the end-date of antiquity.
Aǽllopos - (Gr. Ἀέλλοπος, ΑΕΛΛΟΠΟΣ) Aǽllopos is an epithet of Iris meaning swift-footed like the wind of a storm.
Abatos - See Ávatos.
Acastus - See Ákastos.
Achelous - See Akhælóös.
Acheron - See Akhǽrohn.
Achilles - Please visit this page: Akhilléfs.
Acmon - See Ákmohn.
Acritas - See Akrítas, Digænís.
Acropolis - See Akrópolis.
Actaeon - See Aktaiohn.
Adámos Dræpáni - (Adamas Drepane; Gr. Ἀδάμας Δρεπάνη, ΑΔΑΜΑΣ ΔΡΕΠΑΝΗ) The Adámos Dræpáni is the unbreakable sickle of Krónos which he used to castrate his father Ouranós. The English word adamantine comes from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας, an adjective meaning "unconquerable." Anything which was ἀδάμας was extremely hard or unbreakable, like diamonds or steel. Δρεπάνη is the word for sickle.
AD/BC - vs - CE/BCE - Two methods of describing dates, one oriented to favor Christian dominance, the other neutral. The designations, generally used by modern scholars, CE (Common Era) and BCE (Before the Common Era), are preferred. The designations AD (anno domini, "the year of the lord") and BC ("before Christ") are avoided on this website.
Admetus - See Ádmitos.
Ádmitos - (Admetos or Admetus; Gr. Άδμητος, ΑΔΜΗΤΟΣ) 1) Ádmitos was the son of Phǽris (Pheres; Gr. Φέρης), the founder of Phǽrai (Pherae; Gr. Φέραι) in Thæssalía (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία). His mother was Pæriklymǽni (Periclymene; Gr. Περικλυμένη). Ádmitos was one of the fifty-two Argonáftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται) listed in the Orphǽohs Argonaftiká (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά) and he also took part in the Calcydonian Boar hunt.
Ádmitos is known particularly for the stories concerning his involvement with Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). Apóllohn had killed the Kýklops (Cyclops; Gr. Κύκλωψ) for making the thunderbolts which Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) used to kill his (Apóllohn's) son Asklipiós (Asclepius; Gr. Ἀσκληπιός). For this act, Apóllohn was sentenced to labor as a shepherd for Ádmitos, who was now king of Phǽrai. In gratitude for the kindness with which Ádmitos treated him, Apóllohn helped the king in many ways.
Ádmitos desired to marry Álkistis (Alcestis; Gr. Ἄλκηστις), the daughter of Pælías (Pelias; Gr. Πελίας), who promised her hand in marriage under the condition that Ádmitos should come to Álkistis in a chariot driven by lions and boars. Apóllohn supplied this to Ádmitos who thereafter won the hand of of his beloved. But on the day of the marriage, Ádmitos neglected to sacrifice to Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις). This angered the Goddess and she placed snakes in Ádmitos and Álkistis' bridal chamber. Apóllohn appeased his sister and reconciled her to Ádmitos. In addition, Apóllohn obtained an extension of Ádmitos' life from the Mírai (the Fates or Moirai; Gr. Μοῖραι) in exchange for the willing self-sacrifice of the life of his wife. Iraklís (Herakles; Gr. Ἡρακλῆς), who owed a debt of gratitude to Ádmitos, wrestled Thánatos (Death; Gr. Θάνατος) and rescued Álkistis back to the world of the living.
2) There is another personage named Ádmitos, a Trojan who was killed by Philoktítis (Philoctetes; Gr. Φιλοκτήτης).
Adóhnia - Please visit this page: Adóhnia.
Adonia - Please visit this page: Adóhnia.
Ádonis - Please visit this page: Adóhnia.
Ádyton - (Gr. Άδυτον, ΑΔΥΤΟΝ) The Ádyton is a sacred room found in a temple to which access is limited to priests at certain times. The Ádyton would often house the cult-image of the God to whom the temple was dedicated.
Aegis - See Aiyís.
Æ and æ - This symbol, Æ and æ, is the grapheme or letter called the Ash. In the transliteration method developed by this website, the Ash equals the Greek letter Ǽpsilon (Epsilon; Gr. Έψιλον): Æ, æ = Ε, ε. The Ash simply represents Ǽpsilon. The Ash is always pronounced like the a in say, stay, or pay.
It should be noted that the diphthong Álpha-Iόhta has the identical sound to Ǽpsilon. We are representing Ǽpsilon with the Ash (Æ and æ) but are using the English letters ai for the diphthong Álpha-Iόhta because ai is typically pronounced in English like the a in say, stay, or pay...without confusion, yet this spelling distinguishes the diphthong from the Ǽpsilon, which has the identical pronunciation.
The diphthong ει (Ǽpsilon-Iόhta) incorporates an Ǽpsilon but the pronunciation is different: this diphthong sounds like the ee in beet or seem. We are spelling this ei, because it mimics the Greek spelling yet the reader will pronounce the word correctly (because in English ei it is usually pronounced like the ee in beet or seem) and, simultaneously, the reader can also assume that ει has been transliterated from the original Greek word.
The diphthong ευ (Ǽpsilon-Ýpsilon) incorporates an Ǽpsilon but again the pronunciation is different: this diphthong when found before a consonant or at the end of a word with no letter following it, sounds like the ef in Jeff or left; when found before Roh (ρ-Ρ) or a vowel, it sounds like the ev in every. We are spelling these ef and ev respectively.
Ægyptius - See Aiyíptios.
Ǽkhidna - (Echidna; Gr. Ἔχιδνα, ΕΧΙΔΝΑ) Ǽkhidna is either the name for several different beings, or the name for one being which was given a different parentage by different authors.
1) According to Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος), Ǽkhidna is the daughter of Kitóh (Ceto; Gr. Κητώ) and Phórkys (Gr. Φόρκυς). She was the Drákaina (Gr. Δράκαινα = she-dragon) consort of Typhöéfs (Typhoeus; Gr. Τυφωεύς) who produced many terrible monsters which were a plague to mankind. She presides over illness, the rot of the earth, fetid waters, slime and such.
2) Ǽkhidna is the daughter of Peiras (Gr. Πείρας), son of King Árgos (Gr. Ἄργος) and the nymph of the river Styx (Gr. Στύξ,). Ǽkhidna, half woman and half serpent (Drakaina), murdered travelers in Árgos (Gr. Ἄργος) and Arkadía (Arcadia; Gr. Αρκαδία) and was murdered herself by the 100-eyed giant, Árgos Panóptis (Gr. Ἄργος Πανόπτης).
3) Ǽkhidna is the daughter of Tártaros (Gr. Τάρταρος) and Yaia (Gaia or Earth; Gr. Γαῖα).
ækklisía - (ecclesia; Gr. ἐκκλησία, ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ) Ækklisía is an assembly duly summoned. (L&S p. 509, left column) In later times the term referred to a Christian church.
Ækpýrohsis - (Ecpyrosis; Gr. Ἐκπύρωσις, ΕΚΠΥΡΩΣΙΣ) Ækpýrohsis is conversion into fire, conflagration.
Irákleitos (Heraclitus; Gr. Ἡράκλειτος), the philosopher, believed in the periodic destruction of the Kósmos by fire; it was periodic because the Kósmos would rise again, only to be destroyed, and this pattern is repeated endlessly, such that all things in existence are born from and dissolve into fire. (Dioyǽnis Laǽrtios [Diogenes Laertius; Gr. Διογένης Λαέρτιος] Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Book IX Iráklitos, Chapter VI, trans. C. D. Yonge in 1853, Henry G. Bohn Publ. p. 378) The early Stoics held a similar belief. Cf. Diakósmisis.
Ækthǽohsis - (Ektheosis; Gr. Ἐκθέωσις) Please visit this page: Deification of the Soul: Sources.
Ælæléfs (Eleleus; Gr. Ἐλελεύς, ΕΛΕΛΕΥΣ. Ety. from ἐλελεῦ, a war cry or religious cry used in Vakhic rituals such as the Oskhophória [Gr. Ὠσχοφόρια] in ancient Athens [Ploutarkhos Thiséfs 22])
- Ælæléfs is a surname of Apóllohn (Apollo), as uttering a war cry. (CM p. 21)
- Ælæléfs is a surname of Diónysos. (Ovid Metamorphosis 4.15)
Ǽlængkhos - (elenchos; Gr. ἔλεγχος, ΕΛΕΓΧΟΣ; Latin: élenchus; English: elenctic method) In the context of Greek philosophy, ǽlængkhos is the method of inquiry used in Socratic dialogue, a type of cross-examination of an individual who makes a premise, whereby the premise is usually shown to be faulty. This method of argument may appear aggressive, but its aim is to expand awareness and ultimately develop greater wisdom in the participants, not to simply defeat opposing positions. Typically, a proposition is stated, followed by a series of questions which lead to a realization by the interlocutor who confessed to believe the proposition, that the original proposition now appears inconsistent with his beliefs, as unraveled in the discussion. This then often results in a reevaluation or refining of the proposition and yet more questioning. Rarely do we find ǽlængkhos yielding a perfect or final answer; rather, the result is typically aporeia (Gr. ἀπορɛία), i.e. an impasse. Ǽlængkhos, the elenctic method, is the evolutionary discovery of wisdom, as a living process, in stark contrast to religious systems which require personal adoption of creedal exclusivistic beliefs, without placing them under the scrutiny of logic.
Lexicon entry: ἔλεγχος, argument of disproof or refutation. II. generally, cross-examining, testing, scrutiny, esp. for purposes of refutation. III. Ἔλεγχος personified. b. applied to Conscience. (L&S p. 531, left column)
Ælǽni - (Eleni or Helen of Troy; Gr. Ἑλένη, ΕΛΕΝΗ) Ælǽni is the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Lída (Leda; Gr. Λήδα), as related in the epic poems of Ómiros (Homer: Gr. Ὅμηρος). She was the wife of the Spartan King Mænǽlaos (Menelaus; Gr. Μενέλαος) and the sister of Kástohr (Castor; Gr. Κάστωρ) and Polydéfkis (Polydeuces; Gr. Πολυδεύκης), who are known as the Dióskouri (Dioskuri; Gr. Διόσκουροι. Ælǽni is also the sister of Klytaimnístra (Clytemnestra; Gr. Κλυταιμνήστρα).
Lída, who was the wife of king Tyndáræos (Tyndareus; Gr. Τυνδάρεως) of Spárta (Gr. Σπάρτα), saw a swan being pursued by an eagle. She gave the swan refuge. Lída and the swan became very affectionate and they coupled. The swan was a disguise of Zefs. That same evening, she also coupled with her husband. These unions produced two eggs from which all the following children were born: Ælǽni, Kástohr and Polydéfkis, and Klytaimnístra. It is usually said that Ælǽni and Polydéfkis are the progeny of Zefs, and thus immortal, but there are divergent accounts concerning the details of this story, as to which of the children were born from which egg, stories not mentioning eggs, and who was immortal.
Ælǽni of Tría (Troy; Gr. Ἴλιον or Τροία) is vilified in many sources, but this is an incorrect view or, seen another way, a poetic description. The name Ælǽni is derived from a word meaning 'basket.' Ælǽni is the Great Basket of the Mysteries and within this basket are the Toys of Diónysos. Paris (Gr. Πάρις), prince of Tría, abducts Ælǽni, who was given to him as a gift by Aphrodíti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη). Thus, Tría has stolen the Holy Basket of the Mysteries. The Iliás (Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς) can be seen as a story of a war, but it can also be interpreted mythologically
Ælæniphóri - (Elenifori, Helenifori; Gr. Ἑλενηφόρει. Etym. ἑλένη, "basket" + φορά, "carrying," φορέω, "wearing.") Ælæniphóri are girls bearing baskets, perhaps on their heads, as one may have seen at religious festivals such as the Ælæniphória (Eleniphoria; Gr. Ἑλενηφόρια), a festival of Ártæmis of Vravróhn (Brauron; Gr. Βραυρών), ἑλένη being a wicker-basket. (Pollux Grammaticus 10:191)
Ǽlæos - (Eleos; Gr. Ἔλεος. Noun.) Ǽlæos is pity, mercy, compassion. (L&S p. 532, left column) Please visit this page: Virtue in Hellenismos.
Ælefsínia Mystíria - (Eleusinian Mysteries; Gr. Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια, ἘΛΕΥΣΊΝΙΑ ΜΥΣΤΉΡΙΑ) Please visit this page: ÆLEFSINIAN MYSTERIES.
Ælefthæría - (Eleutheria; Gr. Ἑλευθερία, ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΑ) Ælefthæría is Freedom, is the ninth Natural Law under the dominion of mighty Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). Please visit this page: FREEDOM - ÆLEFTHÆRÍA.
Æléfthærnai Tablet (Eleuthernae tablet; Gr. Ελεύθερναι) - The Æléfthærnai Tablet is one of the golden tablets which was found in Kríti (Crete; Gr. Κρήτη) and reads as follows:
'I am parched with thirst and I perish. Nay, drink of Me,
The Well-spring flowing for ever on the Right, where the Cypress is.
Who art thou?
Whence art thou? I am son of Earth and of Starry Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός).'
(Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion by Jane Ellen Harrison, 1903; found here in the 1991 Princeton Univ. Press edition (Princeton, NJ USA), where this quotation may be found on p. 574)
Ælianthes - See Ilianthǽs.
Ǽlios - Please visit this page: ÍLIOS.
Æliostásio - See Iliostásio.
Æliouyænna - (Æliougenna, Heliogenna, Heliougenna, Iliougenna; Gr. Ηλιούγεννα, ΗΛΙΟΥΓΕΝΝΑ) Please visit this page: Iliouyænna.
Aellopus - See Aǽllopos.
Æmbædoklís - (Empedocles; Gr. Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, ΕΜΠΕΔΟΚΛΗΣ) Visit this page: Æmbædoklís.
Æmbýrios Aithír - (Empyrios Ether; Gr. Ἐμπύριος Αἰθήρ, ΕΜΠΥΡΙΟΣ ΑΙΘΗΡ. Etym. πῦρ, "fire.") - Æmbýrios means "positioned in the highest regions of the heavens;" therefore, the Æmbýrios Aithír is the Fire-Aithír, the Aithír of the Gods.
Lexicon entry: ἐμπῠριος [ῠ], ον, belonging to the Empyrean, θεός (opp. αἰθέριος, ὑλαῖος) Procl.Theol. Plat.4.39, cf. Iamb.Myst.7.2, Lyd.Mens.4.22. (L&S)
Æmbýrios Khitóhn - (Empyrios Chiton; Gr. Ἐμπύριος Χιτών) - The Æmbýrios Khitóhn is the outer Khitohn (Chiton = tunic or garment; Gr. Χιτών) of Fire which envelopes the soul. This Khitóhn is the only one which remains after deification. Cf. Æmpýrios Aithír.
Æn - (Hen or The One; Gr. Ἕν or Τὸ Ἕν, neuter form of εἷς, meaning singular or one) Æn is the primordial or first principle known as The One. The term Æn is generally avoided on this website because its meaning is often construed to be a monotheism. Please visit this page: Monotheism in Hellenismos.
Ænǽryeia (Gr. Ἑνέργεια, ΕΝΕΡΥΕΙΑ. Etymology: ἐν "in" + ἔργον "work") Ænǽryeia is Energy, the third of the Natural Laws, ruled by the Goddess Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις). Ænǽryeia in the divine realm (Gr. Ἥ ἐν τῷ θείῳ κόσμῳ ἐνέργεια) is ruled by Dimítir (Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ).
- Ænæryeia is also a philosophical term meaning the proper activity of an entity.
Æniaiohs - (eniaios; Gr. ενιαίως, ΕΝΙΑΙΩΣ) Æniaiohs, or rendered in English as unically, means in a way conformable to the nature of The One (Æn [Hen]). (TTS XV p. 10)
Ǽnohsis - (Henosis; Gr. Ἕνωσις, ΕΝΩΣΙΣ) Ǽnohsis, as seen by the Neoplatonic philosophers, is achieving unity with Æn, the One (Gr. Τὸ Ἕν). The One here refers to what these philosophers think of as the source of all being, what Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Ρλάτων) in Politeia (The Republic; Gr. Πολιτεία) called The Good. The result of Ǽnohsis is a type of Ækthǽohsis (Deification of the Soul; Ἐκθέωσις). The Neoplatonists, in particular Iámvlikhos (Iamblichus; Gr. Ἰάμβλιχος), believed that the most efficacious method to bring about this unification was by developing Arætí (Virtue; Gr. Ἀρετή) and practicing Thæouryía (Theurgy; Gr. Θεουργία), defined as divine work or ritual.
Ænthæastikóhs - (entheastikos; Gr. ἐνθεαστικῶς, ΕΝΘΕΑΣΤΙΚΩΣ) Ænthæastikóhs, or rendered into English as entheastically, means in a divinely-inspired manner. (TTS XV p. 10)
Ænthousiázoh - (Enthousiazo; Gr. Ἐνθουσιάζω, ΕΝΘΟΥΣΙΑΖΩ) Ænthousiázoh is to be inspired or possessed by a God, to be in ecstasy. (L&S p. 566, right column at the bottom, within the entries beginning with ἐνθουσία)
Ǽntoni Ænæryitikótis - (Entone Energetikotes; Gr. Ἔντονη Ἐνεργητικότης, ΕΝΤΟΝΗ ΕΝΕΡΓΗΤΙΚΟΤΗΣ) Ǽntoni Ænæryitikótis is one of the three astrological sign quadruplicities (Cardinal), called Great Energizing, evident in the following zodiacal Mystery months:
Æöhsphóros - (Eosphoros; Gr. Εωσφόρος, ΕΩΣΦΟΡΟΣ. Etym. ἠώς, "dawn" + φῶρος, "detector" or discoverer.") Æöhsphóros is the bringer of the dawn. (Isíodos [Hesiod] Thæogonía [Theogony] 381) 2. Æöhsphoros is the morning star, one of the "wandering stars," the planet Venus. Æöhsphoros is actually translated as Lucifer into English, "the shining one, the morning star." 3. Æöhsphóros is the wolf as herald of the dawn.
Æortí (Gr. Ἑορτή, ΕΟΡΤΗ. Plural is Æortai; Gr. Ἑορταί, ΕΟΡΤΑΙ) Æortí is a festival. The word is inclusive of any kind of festivity, but we are using it in its religious sense. For a list of some of the Æortai we observe, please visit this page: Festivals of Hellenismos.
Ǽpæa - (Epea; Gr. Ἔπεα, ΕΠΕΑ) Ǽpæa is Epic Poetry, the poems telling the stories of the great Íroæs (Gr. Ἥρωες), the Heroes; the word is the plural form of ἔπος. (See L&S p. 676, ἔπος def. IV.) Cf. Ǽpos and Æpopiía.
Æphivolipsía - (Epheboleipsia [not to be confused with ephebophilia]; Gr. Εφηβοληψία, ΕΦΗΒΟΛΗΨΙΑ. Etym. ἔφηβος, "adolescent boy" + λῆψις, "attack of," as in a fever.) Æphivolipsía is the experience, by a mortal, of Ǽrohs (Eros or Attraction; Gr. Ἔρως) from the Gods when the partner is a male deity. This is not the same as erotic love between humans. Cf. Nympholipsía.
Ǽphivos - (ephebos; Gr. ἔφηβος, ΕΦΗΒΟΣ) Plural = æphivi (epheboi; Gr. έφηβοι, ΕΦΗΒΟΙ) Anglicized singular: ephebus [archaic] or ephebe, and plural: ephebi [archaic] or ephebes). 1) An ǽphivos is an adolescent boy on the brink of becoming an adult. 2) An ǽphivos is a young man, often in military service, being educated to become a good citizen, such as in the official Athenian Æphiveia (Ephibeia; Gr. ἐϕηβεία), a cadet. 3) An Ǽphivos is an idealized heroic young man. 4) An Ǽphivos is the male equivalent of a Nymph in the mystical transformative experience of Nympholipsia, but when the partner is a male deity, the experience is called Æphivolipsía.
Ǽphor - See Ǽphoros.
Ǽphori, The Spartan - (Ephoroi; Gr. Ἔφοροι, ΕΦΟΡΟΙ, plural of Ἔφορος) The Spartan Ǽphori were the five annually elected magistrates of ancient Sparta who shared power with the Spartan kings.
Ǽphori, The Twelve - (Ephoroi; Gr. Ἔφοροι, ΕΦΟΡΟΙ, plural of Ἔφορος) The Twelve Ǽphori are the Olympian Gods who have dominion over the Kósmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος) and the Natural Laws.
Ǽphoros - (Ephor or Ephoros; Gr. Ἔφορος, ΕΦΟΡΟΣ. Plural is Ἔφοροι.) Ǽphoros means magistrate, guardian, or ruler.
Æpistími - (episteme or epistemology; Gr. ἐπιστήμη, ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗ. Etym. ἐπίστασθαι, "to know.") Æpistími or epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and limits of knowledge.
Lexicon entry: ἐπιστήμη, ἡ, (ἐπίσταμαι) acquaintance with a matter, understanding, skill, as in archery. 2. professional skill: hence, profession. II. generally, knowledge, pl., kinds of knowledge. 2. scientific knowledge, science; pl., the sciences, freq. in Pl. (R.522c, al.), etc. (L&S, p. 660, left column)
Æpistrophí (epistrophe; Gr. ἐπιστροφή, ΕΠΙΣΤΡΟΦΗ) Æpistrophí is a Neoplatonic term meaning a turning away from katávasis (catabasis; Gr. κατάβασις), the descent or degeneration from the One. Æpistrophí is a reversion back to the soul's original source, changing direction, turning up in an anávasis (anabasis; Gr. ἀνάβασις), an ascent back. to the One, to one's true nature.
Æpivatíria - (Epibateria; Gr. Ἐπιβατήρια, ΕΠΙΒΑΤΗΡΙΑ) Lexicon entry: Ἐπιβατήρια, (sc. ἱερά), τά, Æpivatíria are sacrifices on disembarkation, Lib.Decl.6.37. (L&S p. 624, right column, within the entries beginning ἐπιβᾰτ-έον)
Æpivatírion - (Epibaterion; Gr. Ἐπιβᾰτήριον, ΕΠΙΒΑΤΗΡΙΟΝ) Lexicon entry: ἐπιβᾰτήριον, τό, festival to celebrate the advent of a God, CIG4352-5 (Side). (L&S p. 624, right column. Within the entries beginning with ἐπιβᾰτέον you will find the word ἐπιβατήριος; the entry for ἐπιβᾰτήριον is definition III.1.)
Æpopiía - (Epopoiïa; Gr. Ἐποποιία, ΕΠΟΠΟΙΙΑ) Æpopiía is Epic Poetry.
- Lexicon entry: ἐποποιία, Ep. ἐποποιίη, ἡ, epic poetry or an epic poem. II. divination by means of Homeric verses. (L&S p. 676, left column.) Cf. Ǽpæa.
Ǽpos - (epos; Gr. ἔπος, ΕΠΟΣ. Plural is ἔπεα.) Ǽpos means word, utterance, a song or hymn. The plural form, Ǽpæa (Gr. Ἔπεα), is Epic Poetry, and, of course, the epic poems were written about the Íroæs (Gr. Ἥρωες), the Heroes. (See L&S p. 676, ἔπος def. IV.) Cf. Ǽpæa.
Ǽrævos - (Erebos; Gr. Ἔρεβος, ΕΡΕΒΟΣ) Ǽrævos is the primordial deity of Darkness. "From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night; but of Night were bore Aether and Day, whom she conceived and bare from union in love with Erebus." (Isíodos [Hesiod]: Thæogonía 123, trans.Evelyn-White, p. 87.)
- "Without question, according to this theology (ed. that of Ἱερώνυμος [Hieronymos] of Rhodes or Ἑλλάνικος [Hellanikos]), too, Time (Chronos) as the serpent begat a triple offspring: Aither, which he calls "watery," and indefinite Chaos, and third after these is misty Erebus." (Orphic Frag. 54, trans. Sara Ahbel-Rappe in Damascius' Problems & Solutions Concerning First Principles, Oxford Univ. Press [NY, NY USA], p. 415)
Ærastís - (Erastes; Gr. Ἐραστής, ΕΡΑΣΤΗΣ) The Ærastís is the lover in a romantic relationship. The Ærastís is the lover of the Æróhmænos (Eromenos; Gr. Ἐρώμενος), the Beloved. Cf. Æróhmænos.
Æratóh - (Erato; Gr. Ἐρατώ, ΕΡΑΤΏ) According to Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) Thæogonía 75, Æratóh is one of the nine Mousai (Muses; Gr. Μοῦσαι), the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Mnimosýni (Mnemosyne; Gr. Mνημοσύνη).
- According to Ísyllos (Isyllus; Gr. Ἴσυλλος) the Spartan, from an oracle he received at Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί), Æratóh is the mother of Klæophíma (Cleophema; Gr. Κλεοφήμα) by Málos (Gr. Μάλος) (The genealogy of Klæophíma as discovered in a stone inscription found at Æpídavros [Epidaurus; Gr. Επίδαυρος] by Ísyllos. Ref.: Asclepius: Testimonies by Emma and Ludwig Edelstein, 1945 and 1998; Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Baltimore, MD USA and London, England UK] p. 330-331).
- Æratóh is the Muse of Erotic Poetry, lyric love poetry. Æratóh has been represented as a beautiful draped Goddess holding a kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα).
Ǽrgon - (ergon; Gr. ἔργον, ΕΡΓΟΝ) Ǽrgon means the work or function of something. The term ǽrgon can be applied to either action or its product, dependent on what the end purpose (tǽlos; Gr. τέλοϛ) ultimately is. The concept of ǽrgon has been extended to pursue what is the proper activity of a thing. "What, then, is the ergon of man? For Plato it is the activities that only man can perform: management, rule, deliberation; and the arete (ed. Gr. ἀρετή) peculiar to man that allows him to perform them well is dike (ed. díki or justice; Gr. δίκη) (q.v.). For Aristotle the ergon of man is an 'energeia of the soul according to logos (ed. Gr. λόγος),' and, since the good of a thing is described in terms of its function, the good of man is this activity on a level of excellence (Eth. Nich. 1098a)." (Greek Philosophical Terms by F. E. Peters, 1967, [New York, NY USA] Univ. Press p. 62)
Ærinýæs - (Erinyes; Gr. Ἐρινύες) See Efmænídæs.
Ærípheios - (eripheios; Gr. ἐρίϕειος, ΕΡΙΦΕΙΟΣ) An ærípheios is a kid goat. (L&S p. 689, right column; See also ἔρῐϕος) The kid goat is a common symbol found on Orphic golden tablets. Æríphios (Eriphios; Gr. Ἐρίϕιος) was an epithet of Diónysos at Mætapóntiun (Metapontum; Gr. Μεταπόντιον). (L&S p. 689, right column; found in L&S within the entries beginning with ἐρίϕειος) Cf. Ǽriphos.
Ǽriphos - (eriphos; Gr. ἔρῐϕος, ΕΡΙΦΟΣ) An ǽriphos is a kid (ed. goat). (L&S p. 689, right column) Ǽriphos is a small male goat, a kid buck. Cf. Ærípheios.
Ǽris - (Eris; Gr. Ἔρις, ΕΡΙΣ; Roman: Discordia) Ǽris is the Goddess Strife, who, according Homeric mythology, not having been invited to the marriage of Thǽtis (Thetis; Gr. Θέτις) and Piléfs (Peleus; Gr. Πηλεύς), threw the golden apple amongst the three Goddesses Íra (Hera; Gr. Ήρα), Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ), and Aphrodíti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη). The apple had a message attached stating, "To the most beautiful." The task of choosing who received the apple was given to Páris (Gr. Πάρις) of Tría (Troy; Gr. Τροία) by Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), who declined to make the decision. Páris gave the apple to Aphrodíti who gave him in exchange Ælǽni (Helen of Troy; Gr. Ἑλένη), the most beautiful woman in the world, a woman who was already married to Mænǽlaos (Menelaus; Gr. Μενέλαος), an act which initiated the Trojan War made famous in the epic poem Iliás (The Iliad; Gr. Ιλιάς) of Ómiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος).
Ærmaphróditos - (Hermaphroditos; Gr. Ἑρμαφρόδιτος, ΕΡΜΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΟΣ; Etymology: Ἑρμῆς + Ἀφροδίτη) In the Hellenic tradition, deity is presented as male and female, Gods and Goddesses, but in reality they are Ærmaphróditos, i.e., of both sexes or having no sex. The mythology tells of Ærmaphróditos, a deity who is the result of the union of Aphrodíti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη) and Ærmís (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς). This union is symbolic of the Olympian pairs, in other words, each Olympian pair is an Ærmaphróditos. Ǽrohs - (Eros; Gr. Ἔρως, ΕΡΩΣ) Please visit this page: Ǽrohs. Ǽrohtæs - (Erotes; Gr. Ἔρωτες, ΕΡΩΤΕΣ) The Ǽrohtæs can be seen as emanations of the primal Ǽrohs (attraction) and are depicted in iconography as winged children or handsome youths. The names of the Ǽrohtæs are Ǽrohs (Eros = Attraction; Gr. Ἔρως), Antǽrohs (Anteros = Requited Love; Gr. Ἀντέρως), Ímæros (Himeros = Desire; Gr. Ἵμερος), and Póthos (Passion; Gr. Πόθος).
Æróhmænos - (Eromenos; Gr. Ἐρώμενος, ΕΡΩΜΕΝΟΣ. Etym. ἐράω, "love.") The Æróhmænos is the Beloved, he/she who is loved by the lover. The Æróhmænos is the object of the devotion of the Ærastís (Erastes; Gr. Ἐραστής). Cf. Ærastís.
Ærohtídia - (Erotidia; Gr. Ἐρωτίδια, ΕΡΩΤΙΔΙΑ) The Ærohtídia is a festival of Ǽrohs (Eros; Gr. Ἔρως) such as was held in antiquity at Thæspiai (Thespiae; Gr. Θεσπιαί) (Ἀθήναιος 13.561e and Scholia Πίνδαρος O.7.154)
Aeschylus - See Aiskhýlos.
Ætærokíniton, to - (to eterokiniton; Gr. τὸ ἑτεροϰίνητον, ΤΟ ΕΤΕΡΟΚΙΝΗΤΟΝ) To ætærokíniton is the alter-motive, that which is moved by another thing, and not by itself. (TTS XV p. 10)
Aethalides - See Aithalídis.
Æther - See Aithír.
Ǽthos - (Gr. ἔθος, ΕΘΟΣ) Ǽthos is custom, habit. Ǽthos is, in most books, transliterated ethos, but this spelling creates confusion because a related word, ἦθος, is also usually spelled ethos, but has a different meaning (We transliterate ἦθος thus: íthos). Lexicon entry: ἔθος - custom, habit (L&S, p. 480 left column). Cf. íthos.
Aethra - See Aithra.
Ævdomaion - (Ebdomaion; Gr. Ἑβδομἁῖον, ΕΒΔΟΜΑΙΟΝ. Etymology: ἑβδομάς = seven.) The Ævdomaion is the monthly festival of Apóllohn. ( L&S p. 466, right column, as a sub-heading under Ἑβδομᾱγέτης)
Æxíyisis - (exegesis; Gr. ἐξήγησις, ΕΞΗΓΗΣΙΣ) Æxíyisis is a critical explanation of a text.
- Lexicon entry: statement, narrative. II. explanation, interpretation. (L&S)
AF - The English letters af are used on this website to represent the Greek diphthong Álpha-Ýpsilon (Gr. αυ, ΑΥ) when this diphthong is found before the following consonants θ κ ξ π σ τ φ χ ψ or if there are no letters following it; this is pronounced ăhf, like the af in affect.
- When the Greek Álpha-Ýpsilon is found before a vowel or the following consonants: β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ, it sounds like the av in avocado, and we are spelling it av.
Please note that the examples are as in American-English pronunciation and the a is always pronounced like the a in father.
Aftothysía - (Gr. αυτοθυσία, ΑΥΤΟΘΥΣΙΑ) Aftothysía is self-sacrifice. Iroïkí Aftothysía (Gr. Ηρωική Αυτοθυσία) is Heroic Self-Sacrifice.
Ágalma and Agálmata - Please visit this page: ÁGALMA - ΑΓΑΛΜΑ
Agamǽmnohn - (Agamemnon; Gr. Ἀγαμέμνων, ΑΓΑΜΈΜΝΩΝ) Agamǽmnohn, as noted in Ilias (The Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς), was the leader of the Greek forces in the famous war against Tría (Troy or Ilium; Gr. Τροία). He was the son of Atréfs (Atreus; Gr. Ἀτρεύς) and Aærópi (Aerope; Gr. Αερόπη) of Mykínai (Mycenae; Gr. Μυκῆναι), who also had another son, Mænǽlaos (Menelaus; Gr. Μενέλαος), who became king of Spárta (Gr. Σπάρτα). Agamǽmnohn was the king of Mykínai. He was married to Klytaimnístra (Clytemnestra; Gr. Κλυταιμνήστρα), who murdered him after his glorious return from the Greek victory of Tría, for he had sacrificed their daughter Iphiyǽneia (Iphigenia; Gr. Ἰφιγένεια) to Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις) when, having offended the Goddess, she would not allow wind for the ships to sail to Tría.
Agathón, To - (Gr. Τὸ Ἀγαθόν, ΑΓΑΘΟΝ) To Agathón is The Good as an ultimate principle (Πλάτων Πολιτεία [The Republic] 504E-509E). According to Plátohn, The Good is the principle and primordial eidos (Gr. εἶδος), i.e. form.
Lexicon entry: ἀγᾰθός — good: I. of persons, 1. well-born, gentle. 2. brave, valiant, since courage was attributed to Chiefs and Nobles. 3.good, capable. 4. good, in moral sense. 5. ὦ ἀγαθέ, my good friend, as a term of gentle remonstrance. II. of things 1. good, serviceable. 2. of outward circumstances. 3. morally good. 4. ἀγαθόν, τό, good, blessing, benefit, of persons or things. τὸ ἀ. or τἀ., the good. (L&S p.4, right column; edited for simplicity)
Agathós - (Gr. ἀγαθός, ΑΓΑΘΟΣ) Agathós is an adjective meaning, most generally, good, and more expansively well-born, noble, gentle, brave, morally good, fortunate, etc.
Agathós Daimohn - (Gr. Ἀγαθὸς Δαίμων, ΑΓΑΘΟΣ ΔΑΙΜΟΝ, literally good soul) The Agathós Daimohn is the personal tutelary daimohn who watches over us. This term is similar to the Roman genius. The Agathós Daimohn is often called a personal tutelary deity, but this is not quite correct; this daimohn is not a God, but a soul who has sacrificed its next mortal life for the benefit of someone who is greatly loved by that soul, usually someone who was very close to this person in a previous life. The Agathós Daimohn is the noble soul who advocates on our behalf and tries to steer us from danger and guide us to developing aræti. The dogs of Ártæmis, seen in many pieces of art, are the Agathós Daimohns, the noble souls, which she uses to seek out the beautiful souls worthy or pushing forward. The Agathós Daemon works for benefit in contrast to the kakodaimon which (unwittingly) harms the individual. 2. Agathós Daemon is the deity who presides over and protects the vineyards and grain-fields, sometimes described as married to Týkhi (Gr. Τύχη), the Goddess of chance and fortune, sometimes referred to as one of the Mírai (The Fates; Gr. Μοῖραι).
Ageleia - See Ayæleia.
Agios - See Áyios.
Aglaia - (Aglaea; Gr. Ἀγλαΐα, ΑΓΛΑΙΑ) Aglaia is a daughter of Zefs (Gr. Ζεύς) and Efnomía (Eunomia; Gr. Εὐνομία), this according to Orphic Hymn 60, but Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) says that her mother was Evrynómi, (Eurynome; Gr. Εὐρυνόμη), this being found Θεογονία 907, where she is also called the wife of Íphaistos. (Hephaestus; Gr. Ἥφαιστος) at 945. Aglaia is one of the Kháritæs (Graces or Charities; Gr. Χάριτες), the others being her sisters. Aglaia is also called Kháris (Grace; Gr. Χάρις) as well as Kalí (Kale or Goodness; Καλή). Aglaia is the Goddess of beauty, splendor, and adornment; she, along with her sisters, are often spoken of as attendants of Aphrodíti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη).
Aglaóphamos - (Aglaophemus; Gr. Ἀγλαόφαμος, ΑΓΛΑΟΦΑΜΟΣ) Aglaóphamos was the Orphic priest who initiated Pythagóras (Gr. Πυθαγόρας). (Ἰάμβλιχος VPyth. 146)
Agneia - (hagneia; Gr. ἁγνεία, ΑΓΝΕΙΑ) Lexicon entry: ἁγνεία, ἡ, purity, chastity. II. strict observance of religious duties; in pl., purifications, ceremonies. (L&S p. 11, right column, edited for simplicity.)
Agnós - (hagnos; Gr. ἁγνός, ΑΓΝΟΣ. Adjective.) Lexicon entry: ἁγνός, ή, όν, (cf. ἅγιος) pure, chaste, holy: I. of places and things dedicated to Gods, hallowed; of frankincense. 2. of divine persons,chaste, pure, Hom., mostly of Artemis; of Demeter, Demeter and Persephone; Apollo; Zeus: of the attributes of Gods. II. after Hom., of persons, undefiled, chaste, of maidens. 2. pure from blood, guiltless. 3. generally, pure, upright. (L&S p. 12, left column, edited for simplicity.)
Agnosticism – Agnosticism is the unresolved understanding that definitive knowledge of the existence of Gods is likely unknowable. Agnosticism is different from atheism; atheism is not unresolved, but rather it is a conviction, the conviction that the existence of Gods is impossible.
Agóhn - (Agon; Gr. ἀγών, ΑΓΩΝ, Plural αγώνες) Agóhn means contest, game, or competition. Here we are speaking of games not as an entertainment, but as a religious offering, as in the familiar pan-Hellenic Olympian games (for Zefs; Gr. Ζεύς) or the Pythian games (for Apóllohn; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) Games. These were games conducted as a gift to the God, for which one competed for an áthlon (prize; Gr. ἆθλον). Agóhnæs (agones; Gr. αγώνες, plural of Agóhn) were conducted at all major shrines for deities. The contests were athletic, but could also be musical or poetic. Agóhnæs were also conducted at the funerary proceedings of Íroæs (Gr. Ἥρωες), Heroes. Agóhn, which also means a "struggle," is the etymological root for the English word agony.
- Lexicon entry: ἀγών [ᾰ], ῶνος, ὁ:—gathering, assembly: esp. assembly met to see games. 2. place of contest, lists, course. II. assembly of the Greeks at the national games:— hence, contest for a prize at the games. III. generally, struggle. 2. battle, action. 3. action at law, trial. 4. speech delivered in court or before an assembly or ruler. b. Rhet., main argument of a speech. 5. metaph. 6. mental struggle, anxiety. b. of speakers, vehemence, power. IV. personified, Ἀγών, divinity of the contest. (L&S p. 18, right column, edited for simplicity.
Agraios - See Agréfs.
Agréfs - (Agreus; Gr. Ἀγρεύς, ΑΓΡΕΥΣ. Also Ἀγραῐος) Agréfs means hunter. 1) Agréfs is an appellation of Apóllohn. 2) Agréfs is an appellation of Pan (Gr. Πᾶν). 3) Agréfs is one of the "Pans," creatures descended from Pan, with human bodies but the heads of goats. 4) Agréfs is a son of Apóllohn and Éfvia (Euboea; Gr. Εὔβοια). 5) Agréfs is a surname of Aristaios (Aristaeus; Gr. Ἀρισταῖος), the son of Apóllohn and Kyríni (Kyrene; Gr. Κυρήνη).
AI and ai - The English digraph (i.e., two successive letters representing one sound) AI is being used on this website to represent the Greek digraph Álpha-Iόhta (Gr. ΑΙ, αι). This digraph always sounds like the a in say, stay, or day.
It should be noted that the digraph Álpha-Iόhta has the identical sound to Ǽpsilon (Ε ε). We are representing Ǽpsilon with the grapheme called the Ash (Æ and æ) but are using the English letters AI for Álpha-Iόhta because AI is typically pronounced as desired, like the a in say, stay, or pay...without confusion or instruction. We are using various different spellings to enable the student to more easily reconstruct the ancient Greek words from which these letters were derived, as is practical, while still allowing for an easy pronunciation by non-scholars.
Aidis - (Hades; Gr. Ἅιδης, ΑΙΔΗΣ) Aidis is Aidohnéfs (Aidoneus; Gr. Ἀϊδωνεύς) and Ploutohn (Pluto; Gr. Πλούτων). Please visit this page: Plouton.
Aidohnéfs - (Aidoneus or Aedoneus; Gr Ἀϊδωνεύς, ΑΙΔΩΝΕΥΣ) Aidohnéfs is Aidis (Hades; Gr. Ἅιδης) and Ploutohn (Pluto; Gr. Πλούτων). Please visit this page: Plouton.
Aidoneus - See Aidohnéfs.
Áïdos kynǽin - (Aïdos kuneēn; Gr. Ἄϊδος κυνέην) The Áïdos kynǽin is the dog-skin cap which renders the wearer invisible, both to mortals as well as to lower divinities; it is a symbol of Ploutohn ( Pluto; Gr. Πλούτων ). Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) wields the thunderbolt. Poseidóhn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) wields the Tríaina (Trident; Gr. Τρίαινα). Ploutohn possesses the Áïdos kynǽin. All these weapons, which are symbols of the power of the Three Zefs, were created by the Kýklohpæs (Cyclopes; Gr. Κύκλωπες). The invisibility of the Áïdos kynǽin is not supported in any ancient text, only as a helmet created by the Cyclops, but by the Renaissance, the power of invisibility was commonly thought of as its characteristic.
Aigokǽrohs - (Gr. Αἰγοκέρως, ΑΙΓΟΚΈΡΩΣ) Aigokǽrohs is the fourth month of the Mystery year, beginning December 21, the Winter Solstice. Aigokǽrohs is ruled by mighty Íphaistos (Hephaestus; Ἥφαιστος). Aigokǽrohs is the Greek equivalent of the zodiacal sign Capricorn or Brumalis; it is a month of Great Energizing (Ǽntoni Ænæryitikótita; Gr. Έντονη Ενεργητικότητα).
- Lexicon entry for Αἰγοκέρως: goat-horned, Capricorn. (L&S p. 35, right column; within the entries beginning αἰγο-βάτης)
Aiskhýlos - (Aeschylus; Gr. Αἰσχύλος, ΑΙΣΧΦΛΟΣ) Born at Ælefsís (Eleusis; Gr. Ἐλευσίς) in 525 BCE, Aiskhýlos died in 456 BCE when an eagle dropped a tortoise on his head to break its shell, mistaking his hairless head for a stone, so the story is told, thus fulfilling an oracle that Aiskhýlos would die by a blow from heaven.
Aiskhýlos was one of the valiant heroes at the battle of Marathóhn (Marathon; Gr. Μαραθών), the deed for which he most desired to be remembered. He is also known as one of the three greatest tragedians of ancient Greece, along with Evripídis (Euripides; Gr. Εὐριπίδης) and Sophoklís (Sophocles; Gr. Σοφοκλῆς). Aiskhýlos is thought to be the most traditional of the three, and the one embodying the greatest spiritual depth.
The only trilogy of plays by any author to survive antiquity is the Orǽsteia (Oresteia; Gr. Ὀρέστεια) of Aiskhýlos. The Orǽsteia consists of 1) Agamǽmnohn (Agamemnon; Gr. Ἀγαμέμνων) 2) Khoïphóri (Choēphoroi or The Libation Bearers; Gr. Χοηφόροι) and 3) Efmænídæs (Eumenides; Gr. Εὐμενίδες).
Of the estimated 92 plays of Aiskhýlos, in addition to the Orǽsteia, only four additionally survive: Pǽrsai (The Persians; Gr. Πέρσαι), Æptá æpí Thívas (Seven Against Thebes; Gr. Ἑπτὰ ἐπὶ Θήβας), Ikǽtidæs (Hiketides or The Suppliants; Gr. Ἱκέτιδες), and Promithéfs Dæsmóhtis (Promētheus Desmōtēs or Prometheus Bound; Gr. Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης).
Aithærikǽs Kataskevǽs - (Gr. Αιθερικές κατασκευές, ΑΙΘΕΡΙΚΕΣ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΕΣ) = Skæptomorphǽs (Gr. Σκεπτομορφές). Aithærikǽs kataskevǽs are aithirial constructions. See Skæptomorphǽs.
Aithǽrios Khitóhn - (Etherial Chiton; Gr. Αἰθέριος Χῐτών, ΑΙΘΕΡΙΟΣ ΧΙΤΩΝ) The Aithǽrios Khitóhn is the Chiton or Tunic of the Soul.
Aithalídis - (Aethalides; Gr. Αἰθαλίδης, ΑΙΘΑΛΙΔΗΣ) Aithalídis is the son of Ærmís (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς) and Efpolǽmeia (Eupolemeia; Gr. Ευπολέμεια), the daughter of Myrmidóhn (Myrmidon; Gr. Μυρμηδών). Aithalídis came from Alópi (Alope; Gr. Ἀλόπη) in Thæssalía (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία). One of the fifty-two Argonáftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται) listed in the Orphǽohs Argonaftiká (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά), Aithalídis was their herald. He had the gift of perfect memory, which he retained even after death in the land of Aidohnéfs (Aidoneus or Hades; Gr. Ἀϊδωνεύς), which allowed him to reside in both worlds. Aithalídis continued being reborn and eventually progressed to become the great philosopher Pythagóras (Gr. Πυθαγόρας), still retaining his memory of all the lives in between.
Aithír - (Æther, Aether, Aither, or Ether; Gr. Αἰθήρ, ΑΙΘΗΡ) In the mythology, Aithír is the pure air breathed by the Gods. In the Thæogonía of Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος), Aithír is the son of Ǽrævos (Erebos; Gr, Ἔρεβος) and Nyx (Gr. Νύξ). Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) calls aithír the "fifth element" (quinta essentia); earth, water, air, fire, and aithír. So there are various ways of understanding Aithír.
In the Orphic theogony of the Orphéohs Argonaftiká (Argonautica of Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά), Aithír is the child of Khrónos (Chronus or Time; Gr. Χρόνος) and Anángki (Anangke or Necessity; Gr. Ἀνάγκη).
"To mortal men, and to the initiants (of) the Great Mysteries;
First the implacable necessity of age old Chaos I disclosed,
Then Time who in his endless laps bare Ether..."
Aithír-Water-Fire is one of the two basic material kosmogonic substances, in Orphic literature referred to as simply Water. These three are indeed different, but they have the continuous (synækhís; Gr. συνεχής) quality in common. The Aithír is inseparable or continuous; it is the divine energy, above all the other Gods: Aithír is Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). To create souls, the Aithír enters into the mæristí (divisible) substance (Earth). The Aithír is spinning, filling all the space, and by spinning it draws the particles of Earth to its center and unites with them, creating Form.
Aithra - (Aethra; Gr. Αἴθρα, ΑΙΘΡΑ) Aithra was a daughter of King Pitthéfs (Pittheus; Gr. Πιτθεύς) of Trizín (Troezen; Gr. Τροιζήν). Aithra was the mother of the hero Thiséfs (Theseus; Gr. Θησεύς), for which she is most remembered. King Aiyéfs (Aegeus; Gr. Αἰγεύς) of Athínai (Athens; Gr. Ἀθῆναι) could not produce an heir to his throne, so he consulted the Oracle at Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί). The Pythía (Gr. Πυθία) gave him this answer, "Do not loosen the mouth of the wine-skin before reaching Athínai or you will die of sorrow." King Aiyéfs had no idea what this meant. He then went to Trizín (Troezen; Gr. Τροιζήν) and visited King Pitthéfs, who, having heard the oracle, instantly understood its meaning. King Pitthéfs tricked him by getting him drunk and inducing him to consort with his daughter Aithra, for he realized, that were she were to conceive, she would give birth to the next king of Athínai. Later in the night, while King Aiyéfs was fast asleep, Aithra went to the island of Sphairía (Gr. Σφαιρία) where she conceived with Poseidóhn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν), or so it is said in some versions of the story. In any case, Aithra became pregnant with the boy Thiséfs. King Aiyéfs taking responsibility for the boy, placed a sword and a pair of sandals under a huge rock. He told Aithra that when the child had the ability to remove the stone and retrieve these things, she should send him to Athínai. In due time, these things were accomplished and Thiséfs went on to become a great king and a hero of the city.
There is further mythology concerning Aithra, that she was abducted by the Dióskouri (Gr. Διόσκουροι) and taken to Lakædaimohn (Lacedaemon; Gr. Λακεδαίμων), where she became a slave to their sister Ælǽni (Eleni or Helen; Gr. Ἑλένη), the wife of Mænǽlaos (Menelaus; Gr. Μενέλαος), king of Spárta (Gr. Σπάρτα). Aithra was in the entourage of Ælǽni when the latter was abducted to Tría (Troy; Gr. Τροία), but was later given her freedom when the Greeks won the battle. Hyginus, the mytholographer, records that Aithra later committed suicide from grief of the death of her children.
Aitioloyía - (Aitiology or Etiology; Gr. Αἰτιολογία, ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΙΑ. Etym. αἴτιον "cause" + λόγος "reckoning") Aitioloyía is giving the cause or origin of a thing. Aitioloyía is the etymological root of the English word etiology. Etiology includes the study of creation myths, the Kosmogonía (Cosmogony; Gr. Κοσμογονία) and the Thæogonía (Theogony; Gr. Θεογονία) of our religion, but it actually is the study of the origin or cause of anything. For instance, the story of Pærsæphóni joining her mother in the spring and returning to Ploutohn in the winter, can be seen as an etiological myth which explains the origin of the seasons. And beyond religion and philosophy, etiology can be applied to other disciplines, such as medicine, as it is applied to the study of the origin of diseases.
Aiyíptios - (Ægyptius; Gr. Αἰγύπτιος, ΑΙΓΥΠΤΙΟΣ) 1) Aiyíptios is the Egyptian God Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, who some equate with Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). 2) Aiyíptios was the father of the last victim of the Kýklohps (Cyclops; Gr. Κύκλωψ) in the Odýsseia (Odyssey; Gr. Ὀδύσσεια) of Ómiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος) (CM p.20)
Aiyís - (Aegis; Gr. Αιγίς, ΑΙΓΙΣ) The Aiyís is the golden breast-plate of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), said to be made of the skin of the goat Amáltheia (Gr. Ἀμάλθεια). The Aiyís was given by Zefs to Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) and it is with her that it is most associated. Other accounts say that the Aiyís is the creation of Íphaistos (Hephaestus; Gr. Ἥφαιστος). Yet another tradition claims that the Aiyís was made from the skin of Pallás (Gr. Παλλάς) the giant after Athiná killed and flayed him.
Ákastos - (Acastus; Gr. Ἄκαστος) Ákastos was the son of Pælías (Pelias; Gr. Πελίας), the king of Iohlkós (Iolkos; Gr. Ιωλκός), in ancient Thæssalía (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία). His mother was Anaxívia (Anaxibia; Gr. Ἀναξίβια) or by some accounts Philomákhi (Phylomache; Gr. Φιλομάχη). He was one of the fifty-two Argonáftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται) as detailed in the Orphǽohs Argonaftiká (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά). Ákastos was a cousin of Iásohn (Jason; Gr. Ἰάσων).
Ákastos' father Pælías was unwittingly killed by his own daughters who were tricked by Mídeia (Medea; Gr. Μήδεια), the wife of Iásohn, into thinking that they could make their father young again by cutting him apart and placing the pieces in a magic cauldron. When Ákastos heard of it, he drove Mídeia and Iásohn from the country and assumed the throne of his father. Later, Iásohn and the Dióskouri (Dioskouri; Gr. Διόσκουροι) sacked Iohlkós, and later still, Thæssalós (Thessalus; Gr. Θεσσαλός), the son of Iásohn, became the king of Iohlkós.
Akhælóös - (Achelous; Gr. Ἀχελῷος, ΑΧΕΛΩΟΣ; pronounced ah-khay-LOH-ohs) [Etruscan: Achlae] The Akhælóös is a river in western Greece, the name also applying to the deity of the river, who, according to Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) in Thæogonia (337-340), was the son of Tithýs (Tethys; Gr. Τηθύς) and Okæanós (Oceanus; Gr. Ὠκεανός).
Akhǽrohn - (Acheron; Gr. Αχέρων, ΑΧΈΡΩΝ) [Etruscan: Achrum, Acharum] The Akhǽrohn is the river or lake over which the dead must pass by means of the ferryman Khárohn (Charon; Gr. Χάρων).
Akhillefs - Please visit this page: Akhilléfs.
Akhilleus - Please visit this page: Akhilléfs.
Ákmohn - (Acmon or Akmon; Gr. Ἄκμων; ΑΚΜΩΝ) Ákmohn is most likely a name for Aithir (Aether or Ether; Gr. Αἰθήρ). The name Ákmohn is found in the extant fragments of the ancient Spartan lyric poet Alkmán (Alcman; Gr. Ἀλκμάν):
"The father of Heaven (ed. Ouranós), as was said already, is called Acmon (ed. Ákmohn) because heavenly motion is untiring (ἀκάματος); and the sons of Uranus are Acmonidae (ed. Ακμονιδαι): the ancients make these two points clear. Alcman, they say, tells that the heaven belongs to Acmon." (Alkman Fragment 61 Evstáthios [Eustathius; Gr. Εὐστάθιος] on Iliás 18.476, trans. D. A. Campbell, 1987 [? no copyright date is given in the text]. This translation of the fragment can be found in Greek Lyric II, published by Harvard University Press [Cambridge MA USA] and William Heinemann [London England], Loeb Classical Library LCL 143, p. 437.)
Akrítas, Digænís - (Digenes Akritas; Gr. Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτας [Ἀκρίτης]) Digænís Akrítas (Vasilis or Basil) is the great Byzantine hero whose story is told in the Acritic Songs. (under construction)
Aktaiohn - (Actaeon; Gr. Ακταίων, ΑΚΤΑΙΩΝ) Aktaiohn is the son of the rustic God Aristaios (Aristaeus; Gr. Ἀρισταῖος) and Aftonóï (Autonoe; Gr. Αὐτονόη), the daughter of Kádmos (Cadmus; Gr. Κάδμος). Aktaiohn was a student of the Kǽntavros (centaur; Gr. Κένταυρος) Kheirohn (Chiron; Gr. Χείρων). One day Aktaiohn was hunting in the woods with his hounds and he beheld the Goddess Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις) in a state of nudity. Upon discovering Aktaiohn, the offended Goddess proclaimed that should he speak, he would be transformed into a stag for having offended her virginity. Aktaiohn heard the sounds of his hunting party and called out to his hounds. He was immediately turned into a stag and the dogs devoured him. After the animals realized their master was dead, they became so distraught that Kheirohn made a statue of Aktaiohn which was so lifelike that it appeased their grief.
Alabastron - See Alávastron.
Akrópolis - (Acropolis; Gr. Ἀκρόπολις, ΑΚΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ. Etym. ἄκρος, "top" or "edge" + πόλις, "city;" therefore, "high city.") An akrópolis is a citadel, usually found on top of a hill.The most famous akrópolis is the Athenian akrópolis which had several temples, most notably the Parthænóhn (Parthenon; Gr. Παρθενών) of the Goddess Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ).
Alávastron - (alabastron; Gr. ἀλάβαστρον, ΑΛΑΒΑΣΤΡΟΝ) An alávastron is a long, narrow vase with very small handles. The alávastron was used for ointment or perfume.
Albion - See Alvíohn.
Aletheia - See Alítheia.
Alethes - See Alithís.
Alǽxandros - (Alexander; Gr. Ἀλέξανδρος, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ) Alǽxandros is the name of various Greek persons, most famously, Alexander the Great. It is also another name for Páris (Gr. Πάρις) of Tría (Troy; Gr. Τροία), son of Príamos (Priam; Gr. Πρίαμος).
Alítheia - (Aletheia; Gr. Ἀλήθεια, ΑΛΗΘΕΙΑ. Etym. α, "not" + λήθη, "forgetting.") Alítheia is the word for truth. Considering the proposed Platonic etymology, truth is something which is remembered. The girl's name "Alethea," of Hellenic origin, means verity or truth. Cf. alithís.
Alithís - (alethes; Gr. ἀληθής, ΑΛΗΘΗΣ. Etymology: α, "not" + λήθη, "forgetting.") Alithís means unconcealed, so true, real, opp. false, apparent. Cf. Alítheia.
Alliation - See Allíohsis.
Allilæpídrasi - (Allilepidrasi; Gr. Ἁλληλεπίδραση, ΑΛΛΗΛΕΠΙΔΡΑΣΗ. Etymology: αλληλο "inter" + επίδρασις "effect") Allilæpídrasi is the seventh Natural Law ruled by the Goddess Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ); Allilæpídrasi is Co-Influence or Interaction.
Allíohsis - (alloiosis or alliation; Gr. ἀλλοίωσις, ΑΛΛΟΙΩΣΙΣ) Allíohsis is a change in quality. (TTS XV p. 9)
Altar - See Vohmós.
Alter-motive, the - See Ætærokíniton, To.
Alvíohn - (Albion; Gr. Ἀλβίων, ΑΛΒΙΩΝ) Alvíohn was, originally, the ancient name of Britain as a whole. In later times, beyond antiquity, the name became Alba, which a name for Scotland still in use today.
Amartía - (Gr. ἁμαρτία, ΑΜΑΡΤΙΑ) Amartía is a transgression against a God, the Gods, or nature.
- Lexicon entry: ἁμαρ-τία, a failure, fault; error of judgment. 2. in Philosophy and Religion, guilt, sin. (L&S p. 77, right column, as a sub-heading under ἁμαρτ-ημα, edited for simplicity.)
Amber - See Ílæktron
Ambrotos - See Ámvrotos.
Amphora - See Amphoréfs.
Amphoréfs - (amphoreus; ἀμφορεύς, ΑΜΦΟΡΕΥΣ. Etym. ἀμφί, "on both sides" + φορεύς, "carrier") The amphoréfs is a two-handled pitcher for wine and other liquids. The word was adopted to the Latin language as amphora, the plural being amphorae, usage which has carried over into the English language.Amphidámas - (Gr. Ἀμφιδάμας, ΑΜΦΙΔΑΜΑΣ) Amphidámas is the name of several notable personages in Hellenic mythology and history. 1. Amphidámas, one of the fifty-two Argonáftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται) listed in the Orphǽohs Argonaftiká (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά), the son of Alæós (Aleus; Gr. Ἀλεός), king of Tæyǽa (Tegea; Gr. Τεγέα) in Arkadía (Arcadia; Gr. Αρκαδία), and Klæovouli (Cleobule; Gr. Κλεοβούλη). He was the brother of Lykourgos (Lycurgus; Gr. Λυκούργος), Kiphéfs (Cepheus; Gr. Κηφεύς), and Avyí (Auge; Gr. Αὐγή).
2. Amphidámas, a King of Khalkís (Chalcis; Gr. Χαλκίς) in Éfvia (Euboea; Gr. Εὔβοια). After he died, funeral games were conducted in his honor by his sons in which Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) won a golden tripod in a poetry contest.
3. Amphidámas, the father of Klysonymos (Clysonymus; Gr. Κλυσονυμος), who was killed in an argument over a game of dice by the adolescent Pátroklos (Patroclus; Gr. Πάτροκλος).
4. Amphidámas, the father of Nafsidami (Nausidame; Gr. Ναυσιδαμη), who, together with Ílios (Helios; Gr. Ἥλιος), bore the son Avyeias (Augeas; Gr. Αὐγείας). Avyeias was himself one of the Argonáftai and the owner of the stables cleaned in a labor of Iraklís (Herakles: Gr. Ἡρακλῆς).
5. Amphidámas, was one of the Akhaií (Achaeans; Gr. Ἀχαιοί) who was hidden in the wooden horse in the battle of Tría (Troy; Gr. Ἴλιον or Τροία).
Amphidrómia - (Gr. Ἀμφιδρόμια, ΑΜΦΙΔΡΟΜΙΑ. [Etym. ἀμφί "both sides" + δρόμος "walkway.] Also called Δρομιάφιον.) Amphidrómia is the naming festival when a child is first presented to friends and family. It can also be performed when an adult is given a Hellenic name in Ællinismόs , and welcomed into the religion and the community of fellow lovers of the Gods. Cf. Onomatothæsía.
Amphithalís - (amphithales; Gr. ἀμφιθαλής, ΑΜΦΙΘΑΛΗΣ. Adjective.) We see this adjective particularly referring to children participating in religious festivals, an amphithalís-boy both of whose parents are alive, signifying a child of good fortune. Such boys were used at the Pyanǽpsia (Pyanepsia; Gr. Πυανέψια) and other festivals to carry the Eiræsióhni (Eiresione; Gr. Εἰρεσιώνη), a decorated branch of olive having religious significance, to the temple. The word can apply to anything or anyone who is abundant, such as Gods or fortunate men.
- Lexicon entry: ἀμφιθᾰλής, ές, (θαλεῖν) lit. blooming on both sides, of children who have both parents alive. 2. flourishing on all sides: metaph., all-abounding, of Gods; of a man. II. of things, complete. (L&S p. 91, right column, within the entries beginning with ἀμφιθάλασσος, edited for simplicity.)
Amvrosía - (Gr. Ἀμβροσία, ΑΜΒΡΟΣΙΑ) - Amvrosía is the food of the Gods, , that doves bring to Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) from the west; Nǽktar (Nectar; Gr. Νέκταρ) is their drink. 2. Amvrosía is the anointing oil of the Gods which will even preserve dead men from decay. 3. Amvrosía is the food of the horses of the Gods.
- Lexicon entry: ἀμβροσί-α, Ion. -ιη, ἡ, immortality, rare in general sense; usu. elixir of life, as used by Gods for food; as perfume; as unguent; as pasture for horses; coupled with νέκταρ, the two distinguished as food and drink, Od.5.93 (later reversed, ἀ. being drunk). 2. in religious rites, mixture of water, oil, and various fruits. 3. Medic., name for antidote; also of an external emollient. 4. ambrose, Ambrosia maritima. b. Corinthian, = κρίνον. c. = ἀείζωον μέγα. d. vine whose grapes were eaten. B. The Amvrosía is a festival of Diónysos. (Etymologicum Magnum 564.13) (L&S p. 79, left column)
Ámvrotos - (Ambrotos; Gr. Ἄμβροτος, ΑΜΒΡΟΤΟΣ. Etym. from Ἀμβροσία.) Ámvrotos is an (poetical) adjective meaning immortal (Orphic Hymn XXX.7 To Dionysos: "ἄμβροτε δαῖμον"); Ámvrotos can also be used as an epithet with the same meaning.
- Lexicon entry: ἄμβροτος, immortal, divine, of persons as well as things, 2. epithet of all belonging to the Gods. (L&S p. 79, right column, edited for simplicity.)
Anabasis - See Anávasis.
Anagogic, The - See Anagoyikón.
Anagoyikón - (The Anagogic; Gr. Αναγωγικόν, ΑΝΑΓΩΓΙΚΟΝ) Anagoyikón is that which elevates the soul from sensibles to intelligibles. (TTS XV p. 9)
Anáktoron - (Gr. Ανάκτορον, ΑΝΆΚΤΟΡΟΝ) The word anáktoron literally means palace. The Anáktoron was a structure used for initiations almost at the center of the Tælæstírion (Telesterion; Gr. Τελεστήριον) at Ælefsís (Eleusis; Gr. Ἐλευσίς). This word is also used for other initiatory areas such as those found at the sanctuaries of Samothráki (Samothrace; Gr. Σαμοθράκη) and at Kyríni (Kyrene; Gr. Κυρήνη) for the Kárneia (Gr. Κάρνεια).
Anámnisis - (anámnēsis; Gr. ἀνάμνησις, ΑΝΑΜΝΗΣΙΣ) Anámnisis is defined as the recollection of that which has been forgotten: remembrance. This is a word associated with Platonic philosophy and implies agreement to the Orphic and Pythagorean concept of Palingænæsía (Palingenesía; Gr. Παλιγγενεσία), i.e., the transmigration of the soul. It is the means by which an individual can arrive at knowledge independent of untrustworthy sensory perceptions. In the dialogue Mǽnohn (Meno; Gr. Μένων) 80e-86c, Sohkrátis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης) demonstrates anámnisis by questioning a slave boy with no schooling in mathematics. By simply asking him questions and actually telling him nothing, the boy is shown to understand a basic problem in geometry, something of which he had never been taught. Sohkrátis states (Mǽnohn 81d) that what we call learning is actually recollection. And in Mǽnohn 86b (translated by B. Jowett, 1892): "And if the truth of all things always existed in the soul, then the soul is immortal. Wherefore be of good cheer, and try to recollect what you do not know, or rather what you do not remember." In the Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy, 2007, p. 45, Anthony Preus ends his entry for anámnisis by stating that: "Such 'recovered memories' may enable us to gain some provisional understanding of sensory experiences, but the objective is to recover as much as possible of the original experience of reality." Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) expands the idea of anámnisis in Phaidohn (Phaedo; Gr. Φαίδων) 72e-77a and discusses its relationship to the Theory of Forms.
Anángi - (Gr. Ἀνάγκη, ΑΝΑΓΚΗ) Anángi is the force of necessity or need. Anángi is defined as the excess of inertia.
Necessity, together with Time (Χρόνος), creates the universe.
Anáthima - (Anathema; Gr. Ἀνάθημα, ΑΝΑΘΗΜΑ) Anáthima is the Greek word for a votive offering, a dedicatory gift set up, usually in a temple, in gratitude to a God. This gift is the fulfillment of a vow made to this God after a prayer-request has been answered. The Anáthima may also be given ahead of time in hopes of the fulfillment of a prayer-request. The word Anáthima was twisted by the Christians to mean a gift offered to evil, because the Christians vilified our Gods. Later, the word was used in the church to designate someone who had been condemned to eternal damnation. But in truth, the Anáthima is a beautiful thing, a gift of love for a God who had compassion for you.
Anávasis (Anabasis; Gr. Ἀνάβασις, ΑΝΑΒΑΣΙΣ) Anávasis is a Neoplatonic term meaning an ascent back to one's true source, and ascent back to the One, achieved by means of living one's life in arætí (arete; Gr. ἀρετή), virtue. This ascent is preceded by an æpistrophí (epistrophe; Gr. ἐπιστροφή), a turning away from katávasis (catabasis; Gr. κατάβασις), the descent or degeneration from the One.
Ánax - (Gr. Ἄναξ, ΑΝΑΞ) Ánax is an epithet of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) meaning "the Great King". According to Orphic cosmogony, Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) is the ambassador of the Olympian Gods of the Solar System. As such, he is on the level of Zefs and also holds the title of Ánax. 2. Ánax was the son of Ouranós (Uranus; Gr. Οὐρανός) and Yaia (Gaia or Earth; Gr. Γαῖα) of the race of Giants. Ánax was the father of Astǽrios (Asterius; Gr. Αστέριος). He was the king of Anktoría (Anactoria; Gr. Ἀνακτορία), a place which was later named Mílitos (Miletus; Gr. Μίλητος) after it had been conquered by Mílitos of Kríti (Crete; Gr. Κρήτη). (Paus. 1. 35. 6) 3. The title Ánax can also apply to an earthly king such as Agamǽmnohn (Agamemnon; Gr. Ἀγαμέμνων). In this context, Ánax is similar or identical to the word Vasiléfs (Basileus; Gr. Βασιλεύς).
Andreia - (Gr. Ἀνδρεία, ΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ) Andreia is manliness or Courage, one of the Four Cardinal Virtues of classical antiquity; the other three being Temperance or Moderation (Sohphrosýni; Gr. Σωφροσύνη), Wisdom (Phrónisis; Gr. Φρόνησις), and Justice (Dikaiosýni; Gr. Δικαιοσύνη). Cf. Thrásos. Please visit this page: Virtue in Hellenismos.
Ángælos - (angelos; Gr. ἄγγελος, ΑΓΓΕΛΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ἄγγελος, ὁ, ἡ, messenger, envoy. 2. generally, one that announces or tells, e.g. of birds of augury, of a poet, of a beacon; of the nightingale. 3. angel. 4. in later philos., semi-divine being: also in mystical and magical writings. II. title of Artemis at Syracuse. (L&S p. 7, right column, edited for simplicity.)
Anger - See Thymós and Oryí.
Animal Products - Some new food products incorporate changes in animal husbandry that may make a huge difference to the quality of life of the animals from which these products come. We are fortunate to have available milk, eggs, and in some cases meat, that was obtained from animals who were allowed some freedom in their lives to wander and graze naturally. You can observe this on the packaging of some types of eggs: obtained from free-range chickens. You can also buy milk gathered from cows who have been allowed to graze at least part of the year. Unfortunately, the price of these products is higher, but the benefits to creatures whose happiness depends on our kindness may be significant.
If you do research, you will discover that many farm animals live alarmingly restricted lives. On many dairy farms, cows never leave their pens, except when cleaning the barns. Egg-laying hens are often kept in confinement so restrictive that their feet must be severed to remove them from their cages when they die. These are just a couple examples of contemporary farming practices.
According to Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς), Pythagóras (Gr. Πυθαγόρας), and other great teachers from our religion, animals have souls and, like us, reincarnate and progress. If you do not have the inspiration or the will-power to become vegetarian, at least consider reducing your meat-intake and switching to these above-mentioned products, despite the added cost.
Some organizations that are concerned with the welfare of farm animals:
The Humane Farming Association (http://www.hfa.org/about/index.html)
Farm Sanctuary (http://farmsanctuary.org/)
United Poultry Concerns (http://www.upc-online.org/)
Humane Farm Animal Care (http://www.certifiedhumane.org/)
Animism – Animism is the belief that everything, animate and inanimate, has a soul.
Antaia, Mítir - (Gr. Άνταία, ΑΝΤΑΙΑ. Etym. from ἀνταῖος) Antaia is an epithet meaning petitioned with many prayers; the name may be applied to any deity. The Goddess Dimítir (Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ) is addressed in Orphic Hymn 41 with the title Μήτηρ (meaning "Mother") Ανταία.
- Lexicon entry: besought with prayers, epith. of Hecate, etc., A.R.1.1141, cf. Orph.H.41.1; ἀνταία· . . ἱκέσιος, A. (Fr.223)ap.Hsch.; ἀνταῖος Ζεύς Sch.Il.22.113. (L&S p. 149, left column, this being def. III. of ἀνταῖος.)
Anthæstíria - (Anthesteria, Gr. Ἀνθεστήρια, ΑΝΘΕΣΤΗΡΙΑ) Please visit this page: ANTHÆSTÍRIA - ΑΝΘΕΣΤΗΡΙΑ.
Anthemius - (Procopius Anthemius Augustus) Born 420 CE; Assassinated 472 CE. Anthemius was emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 467 to 472 CE.
It is generally believed that Julian the Philosopher, who ruled the Roman empire from 355 to 363 CE, was the last pagan emperor of Rome, but this may not be correct. It is quite possible that Anthemius holds this honor. Anthemius studied at the Neoplatonic school of Próklos (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος) and would needs be in the company of many prominent pagans:
"Of the others who attended Proclus' school we might note the following men of distinction: Rufinus, described as a high-ranking Athenian official (Marinus, Vit. Procl. 23); Severianus, who, seeking a political career, became a provincial governor, but showed excessive judicial severity and inflexibility as regards his superiors, turning to teaching and refusing the emperor Zeno's offer of an important post; Pamprepius, who went to Constantinople in 476, impressed Zeno's magister officiorum Illus with a lecture on the soul, became a prominent pagan leader in Illus' revolt, and was executed for treason in 484; Marcellinus, who became magister militum, patrician, and ruler of Dalmatia; Anthemius, consul in 455 and emperor in the West (467–72); 70 Flavius Illustrius Pusaeus, praetorian prefect of the East (465) and consul (467); Flavius Messius Phoebus Severus, consul in 470, prefect of Rome and patrician." (Platonopolis by Dominic J. O'Meara, 2003, Clarendon Press/Oxford, p. 21.)
And from another source:
"Some scholars even believe that the emperor Anthemius was planning a 'final' pagan revival in the West as late as the 470s, on the strength of a statement by the neoplatonist Damascius that he was hellenophorōn." (The Last Pagans of Rome by Alan Cameron, 2011, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 192.)
Nonetheless, there does not appear to have been a public role by Anthemius in promoting the older religion as is obvious in the case of Julian.
Anthesteria - Please visit this page: ANTHÆSTÍRIA - ΑΝΘΕΣΤΗΡΙΑ.
Aóristos - (Gr. ἀόριστος, ΑΟΡΙΣΤΟΣ) Aóristos is that which is limitless and having no boundaries.
- Lexicon entry: ἀόριστ-ος, ον, without boundaries, debatable. 2. limitless. II. indeterminate. (L&S p. 173, left column, within the entries beginning ἀοριστ-αίνω, edited for simplicity.)
Apǽlla of the Equals - (Apella; Gr. Ἀπέλλα) The Apǽlla of the Equals was the official title of the popular assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, corresponding to the Ækklisía (Ekklesia; Gr. Ἐκκλησία) of the other Greek states. Every Spartan male who was a full citizen and who had reached his thirtieth year was entitled to attend the meetings, which, according to an ordinance of Lykourgos (Lycurgus; Gr. Λυκοῦργος) the Lawgiver, must be held at the time of each full moon within the boundaries of Spárta (Gr. Σπάρτα).
Apáti - (apate; Gr. απάτη, ΑΠΑΤΗ) Apáti is a trick, fraud, deceit.
Ápeiron - (Gr. Ἄπειρον, ΑΠΕΙΡΟΝ. Etym. α, "no" + πεῖραρ, "limit," therefore, no limit or no form.) Ápeiron is a term associated with Pythagóras (Gr. Πυθαγόρας) and other philosophers meaning the Infinite (Gr. Τὁ Ἄπειρον), and defined as the infinite number of undivided material atoms, the cosmogonic substance Earth.
"He (ed. Ἀναξίμανδρος) used to assert that the principle and primary element of all things was the Infinity (ed. Ἄπειρον), giving no exact definition as to whether he meant air or water, or anything else. And he said that the parts were susceptible of change, but that the whole was unchangeable..." (Διογένης Λαέρτιος Βίοι καὶ γνῶμαι τῶν ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εὐδοκιμησάντων, Book 2, Life of Anaxímandros [Anaximander; Gr. Ἀναξίμανδρος] Section 1.1, trans. C. D. Yonge in The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius, 1853, Henry G. Bohn [London], where this quotation may be found on p. 57)
Aphrodite - Please visit this page: Aphrodíti.
Apoloyía - (defense; Gr. απολογία, ΑΠΟΛΟΓΙΑ) - An apoloyía is a speech of defense. This word is not the same as the modern English word apology, "to express contrition." Perhaps the most famous apoloyía is the great Apoloyía of Plátohn, being the speech of Sohkrátis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης) in which he defends himself at trial.
Apokatástasis - (Apocatastasis; Gr. Ἀποκατάστᾰσις, ΑΠΟΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΙΣ) Apokatástasis is restitution to a pristine form, or condition of being. (TTS XV p. 9)
Aporía - (aporia; Gr. ἀπορία, ΑΠΟΡΙΑ. Etym. α, "absence" + πόρος "passage" or "means of passage.") Aporía is an impasse, a puzzlement for which a solution, seemingly, cannot be found. The term is typically associated with the ǽlængkhos (elenchus; Gr. ἔλεγχος) of the early Socratic Dialogues, a form of dialectical investigation.
A Posteriori - See the entry entitled: A Priori and A Posteriori.
Apotropaic Epithet - The apotropaic epithet is a name given to a deity with the effect of averting evil. This English word is itself derived from an epithet with the same meaning, Apotrópaios (Gr. Ἀποτρόπαιος), frequently applied to Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). Examples would be Apóllohn Sminthéfs (Smintheus; Gr. Σμινθεύς), averter of infestations of mice, or Apóllohn Parnópios (Parnopius; Gr. Παρνόπιος), deliverer from manifestations of grasshoppers.
Apotrópaios - (Apotropæus; Gr. Ἀποτρόπαιος, ΑΠΟΤΡΟΠΑΙΟΣ) Lexicon entry: Apotrópaios is an epithet of deities meaning averting evil, frequently of Apollo. 2. of sacrifices, D.H.5.54, Plu.2.290d,292a. II. Pass., that ought to be averted, ill-omened, φαντασίαι Ph.2.433; δυσφημίαι Plu.2.587f; θέαμα Luc.Tim.5; ἄκουσμα Id.Gall.2, etc. (L&S p. 224, right column, within the entries beginning with ἀποτροπάδην, edited for simplicity.)
Apple - See Míla.
A Priori and A Posteriori - These two Latin phrases are used in philosophy to make distinction in kinds of knowledge, arguments, concepts, etc. a priori refers to the use of reason, independent of experience, to come to a conclusion. A posteriori (in contrast to a priori) uses experience or the senses to draw conclusions. Some knowledge is most easily known a posteriori, through observation, such as the conclusion that the sun is in the sky. Some knowledge is more easily known through reason, a priori, such as the descriptions given by geometrical formulas.
Aquarius - see Ydrokhóös.
Arætí - Please visit this page: Arætí: Virtue in Ællinismόs.
Archaic Smile - See Arkhaïkón Meidíama.
Archetypal Polytheism – Archetypal Polytheism is the belief in Gods as symbols representing psychological archetypes.
Areiohn (Areion; Gr. Ἀρείων, ΑΡΕΙΩΝ. Sometimes Ἀρίων.) - Areiohn is a fantastic immortal horse, born from the abduction of Queen Dimítir by Poseidóhn. The Goddess transformed herself into a mare in order to escape Poseidóhn, who, in turn, turned himself into a horse with the resulting child being Areiohn (along with a daughter of unknown name). There exist variant stories giving the parentage as Poseidóhn and a harpy, or Zǽphyros (Zephyrus; Gr. Ζέφυρος) and a harpy, or Yaia (Gaia; Gr. Γαῖα). For the poet of the same name, see Aríohn.
Ares - Please visit this page: Arís.
Arete - lease visit this page: Arætí: Virtue in Ællinismόs.
Árgos - (Gr. Ἄργος, ΑΡΓΟΣ) Árgos is the name of several personages, a city, a magical ship, and even a famous dog.
1. Árgos is the son of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Nióvi (Niobe; Gr. Νιόβη). 2. The city of Árgos was named after him, and he was its third king. 3. There is another mythology that the city of Árgos was named thus because mighty Ærmís (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς) there killed the giant Árgos Panóptis (Argus Panoptes; Gr. Ἄργος Πανόπτης, the "All-Seeing."), a monster with multiple eyes, even one on the back of his head. 4. There was a person named Árgos who was one of the Argonáftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται). 5. This same Árgos built their magical ship, which was named the Argóh (Argo; Gr. Ἀργώ) after his name. 6. The Írohs (Hero; Gr. Ἥρως) Odysséfs (Odysseus; Gr. Ὀδυσσεύς) had a beloved dog named Árgos which died of excitement at the return of its master, who had been lost for twenty years.
Argyropoulos, John - See Aryirópoulos, Ioánnis.
Aries - See Kriós.
Aríohn - (Arion; Gr. Ἀρίων, ΑΡΙΩΝ) Aríohn was a Dionysian poet and Kitharohdós (Citharede; Gr. Κιθαρῳδός), a singer and player of the kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), a type of ancient lyre. Aríohn is called the creator or father of the Dithýramvos (Dithyramb; Gr. Διθύραμβος). These are particular hymns in honor of Diónysos sung by bands of revelers known as Kóhmos (Gr. Κῶμος). The idea that the Dithýramvos was invented by Aríohn was believed by Iródotos (Herodotus; Gr. Ἡρόδοτος) the historian, as well as Píndaros (Pindar; Gr. Πίνδαρος) the poet. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr, Ἀριστοτέλης), who was of the same opinion, was convinced that these hymns were the origin of Hellenic theatre.Aríohn is the subject of a wonderful story that Iródotos relates in his Istoríai (Gr. Ἱστορίαι), the Histories (Book I, 23-24). Aríohn had been living a great many years in the court of Pæríandros (Periander; Gr. Περίανδρος), the king of Kórinthos (Corinth; Gr. Κόρινθος). Aríohn decided to journey to Italy and Sicily, and, while there, he made a great deal of money, after which decided to return home. He hired a ship and a crew of men to navigate the vessel and they set off from Tarentum.
Once they reached the open sea, the sailors conspired to seize his riches, but Aríohn discovered the plot and begged for his life, offering them all his money, but the pirates refused. They gave him two choices: to take his own life if he wished to be given a proper burial on land, or to be cast into the sea and perish. Aríohn asked if he could perform one last song before leaping to the sea. This offer amused the sailors who, if they granted this wish, would receive a free performance by the world's greatest master of the kithára, as was his reputation. Aríohn promised that after his performance, he would jump into the sea. So, the pirates agreed. Aríohn donned his poet's costume, played his song, and leaped head-first into the ocean. Unbeknownst to the sailors, a dolphin rescued Aríohn and carried him to the sanctuary of Poseidóhn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) at Cape Tainaron (Gr. Ταίναρον) in Lakownía (Laconia; Gr. Λακωνία). In other variants of the story, Aríohn not only played on his instrument, but sang a hymn to Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων), to whom the dolphin is sacred. In this version, many dolphins appeared to support Aríohn.
Aríohn then continued on to Kórinthos, still wearing his poet's costume. He arrived ahead of the pirates, and told the tale of his rescue to the king. But Pæríandros could not believe this fantastic story, and retained Aríohn, hoping that the ship would arrive and that he could uncover the truth. When the pirates landed, Pæríandros summoned them to his court and inquired concerning the whereabouts of Aríohn. The mariners, being certain that Aríohn had perished at sea, lied to the king and claimed that the great poet was well and still living in Sicily. Their deception became obvious when Aríohn walked into the hall.
For the fabulous immortal horse of the same name, see Areiohn.
Aristaios - Please visit this page: Aristaios
Aristotǽlis, Váttos I - See Váttos I Aristotǽlis.
Arkhaïkón Meidíama - (Gr. Αρχαϊκόν Μειδίαμα, ΑΡΧΑΙΚΟΝ ΜΕΙΔΙΑΜΑ) The Arkhaïkón Meidíama is the Archaic Smile or the Divine Smile. This is the facial expression associated with statues of Kouros (Gr. Κούρος). It is an expression of the experience of the deification of the soul. Please visit this page: Kouros.
Arkhí - Lexicon Entry (edited for simplicity): ἀρχή, ἡ, (v. ἄρχω) beginning, origin. 2. first principle, element. 3. end, corner, of a bandage, rope, sheet, etc. 4. Math., origin of a curve. 5. branch of a river. 6. sum, total. 7. vital organs of the body. II. first place or power. 2. empire, realm. 3. magistracy, office. 4. in pl., αἱ ἀρχαί the authorities, the magistrates. 5. command, i.e. 6. pl., heavenly powers. (L&S p. 252, left column)
Armonía - (Harmonia; Gr. Ἁρμονία, ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ) Armonía is Harmony, the eighth Natural Law under the dominion of Aphrodíti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη).
Árritos - Lexicon Entry (edited for simplicity): ἄρρητος, ον, also η, ον E.Hec.201:— unspoken. II. that cannot be spoken or expressed, ἀδιανόητον καὶ ἄ. καὶ ἄφθεγκτον καὶ ἄλογον Pl.Sph.238c: hence, unspeakable immense. III. not to be spoken: hence, 1. not to be divulged. 2. unutterable, horrible. 3. shameful to be spoken. IV. of numbers. (L&S p. 247, left column, edited for simplicity.)
Árritos Arkhí - (Gr. Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή, ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ ΑΡΧΗ) The Árritos Arkhí is the primordial state of the Kósmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος), which, as is said by Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς), is unable to be defined, hence it is called the Unutterable Beginning or Principle. Árritos means "that which cannot be expressed" + Arkhí, "beginning." Another interpretation the Árritos Arkhí is that it is forbidden to speak of it, as the word árritos can also mean "not to be divulged." Visit this page: Mystic Materialism.
Arsænómorphæ - (Arsenomorphe; Gr. Ἀρσενόμορφε, ΑΡΣΕΝΟΜΟΡΦΕ) Arsænómorphæ means the appearance with a male face, as, for instance, with the Goddess Ártæmis. (Orphic Hymn 36 To Ártæmis, line 7)
Artemis - Please visit this page: Ártæmis.
Aryballos - See Arývallos.
Aryirópoulos, Ioánnis - (John Argyropoulos; Gr. Ιωάννης Αργυρόπουλος, ΙΩΑΝΝΗΣ ΑΡΓΥΡΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ) [1415-1487 CE] Ioánnis Aryirópoulos is thought to be the most important of a later generation of men who were influenced by the Neoplatonic Renaissance philosopher Yæóhryios Yæmistós Plíthon (Plethon), later in Plíthon's life. Aryirópoulos taught and wrote in Constantinople and later in Italy, where he attended the Council of Florence/Ferrara (the council for union between Catholic and Orthodox churches, 1431-1445) when he was but a young man. He became fluent in Latin, studying at the University of Padua, returned to Constantinople, but eventually became a Catholic and, after the fall of the Byzantine empire, returned to Florence where he taught Greek and philosophy. He was an Aristotelian scholar who assisted in the promotion Hellenic texts in Italy during his lifetime, and, along with Plíthon, helped to create a great interest in Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων). Amongst his students were Lorenzo de' Medici. Aryirópoulos spent the last six years of his life in Rome, where he died. (sources: George Gemistos Plethon: The Last of the Hellenes by C.M. Woodhouse, 1986, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 40 and The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Vol. 1, 1991, Oxford Univ. Press [Oxford UK and New York USA], p. 164.)
Arývallos - (aryballos; Gr. ἀρύβαλλος, ΑΡΥΒΑΛΛΟΣ) An arývallos is a small, typically globular oil-vessel.
Asbystae - See Asvýstai.
Ascent - See Anávasis.
Asclepius - Please visit this page: Asklipiós.
Asklipiastai - (Asclepiastae; Gr. Ἀσκληπιασταί, ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΑΣΤΑΙ) The Asklipastai is a guild of worshipers of Asklipiós. (L&S p.258, left column, within the entries beginning with Ἀσκληπιός)
Asklipiádis - (Asclepiadae; Gr. Ἀσκληπιάδης, ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΑΔΗΣ. Ἀσκληπιάδαι is plural.) Asklipiádis is a word meaning son of Asklipiós, hence it is name for a physician/priest of Asklipiós. (L&S p. 258, left column, within the entries beginning with Ἀσκληπιός.)
Asklipian - The Asklipian is the staff of Asklipiós, the God of Healing. It is a long staff which he holds at his side and it is entwined with a serpent. It is not to be confused with the Kirýkeion (Kerykeion or Caduceus; Gr. Κηρύκειον). This staff, a representation of great antiquity, is still in use as a symbol of the medical profession. The snake sheds its skin, therefore it is a symbol of rejuvenation; also, traditionally, the snake is a symbol of Earth. A staff was a common accouterment of the itinerant physician in antiquity.Asklipieion - (Gr. Ἀσκληπιεῖον, ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΕΙΟΝ) An Asklipieion is a temple of Asklipiós, the God of Healing. They were not only sanctuaries of worship but also hospitals. The most famous Asklipieion was the temple of Asklipiós at Æpídavros (Epidaurus; Gr. Ἐπίδαυρος). (L&S p.258, left column, within the entries beginning with Ἀσκληπιός)
Asklipiós - Please visit this page: Asklipiós.
Askós - (Gr. ἀσκός, ΑΣΚΟΣ. Plural is ἀσκοί.) The askós is a thin-necked, flat-bottomed pottery vessel usually designed for pouring oil to replenish oil-lamps. Sometimes the askós will have two spouts on opposite ends of the vessel with a connected piece between, serving as a handle.
Asphódælos - (asphodel; Gr. ἀσφόδελος, ΑΣΦΟΔΕΛΟΣ. Both a noun and an adjective.) Asphódælos is a flower which grows in Ilýsion (Elysium; Gr. Ἠλύσιον), the place of reward where virtuous souls dwell after the death of the body. See Ilýsion.
Asphodel - See Asphódælos.
Astæría - (Asteria; Gr. Ἀστερία, ΑΣΤΕΡΙΑ, "of the stars") Astæría is one of the Younger Titánæs (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες, plural of the singular Τιτάν.), the daughter of Kíos (Coeus; Gr. Κοῖος) and Phívi (Phoebe; Gr. Φοίβη). Astæría is the sister of Litóh (Leto; Gr. Λητώ) and the mother of Ækáti (Hecate; Gr. Ἑκάτη). With these close relationships to Phívi, Apóllohn, and Ækáti, Astæría is connected with oracular power.
Following the battle of the Titánæs, Astæría was pursued by Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and avoided him by transforming herself into a quail, falling into the sea and becoming the island Astæría, later called Ortiyía (Ortygia; Gr. Ορτυγία. Etym. ὄρτυξ, "quail."), and finally Dílos (Delos; Gr. Δήλος"famous"), the birthplace of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων), but there is confusion regarding the island, whether there were two islands (Ortiyía and Dílos) with Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις) born on Ortiyía previous to her brother.
Astrágalos - (Gr. Ἀστράγαλος, ΑΣΤΡΑΓΑΛΟΣ) The Astrágalos, knucklebones or dice, is one of the Toys of Diónysos and also one of the great symbols of the Ælefsínia Mystíria (Eleusinian Mysteries; Gr. Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια).
Asvýstai - (Asbystae; Gr. Ἀσβύσται, ΑΣΒΥΣΤΑΕ) The Asvýstai were people of the inner sections of the Kyrinaïká (Cyrenaica; Gr. Κυρηναϊκά), south of Kyríni (Cyrene; Gr. Κυρήνη) and west of Yiligámmai (Giligammae; Gr. Γιλιγάμμαι).
Ataraxía - (Gr. Ἀταραξία, ΑΤΑΡΑΞΙΑ) Ataraxía is impassiveness, calmness (L&S p. 268, found within the entries beginning with ἀταρακτέω, keep calm)
- Ataraxía is a philosophical term meaning composure, tranquility, equilibrium. The term is associated with the Skeptic philosopher Pýrrohn (Pyrrho; Gr. Πύρρων) of Ílis (Elis; Gr. Ἦλις), Æpíkouros (Epicurus; Gr. Ἐπίκουρος), and also the Stoics. (source: Ancient Greek Philosophy by Anthony Preus, 2007, p. 62. Not a direct quotation.)
Atepomarus - Atepomarus is a Keltic God equated with Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). (source: Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture by Bernhard Maier, 2000, p. 26)
Áthæos - (Gr. ἄθεος, ΑΘΕΟΣ. Etymology: α [no] + Θεός [God]) without God, denying the Gods, esp. those recognized by the state. 2. generally, godless, ungodly. 3. abandoned by the Gods. (L&S p. 31, right column, abbreviated for simplicity.) Cf. athæótis.
Athæótis - (atheism; Gr. ἀθεότης, ΑΘΕΟΤΗΣ) Godlessness. II. atheism. 2. neglect of the Gods of the state. (L&S p. 31, right column, edited for simplicity) The Christians, in antiquity, were thought of as atheists, because they did not recognize all the Gods. Also, Cf. áthæos.
Athánatos - (Gr. Ἀθάνατος, ΑΘΑΝΑΤΟΣ) The Gods are Athánatos, i.e., Deathless or Immortal. While our souls and those of all mortal beings are also immortal, we are subject to the cycle of births and deaths, a cycle which is involuntary; therefore we are called mortal because our bodies die. We are not free, but are chained to the procession of lives and deaths. But the Gods have transcended the birth and death of the body; they are free, and are thus called Athánatos, deathless.
Atheism - See Áthæos and Athæótis.
Atheist - See Áthæos and Athæótis.
Athena - Please visit this page: Athiná.
Áthlon - (Gr. ἆθλον, ΑΘΛΟΝ) The áthlon is the prize of a contest, as in games played in honor of a God or the death of an Írohs (Gr. Ἥρως), Hero. Áthlon is the etymological root of the English word athlete.
- Lexicon entry: ἆθλον, τό, Att. contr. from Ep., Ion., Lyr. ἄεθλον (which alone is used by Hom. and Hdt., mostly also by Pi.:— prize of contest. II. = ἆθλος, contest, only in pl. III. in pl., place of combat. IV. Astrol., = κλῆρος (ed. certain degrees in the zodiac connected with planets and important in a nativity). (L&S p. 32, right column, edited for simplicity.)
Átlas - (Gr. Ἄτλας, ΑΤΛΑΣ) Átlas is the son of Iapætós (Iapetus or Japetus; Gr. Ἰαπετός) and Klymǽni (Clymene; Gr. Κλυμένη), according to Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) Thæogonía (Theogony; Gr. Θεογονία) 507. Átlas is of the second-generation of Titánæs, therefore he is one of what is called the Younger Titánæs. He led the Titánæs in their war against Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), thereby being condemned to carry the heavens on his shoulders. According to Ómiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος) in Odýsseia (Odyssey; Gr. Ὀδύσσεια) I.52, Átlas knows the depths of the sea and "holds the tall pillars which keep the earth and heaven apart."
Átropos - Átropos (Gr. Ἄτροπος, ΑΤΡΟΡΟΣ [Latin: Morta]), "she who cannot be turned.") - Átropos is one of the Mírai (Moirai or Fates; Gr. Μοῖραι), she who cuts the thread of life.
Attraction = Ǽrohs Please visit this page: Ǽrohs.
Audacity - See Tólma.
Aurora - Aurora is the Roman word for Dawn. See Ióhs.
Autumn Equinox - See Phthinopohriní Isimæría.
Av or av - The English letters av are being used on this website to represent the Greek diphthong Álpha-Ýpsilon (Gr. αυ, ΑΥ) when the diphthong is found before a vowel or the following consonants: β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ. This sounds like the av in aversion.
- When the Greek diphthong Álpha-Ýpsilon is found before the following consonants: θ κ ξ π σ τ φ χ ψ or at the end of a word, it sounds like the af in affect, and we are spelling it af.
Please note that the examples are as in American-English pronunciation and the a is always pronounced like the a in father.
Ávatos - (Abatos; Gr. Ἄβατος, ΑΒΑΤΟΣ) Ávatos is an adjective which, when used in reference to holy places, has the meaning of sacrosanct, not to be desecrated or profaned.
Axis mundi - See Omphalós.
Áyios - (agios or hagios; Gr. ἅγιος, ΑΓΙΟΣ) Áyios is an adjective meaning devoted to the Gods, sacred, holy. It can be used in a negative sense, to mean accursed.
Ázæsthai - (hazesthai; Gr. ἅζεσθαι, ΑΖΕΣΘΑΙ) Ázæsthai means to dread, to respect. (A Lexicon to Aeschylus by Rev. William Linwood, 1843.) Ázæsthai is a more ancient ancient word replaced in later writings by σέβεσθαι, "to feel awe." Both terms are related to the awe one feels at the sacred. Cf. Sǽvæsthai and Sǽvomai.
Ázilis - (Gr. Ἄζιλις, ΑΖΙΛΙΣ) Ázilis is a village colonized by Váttos I Aristotǽlis (Battus I Aristotle; Gr. Βάττος Ἀριστοτέλης) and his followers from Thíra (Thera; Gr. Θήρα). Two years before coming to this district, they had settled in Plátaia (Platea; Gr. Πλάταια). They then resettled in Ázilis and remained for six years before they permanently colonized Kyríni (Cyrene; Gr. Κυρήνη), as described in the Hymn to Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) by the Alexandrian poet Kallímakhos (Callimachus; Gr. Καλλίμαχος).
Ázomai - (Gr. ἅζομαι, ΑΖΟΜΑΙ) Lexicon entry: ἅζομαι, only pres. and impf.; Act. only in part. ἅζοντα S.OC 134:—stand in awe of, esp. Gods and one's parents. 2. abs. in part., reverently, in holy fear. 3. to be angry.
ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE
The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kosmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).
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