D - An Illustrated Glossary of Hellenic Polytheism




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PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology , the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

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ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE

Δ, δ (Dǽlta) - (Delta; Gr. δέλτα, ΔΈΛΤΑ) The Greek letter Dǽlta is pronounced like the soft th in this or there, not like the hard th in theory, never like the d in dog. Even the name of the letter itself is pronounced thælta. We are representing Dǽlta with the English letter d. The Greek letter Thíta (Θ, θ) also sounds like th, but it is the hard th as found in the word theory. Our convention is to also spell Thíta with the th.

So, does the d-sound, as found in English words, exist in Greek? When the 2-letter consonant Ni-Taf (ντ) is found at the beginning of a Greek word, it is pronounced like the d in dog or down; when the diphthong Ni-Taf is found within a Greek word, there is a slight n-sound before the d-sound. While found inside many ancient Greek words, it is uncommon or not at all found at the beginning of ancient Greek words. You can, however, find it in modern Greek words and in names such as that of the great singer of laïkó (Gr. λαϊκό) and ræbǽtiko (rebetico; Gr. ρεμπέτικο), Grigóris Bithikóhtsis (Grigoris Bithikotsis; Gr. Γρηγόρης Μπιθικώτσης), 1922-2005 CE.

See Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.

Dadaukhos - Please visit this page: Glossary of the Ælefsínia.

Dædal - Dædal is an archaic adjective used by Thomas Taylor in his translation of the Hymns of Orpheus. As an example, in the hymn To Health (Hygeia):

"And ev'ry house is flourishing and fair,

If with rejoicing aspect thou art there:

Each dædal art, thy vig'rous force inspires,

And all the world thy helping hand desires;"

The word dædal is derived from the Greek Daidalos (Gr. Δαίδαλος), or, as more commonly known in the Latin, Daedalus, the great inventor and father of Íkaros (Icarus; Gr. Ἴκαρος), who flew like a bird with wings made by his father. Dædal means "ingenious", "intricate", "finely wrought", or "artistic".

Dælphí - Please visit this page: Dælphí.

Daimohn - (Daemon) Please visit this page: Daimohn in Ællinismós.

Damáskios (Damascius) - Please visit this page: Damáskios.

Danáki - (danake; Gr. δανάκη, ΔΑΝΑΚΗ) - Danáki is the coin placed in the mouth of the corpse as the fee for Khárohn (Charon; Gr. Χάρων), the ferryman of Aidis (Hades; Gr. ᾍδης), for passage across Akhǽron (Acheron; Gr. Ἀχέρων) and Styx (Gr. Στύξ) for those who have recently died; it is the ναῦλος, ὁ, Ar. (v. infr.):—passage-money, fare or freight, ἔκβαιν', ἀπόδος τὸν ναῦλος, says Charon. (L&S p. 1161, right column first definition, edited for simplicity.)

Lexicon entry: δᾰνάκη [νᾰ], , Persian coin, worth rather more than an obol: hence, the coin buried with a corpse as Charon's fee. (L&S p. 369, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Daring - See Tólma.

Dark Age:

1) The Hellenic Dark Age, 1150-750 BCE: beginning at the fall of Mycenaean civilization, approximately 1150 to roughly 900 BCE (the early dark age), and proceeding into a rebirth of Hellenic culture and civilization from 900 to 750 BCE (the late dark age). This is the usual description of the Hellenic Dark Age, although there is newer evidence suggesting that Mycenaean civilization may have fallen closer to 900 BCE, which, if true, would change the perception of this period.

2) The term Dark Age, coined by the Italian scholar Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch, 1304-1374 CE), refers to the period commencing with the "fall of Rome" and ending with the dawn of the Renaissance. Currently, there are revisionist scholars who take the position that the idea of a dark age during this time period is inaccurate. Their position can generalized thus: being that a more-or-less civilized world continued through to the Renaissance, accompanied by some intellectual and scientific growth, one cannot point to this period and call it a period of 'darkness' and collapse. This website maintains a different and older position. We will generalize also: the Dark Age began in 381 CE with the edicts of Theodosius I. These decrees prohibited the practice of all the ancient religions, and gave Nicean Christianity the backing of imperial law and patronage, which after the fall of the Western empire was continued by various Christian kingdoms. Why does this deserve the title of a 'dark age?' Not simply because it forced the old religion into obscurity, but because these edicts made freedom-of-thought a crime. From this point forward, all scientific, religious, and philosophical thought was filtered through the eyes and power of Christianity, a religion which, working closely together with government, began a policy of intellectual and religious censorship, a religion based on a strict orthodoxy which would not tolerate any opposition to its teachings or views on the kósmos.

Dawn - The Orphic hymn number 78 is entitled Dawn in Thomas Taylor's translation, or Aurora. In ancient Greek, this is Ióhs (Ios; Gr. Ἠώς).

Day, Hellenic religious - The Hellenic religious day begins at sun-down. The practice of seeing midnight as the beginning of the day is an idea we inherited from the Romans. In Ællinismós (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion, it is still appropriate to celebrate a holiday at sundown, the night before the date of the festival.

Decuma - (Latin) = Lákhæsis (Lachesis; Gr. Λάχεσις), one of the three Fates (Gr. Moirae, Lat. Parcae). Please visit this page: Destiny.

Defkalíohn - (Deucalion; Gr. Δευκαλίων, ΔΕΥΚΑΛΙΩΝ) Defkalíohn was a son of Promithéfs (Prometheus; Gr. Προμηθεύς) and Proníïs (Pronoea; Gr. Προνοίης), although different texts propose various women as being his mother. Defkalíohn was the husband of Pýrra (Gr. Πύρρα) and the father of Ǽllin (Hellen; Gr. Ἕλλην, not to be confused with Helen [Ælǽni; Gr. Ἑλένη] of Troy) after whom the Greeks are called Ǽllinæs (Hellenes; Gr. Ἕλληνες) .

"That Deucalion was the son of Prometheus and Pronoea, Hesiod (ed. Isíodos; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) states in the first Catalogue, as also that Hellen was the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha." (Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius Arg. iii. 1086, Hesiod: Catalogues of Women and Eoiae 1.; trans. by Hugh G. Evelyn-White in Hesiod: The Homerica Hymns and Homerica, 1914; found here in the 1936 edition, Harvard (Cambridge, MA)-Heinemann (London, England), pp. 154-155.)

Deification = Ækthǽohsis (Ektheosis; Gr. Ἐκθέωσις) Please visit this page: Deification of the Soul.

Deipnon - (Gr. δεῖπνον, ΔΕΙΠΝΟΝ) Lexicon entry: δεῖπνον, τό, meal: in Hom. sts. noonday meal; sts. = ἄριστον, morning meal = δόρπον, evening meal; later, the midday meal; later, the afternoon meal, dinner or supper: freq. in pl. 2. generally, food, provender (ed. food or animal fodder). (L&S p. 375, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Deisidaimonía - (Gr. δεισιδαιμονία, ΔΕΙΣΙΔΑΙΜΟΝΙΑ) Deisidaimonía is (Lexicon entry): fear of the Gods, religious feeling (ed. piety). 2. in a bad sense, superstition. (L&S p. p. 375, within the entries beginning with δεισιδαιμονέω, edited for simplicity.)

DeismDeism is the belief that the existence of God is self-evident, and that this knowledge is available to anyone, independent of texts, and that this divine being created the world. Deists usually believe that God does not intervene in human affairs. Deism was very popular amongst intellectuals on both sides of the Atlantic during the Enlightenment, the period from the life of Francis Bacon (1562–1626) through the 1800s. Many of the founding fathers of the United States espoused Deist views; some of these, who either were Deists or were heavily influenced by Deism, are Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Thomas Paine.

Delos - Please visit this page: Dílos.

Delphi - Please visit this page: Dælphí.

Delphic Maxims, The - The Delphic Maxims are a collection of 147 maxims on the subject of ethics and religious practice. The list was found in ancient Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί). For many who practice Ællinismós (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion, these maxims are a major source for guidance in ethical and religious matters. For both the Greek text and an English translation, you can download the Maxims here: The Delphic Maxims.

Demeter - Please visit this page: Dimítir.

Demigod - A Demigod is an Írohs (Gr. Ἥρως), a Hero, a soul which is almost a God. Please visit this page: Heroes.

Demiurge - Visit this page: Creator God - Dimiourgós.

Demiurgus of Wholes - See Dimiourgós ton Ólon.

Democracy - Despite the fears of Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) and others, Hellenic religion (and the ancient culture in general) is generally inclined towards free democracies and against tyrannies (particularly) and other forms of government. It was in the ancient Greek city-states where we see some of the first evidence of democracies. Of particular interest is the fact that Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) rules the Ninth House, that of Freedom, and that freedom, not slavery, is loved by the Gods. Plátohn, as expressed in Politeia (The Republic; Gr. Πολιτεία), believed that democracies deteriorate into tyrannies, therefore, any favorable benefits which they exhibit are not to be trusted. He believed that the ideal government is a type of monarchy with a true philosopher at the helm. This author is certain that Plátohn was correct, but until such an enlightened philosopher can be found, democracy is the best possible government which could be hoped for.

Destiny - See this page: Destiny: Míra - Pæprohmǽno - Eimarmǽni.

Deucalion - See Defkalíohn.

Diádokhos - (Diadochus; Gr. Διάδοχος, ΔΙΑΔΟΧΟΣ) Diádokhos is a successor. 2. Diádokhos was the ancient title given to the head of the Neoplatonic School in Athens. 3. Diádokhos is a title of Diónysos, i.e. successor to Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς).

- Lexicon entry: διάδοχὁς, succeeding a person in a thing. (L&S p. 393, right column, within the entries beginning with διαδοχή, edited for simplicity.)

Diakósmisis - (Diacosmesis; Gr. Διακόσμησις, ΔΙΑΚΟΣΜΗΣΙΣ) Diakósmisis is a description of creation, the natural process by which the Kósmos unfolds and generates itself in an orderly fashion.

- Lexicon entry: Diakósmisis is the orderly arrangement of the universe, especially in the Pythagorean system. (L&S p. 398, right column, amongst the entries beginning with διακοσμέω.)

- Cf. Ækpýrohsis.

Dialæktikí - (dialectic; Gr. διαλεκτική, ΔΙΑΛΕΚΤΙΚΗ) Dialæktikí is dialectic, the method of philosophical inquiry, conducted by discourse between two or more individuals, with the aim to uncover truth. Zínohn (Zeno; Gr. Ζήνων) of Ælǽa (Elea; Gr. Ελέα) is said to have been the first to use the technique in philosophy, this according to Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) as recorded by Dioyǽnis Laǽrtios (Diogenes Laertius; Gr. Διογένης Λαέρτιος) in Βίοι καὶ γνῶμαι τῶν ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εὐδοκιμησάντων (Lives of Eminent Philosophers) IX.25. Nonetheless, the word is most associated with Sohkrátis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης) and Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), as all of the writings of Plátohn are called dialogues and the principal character in most of these compositions is Sohkrátis. The usual scenario of a Platonic dialogue involves one party volunteering some kind of premise; Sohkrátis then logically questions the individual who made the premise in an investigation known as ǽlængkhos (elenchos; Gr. ἔλεγχος); such discussions often lead to absurdity, for, as a by-product, they frequently demonstrate that said individual really did not quite know what he was saying. Thus, dialæktikí is a powerful tool to uncover truth and falsehood. It could be said that dialectic, from a Platonic perspective is, ultimately, the philosophic method whereby one gains knowledge of Forms.

- Lexicon entry: διαλεκτικός III. ἡ διαλεκτική dialectic, discussion by question and answer, invented by Zeno of Elea; philosophical method. 2. the logic of probabilities. (L&S p. 401, left column, within the definitions beginning διαλεκτέον, edited for simplicity.)

Diana - Diana is the Roman name for Ártæmis.

Diánia - (dianoia; Gr. διάνοια, ΔΙΑΝΟΙΑ) Diánia is discursive reasoning, subjective comparison of things or objects in question and applying the intellect in order to obtain knowledge; it is "the discursive energy of reason; or it is that power which reasons scientifically, deriving the principles of its reasoning from intellect." (TTS XV p. 9)

- Lexicon entry: διάνοιᾰ, ἡ, thought, i.e. intention, purpose. 2. Thought, notion. II. process of thinking, though; esp. discursive thought. III. thinking faculty, intelligence, understanding. IV. thought expressed, meaning of a word or passage. V. intellectual capacity revealed in speech or action by the characters in drama. (L&S p. 405, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Dice - See Astrágalos and The Toys of Diónysos.

Dídyma - (Gr. Δίδυμα, ΔΙΔΥΜΑ, "twin.") Dídyma was an ancient oracular shrine of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) in the ancient city of Mílitos (Miletus; Gr. Μίλητος). Dídyma was founded by Vrángkhos (Branchus; Gr. Βράνχος), a son or lover of the God. Dídyma was second only to Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί) in renown, and similar to the oracle at that sanctuary, a priestess, seated over a sacred spring, made utterance in verse which was interpreted by priests who were descended from Vrángkhos; these priests were known as the Vrangkhídai (Branchidae; Gr. Βραγχίδαι). The place was destroyed in 494 BCE by the Persians; the sacred spring went dry and the oracle ceased. In 334 BCE, attempts at restoration commenced and the spring again began to flow. Much of the sanctuary was rebuilt (with new design) and, although never fully completed, the place functioned again as an oracular center. Like all the ancient temple complexes, Dídyma was closed for good with the edicts of Thæodósios I (Theodosius; Gr. Θεοδόσιος) in 379 CE forbidding the ancient religion.

Dídymi - (Gr. Δίδυμοι, ΔΙΔΥΜΟΙ) Dídymi is the ninth month of the Mystery year beginning May 21. Dídymi is the Greek equivalent of the zodiacal sign Gemini. Dídymi is ruled by mighty Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων)y. It is a month of Changing (Mætavolí; Gr. Μεταβολή).

- Lexicon entry: of the twins of the Zodiac. (L&S p. 422, right column at the very top; see definition III. of δίδυμος, edited for simplicity.)

Digænís Akrítas - See Akrítas, Diyænís.

Dikǽros - (Dicerus; Gr. Δικέρως, ΔΙΚΕΡΩΣ) Dikǽros is an epithet meaning two-horned, applied to Diónysos (Orphic Hymn 30.3) and Apóllohn (Orphic Hymn 34.25), or to any God, for all true Gods have "horns." This phenomena of the Gods is a vast effusion of Aithír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ) which flows from their heads and which appears as something like horns; thus, in iconography, horned animals are symbolic of divinity.

- Lexicon entry: δι-κέρως, ωτος, ὁ, ἡ, two-horned, h.Hom.19.2, AP6.32 (Agath.), etc.: also δίκερως, ων, Orph.Fr.274, Arist.HA499b18. (L&S p. 430, left column, within the entries beginning with δίκελλα.)

Dikaiosýni - (Gr. δικαιοσύνη, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗ) Dikaiosýni is justice, righteousness. Dikaiosýni is one of the Four Cardinal Virtues; the other three being Courage or Fortitude (Andreia; Gr. Ἀνδρεία or Thrásos; Gr. Θράσος), Temperance or Moderation (Sohphrosýni; Gr. Σωφροσύνη), and Wisdom (Phrónisis; Gr. Φρόνησις).

Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), in Politeia (The Republic; Gr. Πολιτεία), compares the Justice of the individual to the justice of the pólis (city-state; Gr. πόλις). He describes a pólis divided into three parts, the productive populace, the guardians, and the ruler. When all three do their proper job, the pólis is in harmony and in a state of justice. Likewise, in the individual, when the three parts of the soul, the appetite, the spirit, and the mind, have the accompanying virtues of temperance, courage, and wisdom, the same virtues required for the three parts of the pólis, then the soul is in harmony and is just. This view of justice being one of several presented in the dialogue. Please visit this page: Virtue in Hellenismos.

Díki - (Dike; Gr. Δίκη, ΔΙΚΗ) Díki is Justice. Díki is personified as a Goddess, and Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) in Thæogonía (Theogony; Gr. Θεογονίαs) at 901 says that she is the daughter of Thǽmis (Themis; Gr. Θέμις) and Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). Her mother, Thǽmis, is associated with Law and the order of the Kósmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος). According to this same passage of Isíodos, her sisters are Efnomía (Eunomia or Good Order; Gr. Εὐνομία) and Eiríni (Eirene or Peace; Gr. Εἰρήνη). Díki, along with her sisters, are the Órai (Horae; Gr. Ὧραι), the Seasons.

- Lexicon Entry: δίκη [ῐ], ἡ, custom, usage; normal course of nature: hence, 2. adverb. in acc. δίκην, in the way of, after the manner of. II. order, right; personified; Truth. 2. δίκη ἐστί, = δίκαιόν ἐστι. 3. Adverb. usages, δίκῃ duly, rightly. III. judgement, δίκην ἰθύντατα εἰπεῖν give judgement most righteously. IV. after Hom., of proceedings instituted to determine legal rights, hence, 1. lawsuit; prop. private suit or action. 2. trial of the case. 3. the object or consequence of the action, atonement, satisfaction, penalty; freq. δίκην or δίκας διδόναι suffer punishment, i.e. make amends; more freq. its correlative, inflict punishment, take vengeance. V. Pythag. name for three, Plu.2.381f, Theol.Ar.12; for five, ib.31. (L&S p. 430, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Díkti - (Dicte; Gr. Δίκτη, ΔΙΚΤΗ) 1. Díkti is a mountain of Kríti (Crete; Gr. Κρήτη), where there is a cave that is said to be the birthplace of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). 2. Díkti is a name of the Goddess Vritómartis (Britomartis; Gr. Βριτόμαρτις), also called Díktynna (Gr. Δίκτυννα).

Díktynna - (Gr. Δίκτυννα, ΔΙΚΤΥΝΝΑ. Etym. δίκτυον, "fishing net," or from Δίκτη, the mountain.) Díktynna, also Díkti (Dicte; Gr. Δίκτη), is an epithet of the Cretan (Minoan) Goddess Vritómartis (Britomartis; Gr. Βριτόμαρτις). She is a nymph and an attendant of Queen Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις). For this reason, Ártæmis is often called Díktynna and sometimes Díktynna is thought of as Ártæmis herself.

Kallímakhos (Callimachus; Gr. Καλλίμαχος), the Alexandrian poet, in Hymn 3 To Ártæmis, says that Vritómartis is a daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). She lived on the island of Kríti (Crete' Gr. Κρήτη) during the reign of King Mínohs (Minos; Gr. Μίνως). She was devoted to Ártæmis and was a huntress and a virgin. To escape the romantic advances of the king, she leapt from a cliff into the sea where she was caught and saved by the net of fishermen. Vritómartis was then given immortality by Ártæmis and worshiped as Díktynna, the Goddess of Nets.

Dílos - (Delos; Gr. Δήλος, ΔΗΛΟΣ) Please visit this page: Dílos.

Dimiourgós - Visit this page: Creator God - Dimiourgós.

Dimiourgós ton Ólon - (Gr.Δημιουργὸς τῶν Ὥλων, ΔΗΜΙΟΥΡΓΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΟΛΩΝ) "The Dimiourgós of Wholes. The maker of the universe is thus denominated because he produces the universe, so far as it is a whole, and likewise all the wholes it contains, by His own immediate energy, other subordinate powers co-operating with him in the production of parts. Hence he produces the universe totally and at once." (TTS XV p. 9) Please visit this page: Creator God - Dimiourgós.

Dimítir - Please visit this page: Dimítir.

Dímos - (demos; Gr. δῆμος, ΔΗΜΟΣ) - The dictionary defines dímos as the people of an ancient Greek state. 2. A dímos is one of the sub-divisions or suburbs of ancient Athens.

- Lexicon entry: δῆμος, Dor. δᾶμος (cf. infr. IV), ὁ, district, country, land. 2. the people, inhabitants of such a district. II. hence (since the common people lived in the country, the chiefs in the city), the commons, common people. 2. metaph. III. in a political sense, the sovereign people, the free citizens. 2. popular government, democracy, opp. ὀλιγαρχίη. 3. the popular assembly. IV. township, commune. (L&S, edited for simplicity.)

Dimotikí - (Gr. Δημοτική, ΔΗΜΟΤΙΚΗ) Dimotikí, Demotic Greek, is the modern vernacular of Greece, the spoken language of the Greek people. Cf. Katharévousa.

Dimitrá - Please visit this page: Dimítir.

Dioyǽnis of Sinohpéfs - (Diogenes of Sinope; Gr. Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς) (412 - 323 BCE) According to legend, the Oracle of Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί) instructed Dioyǽnis of Sinohpéfs to "deface the currency." He, along with his father, was in the business of minting coins, so Dioyǽnis attempted to follow the oracle by over-stamping the coins in his home town of Sinóhpi (Sinope; Gr. Σινώπη), rendering them valueless, and thus he was kicked out of that place and lost his reputation and fortune. He then re-thought the oracle, and took it to mean that the "currency" must mean the society. Dioyǽnis then became a philosopher who lived as an impoverished beggar, holding a lamp in daylight, in his search for an honest man. He used the dog as an example of how to lead one's life naturally, and he lived that way, wandering where he wished and sleeping where he wished (often sleeping in a large pottery). Dioyǽnis was a great critic of his society, which he saw as corrupt or misled. He is known for the many stories of his peculiar behavior in which he lived his philosophy by example, the result often being outlandish, amusing, and even repulsive. Like Sohkrátis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης), there are no writings of Dioyǽnis, although he is known to have authored many. His ideas are known through sayings attributed to him. Dioyǽnis is credited as being a founder of Kynismós (Gr. Κυνισμός), the Cynic philosophy.

Diónysos - Please visit this page: Diónysos.

Dióskouri - Please visit this page: Kástohr and Polydéfkis: The Dióskouri.

Dithýramvos - (dithyrambos; Gr. διθύραμβος, ΔΙΘΥΡΑΜΒΟΣ) - A dithýramvos was originally a hymn in honor of Diónysos, but later the term was applied to hymns for other Gods also. The word can also be used to refer to the contests where these songs are performed. Dithýramvos is also an epithet of Diónysos.

Divination - Please visit this page: Divination in Hellenismos.

Divine Consort - Please visit this page: Divine Consorts.

Divine Smile - See Arkhaïkón Meidíama.

Dodekatheism - See Dohdækathæismós.

Dodecatheon - See Dohdækáthæon.

Dohdækathæismós - (Dodekatheism; Gr. Δωδεκαθεϊσμός, ΔΩΔΕΚΑΘΕΙΣΜΟΣ) Dohdækathæismós or Olympianism is the worship the twelve Olympian Gods as supreme, while implying, as well, the worship of the entire pantheon of Gods surrounding them.

Dohdækáthæon - (Dodecatheon; Gr. Δωδεκάθεον, ΔΩΔΕΚΑΘΕΟΝ; δωδεκά, "twelve" + θεοί, "Gods") The Dohdækáthæon are the twelve Olympian Gods.

Dóxa - (Gr. Δόξα, ΔΟΞΑ) Dóxa is belief or opinion. It is from the ancient word dóxa that we have the modern words orthodoxy and heterodoxy. Dóxa can be compared to práxis (action; Gr. πρᾶξις), i.e. opinion vs action. Dóxa can be seen in contrast to æpistími (episteme or knowledge, Gr. ἐπιστήμη), opinion vs knowledge, such as described in the Politeia (Republic; Gr. Πολιτεία) of Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) 476a-480a.

- Dóxa is "OPINION. Is the last of the gnostic powers of the rational soul; and knows that a thing is, but is ignorant of the cause of it, or why it is. For the knowledge of the διότι, or why a thing is belongs to διάνοια. το επιθυμητικόν μέρος της ψυχής. The epithymetic part of the soul, or that part of the soul which is the principle of all-various desires. But desire is well defined, by the Pythagoreans, to be a certain tendency, impulse, and appetite of the soul, in order to be filled with something, or to enjoy something present, or to be disposed according to some sensitive energy. They add, that there is also a desire of the contraries to these, and this is a desire of the evacuation and absence, and of having no sensible perception of certain things." (TTS XV p. 9)

- Compare to the entry for Pístis (Gr. πίστις). Pístis can be a synonym to dóxa, depending on how it is used in a sentence. Pístis and dóxa can both refer to "belief," but only pístis can mean faith, not dóxa.

- Dóxa also has another meaning; dóxa can mean honor or glory. In this meaning of the word, you could say that the Akhillefs (Achilles; Gr. Ἀχιλλεύς) loved dóxa, i.e. glory. Cf. Klǽos and Timí.

- Lexicon entry for doxa: δόξᾰ, ἡ, expectation. II. after Hom., notion, opinion, judgement, whether well grounded or not. 2. mere opinion, conjecture. 3. fancy, vision. III. the opinion which others have of one, estimation, repute. 2. mostly, good repute, honour, glory. 3. rarely of ill repute. 4 popular repute or estimate. IV. of external appearance, glory, splendour, esp. of the Shechinah (ed. Hebrew: שכינה). (L&S p. 444, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Dræpáni - (drepane; Gr. δρεπάνη, ΔΡΕΠΑΝΗ) Dræpáni is the ancient Greek word for sickle. Cf. Adámos Dræpáni.

Drákaina - (Gr. Δράκαινα, ΔΡΑΚΑΙΝΑ, fem. of δράκων) 1. Drákaina is a she-dragon. 2. Drákaina is another name for the Pýthon (Gr. Πύθων), the serpent which Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) slew at Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί).

Dreams = Óneiri (Oneiroi; Gr. Ὄνειροι) Orphic hymn 86 is dedicated to Dreams. It is known that should it be necessary for a God to appear to a mortal, such a manifestation would occur in a dream or in the state between waking and sleeping, not in the waking state. Such an experience is called Thæopháneia (Theophania; Gr. θεοφανεια).

Drys - (drus; Gr. δρῦς, ΔΡΥΣ. Pronounced: drees.) Drys is the ancient Greek word for tree, commonly the oak tree, but the word can be used more generically.

DualismDualism is the belief that all of reality can be defined as two-natured, such as good-evil, mind-matter, etc.

Dualism, Cosmological - Cosmological dualism is the circumstance that from the Primordial Mixture arise Earth and Water, the two fundamental material substances in the Kósmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος). Please visit this page: Mystic Materialism.

Dusk or Sunset - Dusk or sunset (not midnight) is the beginning of the Hellenic religious day.

ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE

The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kosmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: Pronunciation of Ancient Greek

Transliteration of Ancient Greek

Pronouncing the Names of the Gods in Hellenismos

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