Diónysos - The Epithets II
DIÓNYSOS THE EPITHETS II
L - through - Z
ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE
Lampter - (Gr.) Dionysos the Brilliant. He had a festival at Pellene, in Achaia, which was held by night, and in which the worshippers went to his temple with lighted torches in their hands. (CM*p.182)
Laphystius - name of Dionysos, from the mount Laphystus, in Bœotia. (CM*p.182)
Lenæus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, presiding over the wine-press. (CM*p.182)
- the Latin: Lenaeus, Lenæan, Bacchic: Lenaei latices, i.e. wine, Lenaeus pater, i.e. Bacchus (LD p. 1049, center column)
Leucyanites - the name of Dionysos on the shores of the Leucyanias, a river of the Peloponnesus, running into the Alpheus. (CM*p.182)
Liber - (Latin)
- name of Dionysos, free; he was so called, either from his delivering some cities of Bœotia from slavery; or, from delivering the mind from care. To the word Liber the Romans subjoined the word Pater (Liber Pater), as though he were the father of Liberty and Joy. (CM*p.182)
- an old Italian deity, who presided over planting and fructification; afterwards identified with the Greek Bacchus. (LD p. 1056, right column, definition 3)
- Liber means free: (one) that acts according to his own will and pleasure, is his own master; free, unrestricted, unrestrained, unimpeded, unshackled; independent, frank, open, bold. (LD p. 1056, right column, definition 1)
Liknites - (Gr. λικνίτης, ΛΙΚΝΊΤΗΣ) (Latin: Liknitus)
- name of Dionysos, from the mystical van, which was carried in his festival Dionysia. (CM*p.182)
- name of Dionysos, from liknon, the winnowing-basket by which Kradiaios Dionysos was carried on her head by the Goddess Hipta to Mount Ida after he had been given birth from Zeus' thigh (genitals). (source: Dionysos by Carl Kerényi, 1976, Princeton Univ. Press, p.260)
Limneus - name of Dionysos at Limnæ, a quarter of Athens. (CM*p.182)
Lyæus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, loosing the mind from care. (CM*p.182)
Lysimǽrimnos - (lysimerimnos; Gr. λυσιμέριμνος, ΛΥΣΙΜΕΡΙΜΝΟΣ) Lexicon entry: λῡσῐμέριμνος, ον, driving care away, of Dionysus; of Hermes, Orph. H.28.6; of Artemis, Orphic hymn 36.5; of Sleep. (L&S p. 1066, right column, within the entries beginning with λυσιέθειρα, edited for simplicity.)
Lýsios-Linaios - (Lysius Lenæus; Gr. Λὐσιος-Ληναίος)
- Lexicon entry: Λὐσιος [ῡ] α, ον (Λὐσις) releasing, delivering, Λὐσιοι θεοἰ the Gods who deliver from curse or sin; esp. Λὐσιος, as an epithet of Dionysos; Λὐσιοι τελεταἰ, of Dionysos Λὐσιος; also Λὐσειος; voc. Λυσεῦ. (L&S p. 1066, edited for simplicity.)
- Lexicon entry: Ληναῖος, α, ον, (ληνὀς ῑ) belonging to the wine-press; esp. 1. epithet of Dionysos, as God of the wine-press. 2. Λἠναια (sc. ἱερἀ), τἀ, the Lenaea, an Athenian (also Rhodian) festival held in the month Ληαιὠν (i.e. Gamelion) in honour of Dionysus, at which there were dramatic contests, esp. of the Comedic Poets. 3. Λἠναιον, τὀ, the Lenaeum, the place at Athens where the Lenaea were held. (L&S p.1045, edited for simplicity.)
Mælpómænos - (Melpomenos; Gr. Μελπόμενος, ΜΕΛΠΟΜΕΝΟΣ) Mælpómænos is an epithet of Diónysos as was used in ancient Athens (source: Paus.1.2.5), meaning he who sings and dances.
Mæonides - name of Dionysos, from Mæonia. (CM*p.182)
Mákar - (Gr. μάκαρ, ΜΑΚΑΡ. Adj. masc. & fem. nom. sing.) Dionysos is mákar, blessed, as are all the Gods. (Orph. Hymn 30.8)
- Lexicon entry: μάκαρ [v. infr.], ᾰρος, ὁ, also μάκαρς; μάκαρ as fem. μάκαιρα :— blessed, happy, prop. epith. of the Gods, as opp. mortal men, μάκαρες the Blessed Ones; μ. ὀλίζονες lesser Gods—In this sense always in pl., exc. in addressing single Gods; μάκαιρα, of Persephone. II. of men, blest, fortunate; esp. wealthy. III. esp. μάκαρες, οἱ, the blessed dead; μακάρων νῆσοι the Islands of the Blest. IV. Sup. μακάρτατος; μακάρων μακάρτατε, of Zeus. (L&S p. 1073, right column, edited for simplicity.)
Melpomenos - See Mælpómænos.
Merorraphes - (Greek: Μηροῤῥαϕἠς, ΜΗΡΟΡΡΑΦἨΣ) Mærorraphæs = Mærotraphæs, thigh-bred, of Dionysos. (L&S p.1129, right column: Μηροτρᾰϕἠς)
Merotraphes - (Greek: Μηροτρᾰϕἠς, ΜΗΡΌΤΡΑΦἨΣ) Mærotraphæs = Mærorraphæs, thigh-bred, of Dionysos. (L&S p.1129, right column)
Melanaigis - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, clothed in black goat-skin. Melanthius, king of Athens, when on the point of fighting with Xanthus, king of Bœotia, pretended that he saw, at Xanthus' back, a person habited in a black goat-skin. Xanthus, looking back, was slain by Melanthius, who erected a temple to Bacchus, under the title ofMelanaigis. He was also worshipped under this name at Hermione, where games were annually celebrated in his honor, and prizes distributed to the best musician, swimmer, and rower. (CM*p.182)
Melanegis - same as Melanaigis.
Melanthides - same as Melanaigis.
Meliastes - name of Dionysos, from a fountain of that name. (CM*p.182)
Milichius - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from his having first planted the fig. (CM*p.182)
Mœnoles - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, furious. (CM*p.182)
Morychus - See Mórykhos.
Mórykhos - (Morychus; Gr. Μόρῠχος, ΜΟΡΥΧΟΣ) Μόρῠχος, ὁ, epith. of Dionysus in Sicily, from μορύσσω, because his face was smeared with wine lees (ed. lees are deposits of residual yeast at the bottoms of the barrels of wine) at the vintage: prov., μωρότερος Μορύχου Sophr.94. (L&S p. 1147, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- name of Dionysos, smearing; defiling: under this name he was worshipped by the Sicilians, who, in the season of vintage, were accustomed to smear his statues with sweet wine and figs. (CM*p.182)
Moses - A peculiar old theory: "Others think that Bacchus is Moses, because many things in the fable of one seem derived from the history of the other: For, first, some feign that he was born in Egypt, and presently shut up in an ark, and thrown upon the waters as Moses was. 2. The surname of Bimater, which belongs to Bacchus, may be ascribed to Moses, who, besides one mother by nature, had another by adoption, King Pharaoh's daughter. 3. They were both beautiful men, brought up in Arabia, good soldiers and had women in their armies. 4. Orpheus directly styles Bacchus a law-giver, and calls him Moses, and further attributes to him the two Tables of the Law. 5. Besides, Bacchus was called Bicornis; and accordingly, the face of Moses appeared double-horned when he came down from the mountain, where he had spoken to God; the rays of glory that darted from his brow, resembling the sprouting out of horns. 6. As snakes were sacrificed, and a dog given to Bacchus as a companion, to Moses had this companion Caleb, which in Hebrew signifies a dog. 7. As the Bacchæ brought water from a rock, by striking it with their thyrsus, and the country wherever they came flowed with wine, milk, and honey, to the land of Canaan, into which Moses conducted the Israelites, not only flowed with milk and honey, but with wine also; as appears from that large bunch of grapes which two men carried upon a staff betwixt them. 8. Bacchus dried up the rivers Orontes and Hydaspes, by striking them with his thyrsus and passed through them, as Moses passed through the Red Sea. 9. It is said also, that a little ivy-stick, thrown down by one of the Bacchæ upon the ground, crept like a dragon, and twisted itself about an oak. And, 10. that the Indians once were all covered with darkness, whilst those Bacchæ enjoyed a perfect day." The text goes on to state that the ancient "inventors of fables" stole these and many other stories from the Christian literature. (The Pantheon, Representing the Fabulous Histories of the Heathen Gods, and Most Illustrious Heroes, in Short, Plain, and Familiar Method, By Way of Dialogue. By Andrew Tooke, 1787, p.72)
- Moses was thought not to only be Dionysos, but a major source of the wisdom of Plato and others: "This (ed. that Plato learned much of his philosophy from Moses) was a commonly held view of Hellenistic and Byzantine philosophers. From Philo the Jew of Alexandria in the first century AD down to Michael Psellos in the eleventh, it was a commonplace that Plato drew his wisdom from the Pentateuch, and that he could be regarded in the words of Numenius of Apamea, as an 'Atticizing Moses.' " (George Gemistos Plethon: The Last of the Hellenes by C.M. Woodhouse, 1986, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 64-65)
Myriómorphos - (Gr. Μυριόμορφος) ον, of countless shapes, of Dionysus, AP9.524.13; of Apollo, ib.525.13; of Isis, APl.4.264. II. μυριόμορφον, τό, = Ἀχίλλειος, Ps.-Dsc.4.36. (L&S)
Mysius - name of Dionysos, from Mysia. (CM*p.182)
Mystes - (Greek: Μὐστης, ΜΥΣΤΗΣ) one initiated. (L&S p. 1156, right column); name of Dionysos (Paus. 8.54.5; the Temple of the Mystic Dionysos).
- Mysta or Mystes, (Latin, after the Greek) a priest of the secret rites of divine worship, a priest of the mysteries. (LD p. 1183, right column)
Mysterius - name of Dionysos in Argolis. (CM*p.182)
Narthecophorus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from his carrying a ferula or cane. (CM*p.182)
Nebrodes - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from the fawn-skins which the Bacchanals wore in the celebration of the orgies. (CM*p.182)
Nómios - (Nomius; Gr. νόμιος, ΝΟΜΙΟΣ) Nómios is an epithet of pastoral Gods, i.e. of pastures and flocks, such as Apóllohn, Hermes, Aristaios, and Pan.
- Lexicon entry: νόμιος, α, ον: (νομεύς):— of shepherds, ν. θεός the pastoral God, i.e. Pan; of Apollo, as shepherd of Admetus, Call.Ap.47; of Aristaeus; of Hermes; of Dionysus; of the Nymphs, Orph.H. 51.12; but also, God of Law: of Zeus (ed. νόμος being Law). (L&S, edited for simplicity.)
Nyktælios - (Nyctelius; Gr. Νυκτέλιος, ΝΥΚΤΈΛΙΟΣ), ον, (νύξ) nightly, epith. of Dionysus, from his nightly festivals, AP9.524.14, Plu.2.389a, Paus.1.40.6. 2 νυκτέλιον, τό, night-festival, Ἴσιδος POxy.525 (ii A.D.): in pl., festival of Dionysus Νυκτέλιος, Plu.2.291a. (L&S p. 1183, right column) It should be understood that night in ancient Greek mythology is one of the great keys; night refers to an area of which is unknown and difficult to be understood by ordinary mortals. Night, as a key, does not mean actual darkness, since all the Gods are beings of great enlightenment.
- name of Dionysos, from the celebration of his orgies by night. (CM*p.182)
Nyctelius - See Nyktælios.
Nyktipolos - (Gr. Νυκτιπόλος, ΝΥΚΤΙΠΌΛΟΣ) roaming, by night, Βάκχαι E.Ion718 (lyr.) ; ἔφοδοι, of Persephone, ib.1049 (lyr.) ; epith. of Zagreus, Id.Fr.472.11 (anap.) ; of Artemis, Corn.ND 34: as Subst., coupled with Μάγοι, Βάκχοι, Λῆναι, Heraclit.14. (L&S p. 1184, left column, top of the page, within the entries beginning from the previous page, starting with νυκτῐ-πᾰταιπλάγιος) It should be understood that night in ancient Greek mythology is one of the great keys; night refers to an area of which is unknown and difficult to be understood by ordinary mortals. Night, as a key, does not mean actual darkness, since all the Gods are beings of great enlightenment.
Nysæus - name of Dionysos, from Nyssa, his nurse; or from the town Nysa. (CM*p.182)
Odrysius - name of Dionysos, Thracian; from his having introduced the culture of the vine into (Odrysia) Thrace. (CM*p.182)
Ogygius - name of Dionysos, Theban; from Ogygia, one of the gates of Thebes. (CM*p.182)
Ohmádios - (Omadius; Gr. Ὠμάδιος, ΩΜΑΔΙΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ὠμάδιος [ᾰ], ὁ, (ὠμός) as epith. of Dionysus, = ὠμηστής, because he had human sacrifices at Chios and Tenedos, Orph.H.30.5, Euelp. ap.Porph.Abst.2.55; ὠ. χοροί dances in his honour. 2. raw. (L&S p. 2033, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- name of Dionysos, eating raw meat. In the festivals celebrated in his honor in the islands of Chios and Tenedos, it is said that even a human being was sacrificed, whose limbs were torn piecemeal by the Bacchanals. In these festivals the priests (say some) ate, or rather pretended to eat, raw flesh. It was also customary for them to put serpents in their hair, and in all their behavior to counterfeit madness and distraction. (CM*p. 182)
Omadius - See Ohmádios.
Omestes = Ohmádios; See above.
Omaphagus - same as Omadius above. (CM*p.182)
Omistís = Ohmádios; See above.
Orǽskios - (Orescius; Gr. Ὀρέσκιος, ΟΡΕΣΚΙΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ὀρέσκιος , ον, = sq., of Dionysus, AP9.524.16. (L&S p. 1247, right column.) Middle Liddel: overshadowed by mountains.
Orescius - See Orǽskios.
Oreus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, frequenter of mountains; his worship being performed on mountains. (CM*p.183)
Orthius - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, upright; or sober: a name given to Bacchus by Amphictyon, whom that God had taught to temper wine with water. (CM*p.183)
Pacha - Pacha is Etruscan for Vakkhos (Bacchus).
Paián - (Paeon; Gr. Παιάν, ΠΑΙΑΝ. Pronounced pay-AHN.) Lexicon entry: Παιάν, ᾶνος, ὁ, Ep. Παιήων, ονος, Att., Ion. Παιών, ῶνος (v. sub fin.), Aeol. Πάων, ονος—Paean or Paeon, the physician of the Gods. 2. title of Apollo; also of other Gods, Ἀσκληπιὸς; of Zeus at Rhodes; of Dionysus; of Helios. 3. physician, healer. b. saviour, deliverer. II. choral song, addressed to Apollo or Artemis, in thanksgiving for deliverance from evil; addressed to other Gods, as to Poseidon after an earthquake. 2. song of triumph after victory. 3. any solemn song or chant, esp. on beginning an undertaking. (L&S, abbreviated for clarity)
Pais - (Gr. Παῖς, ΠΑΙΣ) Pais is word meaning child and in context refers to Zagréfs (Zagreus; Gr. Ζαγρεύς) who is designated with this name on pottery depicting him found in the sanctuary of the Káveiri (Cabeiri; Gr. Κάβειροι) at Thívai (Thebes; Gr. Θῆβαι) in Viohtía (Boeotia; Gr. Βοιωτία). (Source: Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952/1993, Princeton Univ. Press [Princeton, NJ USA], pp. 123-124.)
Pamphagus - (Gr.) Dionysos, the all-devourer. (CM*p.183)
Panhellinon - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, perfectly bright. (CM*p.183)
Patroüs - (Gr. Πατρῷος, ΠΑΤΡΩΟΣ) Paternal, father. "Polyidus also built the sanctuary of Dionysus, and dedicated a wooden image that in our day is covered up except the face, which alone is exposed. By the side of it is a Satyr of Parian marble made by Praxiteles. This Dionysus they call Patroüs (Paternal)..." (Paus. Attica, XLIII.5; tr. Jones, vol. I, p.233)
Pericionius - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, worshipped in the peristyle. (CM*p.183)
Phanac - name of Dionysos among the Mysians. (CM*p.183)
Phanaces - name of Dionysos among the Mysians. (CM*p.183)
Pheleon - name of Dionysos, abounding in fruit. (CM*p.183)
Pheleus - name of Dionysos, abounding in fruit. (CM*p.183)
Philommeidís - (philommeides; Gr. φιλομμειδὴς, ΦΙΛΟΜΜΕΙΔΗΣ. Adj.) Lexicon entry: φῐλομμειδής, ές, poet. for φιλομειδής, laughter-loving, epith. of Aphrodite, Od.8.362, Il.3.424, Hes.Th.989: of Dionysus. (L&S p. 1937, right column, within the entries beginning from the left column, edited for simplicity.)
Phohsphóros - (phosphorus; Gr. φωσφόρος, ΠΦΣΦΟΡΟΣ) Lexicon entry: φωσφόρος (parox.), ον, poet. φαοσφόρος, φαεσφόρος Call.Dian.204, etc.:— bringing or giving light; φ. ἀστήρ (ed. star), of Dionysus at the Mysteries. b. Subst., ὁ φ. (sc. ἀστήρ), the light-bringer, i.e. the morning-star, a name specially given to the planet Venus. 2. of the eye. II. torch-bearing, epith. of certain deities, esp. of Hecate; φ. θεά (sc. Ἄρτεμις); of Hephaestus, Orph.H.66.3. III. φωσφόρος, ἡ, torch-bearer, title of a priestess, Κλεοπάτρας θεᾶς. (L&S p. 1968, right column, within the entries beginning with φωσφόρεια, edited for simplicity.)
Ploutodótis (Gr. Πλουτοδότης, ΠΛΟΥΤΟΔΟΤΗΣ) Zefs Ploutodótis is Zefs, the giver of riches. This is also an epithet of Diónysos.
Polites - (Gr.) name of Diónysos, a citizen; his name in Arcadia. (CM*p.183)
Polyhymnus - See Polýÿmnos.
Polývoulos - (Polybulus; Gr. Πολύβουλος, ΠΟΛΥΒΟΥΛΟΣ) Diónysos is polývoulos, exceedingly wise. (Orph. Hymn 30.6)
- Lexicon entry: πολῠβουλος, ον, much-counselling, exceeding wise, Ἀθήνη Il.5.260. (L&S p. 1437, left column, within the entries beginning on the previous page with πολῦανώδῠνος, edited for simplicity.)
Polýÿmnos - (polyhymnus; Gr. πολύυμνος, ΠΟΛΥΥΜΝΟΣ) Lexicon entry: πολύυμνος, ον, abounding in songs, much sung of, famous, θεὸς π., of Dionysus. (L&S p. 1445, left column, within the entries starting from the previous page, edited for simplicity.)
Prohtógonos - (Protogonus; Gr. Πρωτόγονος, ΠΡΩΤΟΓΟΝΟΣ. Adjective.) Diónysos is called Prohtógonos, First-born = Φάνης, in Orph.Hymn 30.2.
- Lexicon entry: πρωτόγονος, ον, also η, ον Paus.1.31.4:—first-born, firstling; φοῖνιξ π. first-born, first-created; of a child. 2. of rank, π. οἶκοι high-born houses. 3. epith. of Gods, Dam.Pr.123 bis; so Πρωτογόνη, ἡ, name of Persephone, Paus. l.c. II. parox. πρωτογόνος, ἡ, bringing forth first. (L&S p. 1545, left column, within the entries beginning with πρωτόᾰλος from the previous page, edited for simplicity.)
Protrygæus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, so called from new wine. (CM*p.183)
Protryges - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, so called from new wine. (CM*p.183)
Psilas - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from a Doric word signifying the extremity of a bird's wing; as if men were hurried away and elevated by wine, as birds by their wings. (CM*p.183)
Psykhodaïktís - (Psychodaïktes; Gr. Ψυχοδαϊκτής, ΨΥΧΟΔΑΙΚΤΗΣ) Lexicon entry: ψῡχοδᾰϊκτής, οῦ, ὁ, destroying or killing the soul, epith. of Dionysus, AP9.524.24. (L&S p. 2028, left column)
Psykhoplanís - (Psychoplanes; Gr. Ψυχοπλανής, ΨΥΧΟΠΛΑΝΗΣ) Lexicon entry: ψῡχοπλᾰνής, ές, making the soul wander, epith. of Dionysus. (L&S p. 2028, left column, within the entries beginning with ψυχολιπής.)
Pyrigenes - (Greek: Πυριγενης, ΠΥΡΙΓΕΝΗΣ) name of Dionysos (see Ignigena), born in or from fire (L&S p.1557, left column within the definitions of πῠρῐ-βἠτης) after his mother Semele beheld the glory of Zeus and caught ablaze, Zeus rescued Bacchus from her womb and bound him in his thigh, from which he was born.
Pyrogenæs - (Greek: Πῠρογενἠς, ΠῨΡΟΓΈΝἨΣ) fire-born, of Dionysos. (L&S p.1558, left column)
Pyrosporos - (Greek: Πῠρόσπορος, ΠῨΡΌΣΠΟΡΟΣ)
- born of fire, epithet of Dionysos (L&S p.1558, left column)
- conceived in fire, Pyrispore (Greek: Πυρἰσπορε, ΠΥΡἸΣΠΟΡΕ) [Orphic Hymn 52. To the God of Triennial Feasts]
Rectus - (Latin) (See Orthius, meaning upright.) (CM*p.183)
- the Latin rectus, a, um, Part. and P. a., from rego, (LD p.1537, left column) to keep straight or from going wrong,to lead straight; to guide, conduct, direct. (LD p.1552, left column) II. rectus, led straight along, drawn in a straight line. (LD p.1552, middle column)
Sabadius - see Savazios.
Sabazius - See Savazios.
Saotas - (Gr.) Dionysos the Preserver; his name at Trœzene. (CM*p.183)
Savazios, Sabazius, or Sabdius - (Gr. Σαβἀζιος, ΣΑΒἈΖΙΟΣ) name of Dionysos among the Sabæ, a people of Thrace. One of the mysterious rites of this God was to let a snake slip down the bosom of the person to be initiated, which was taken out below. (CM*p.183)
- Σᾰβάζιος, ὁ, (Σαβός) a Phrygian deity, whose Mysteries resembled the τελεταί of Dionysus; hence afterwards taken as a name of Dionysus himself. II. Adj. Σᾰβάζιος, α, ον, Bacchic. (L&S p.1579, left column)
- Sabazius (collat. form Sebazius, Sebadius or Sabadius, Macr. S. 1, 18; App. M. 8, p.213), 1i, m., = Σαβἀζιος, a surname. I. Of Bacchus, --Hence, Sabazia, orum, n. a festival in honor of Sabazius or Bacchus. II. Of Jupiter: Sabazii Jovis cultus. (LD p.1609, center column)
- In the Orphic hymn, Sabazios is called the son of Kronos (Zeus): "Hear me, father Sabazios, son of Kronos, illustrious God. You sewed into your thigh Bacchic Dionysos,..." (Orphic Hymn 48. To Sabazios, translated by Apostolos N. Athanassakis, The Orphic Hymns, 1977; found in the 1988 Scholars Press edition on p.65)
- words related to Sabazios:
σᾰβάζω (sabazo) = εὐάζω. (L&S p.1579, right column) εὐάζω, cry εὐαί, in honour of Bacchus. (L&S, p.705, right column)
σᾰβαῖ (sabai), a Bacchanalian cry, like εὐαί, εὐοῖ. (L&S p.1579, right column)
Sebadius - see Sabazius.
Sebazius - see Sabazius.
Servator - (Latin) name of Dionysos, the same as Saotas (Preserver), above. (CM*p.183)
- servator, I. One who gives attention to any thing, a watcher, observer. II. a preserver, deliverer, savior (the prevailing signif. of the word; class). (LD p.1682, center column)
Successor - See Kliromonos.
Sycites - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from his having transformed his favorite nymph Syca into a fig-tree. (CM*p.183)
Tauriceps - (Latin) name of Dionysos (see Tauricornis.) (BNP p.142 within the entry for Bugenes)
Tauricornis - (Latin)
- name of Dionysos; under this name he was represented with the horn of a bull in his hand, which was, in fact, a drinking cup made in the form of a bull's horn. (CM*p.183)
- Taurus, a bull + cornu, a horn; therefore, Tauricornis or Tauricornous means horned like a bull. (The Century dictionary: an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language, Vol. VI, Part 21; edited by William Dwight Whitney, 1891, p. 6199)
- [taurus-cornu], bull-horned, Tauricornous, an epithet of Jupiter. (LD p.1844, left column)
Tauriformis - (Latin) name of Dionysos, from the resemblance of a man overcome with wine to a furiousbull. (CM*p.183)
- [taurus-forma], bull-shaped, tauriform, an epithet of the river Aufidus. (LD p.1844, left column)
Taurocephalus - See Tavrokǽphalos.
Tauroceros - See Tavrokǽros.
Taurophagus - See Tavrophágos.
Tauropos - See Tavrohpós.
Tavrokǽphalos - (Taurocephalus; Gr. Ταυροκέφαλος, ΤΑΥΡΟΚΕΦΑΛΟΣ) name of Dionysos, bull-headed. (CM*p.183)
Tavrokǽros - (Tauroceros; Gr. Ταυροκέρος, ΤΑΥΡΟΚΕΡΟΣ) name of Dionysos (See Tauricornis.) (CM*p.183)
Tavrophágos - (Taurophagus; Gr. Ταυροφάγος, ΤΑΥΡΟΦΑΓΟΣ) name of Dionysos, bull-devourer. (CM*p.183)
Tavrohpós - (Tauropos; Gr. ταυρωπός, ΤΑΥΡΩΠΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ταυρωπός, όν, (ὤψ) bull-faced, Orph.H.30.4: neut. as Adv., ταυρωπὸν ἀποβλεψάμενοι: fem. ταυρῶπις, Nonn.D.32.69; epith. of Isis in Samothrace. (L&S p. 1761, left column, edited for simplicity.)
Thæodaisios - (Theodaiseus; Gr. Θεοδαίσιος, ΘΕΟΔΑΙΣΙΟΣ) Thæodaisios is an epithet of Diónysos, likely as he who presides over the Dionýsia.
- Lexicon entry: θεοδαίσια, τά, Cret. name for the Διονύσια; also, at Rhodes. II. Θεοδαίσιος, ὁ, epith. of Dionysus; also, name of month found in various forms: Cret. θιοδαίσιος; in Cos, Rhodes, θευδαίσιος; at Mytilene, θεδαίσιος (Delos). (L&S p. 790, left column, edited for simplicity.)
Theoinus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, God of Wine. (CM*p.183)
Thesmophoros or Thesmoforos - (Gr. Θεσμοφόρος, ΘΕΣΜΟΦΌΡΟΣ) Dionysos the law-giver. (Orphic Hymn 42. To Mise, line 1)
Thiasóhtis - (Thiasotes; Gr. θιασώτης, ΘΙΑΣΩΤΗΣ) Lexicon entry: θῐᾰσώτης, ου, ὁ. 3. of Bacchus, leader of θίασοι, Anthologia Graeca 9.524.9. (L&S p. 801, right column at the top from left column amongst the entries beginning with θιασαρχέω.)
Thriambus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from the origin of triumphs being ascribed to his splendid return from India. (CM*p.183)
Thyoneus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from his mother Semele, who was called Thyone; or, as receivingsacrifices. (CM*p.183)
Thyonidas - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, from his mother Semele, who was called Thyone; or, as receiving sacrifices. (CM*p.183)
Torculanus - (Latin) name of Dionysos, from torcular, a wine-press. (CM*p.183)
- torcular, A press used in making wine or oil. (LD p.1878, right column)
Trágos - (Τράγος, ΤΡΑΓΟΣ) Trágos literally means "he-goat" and is a name sometimes used for Diónysos, because the Aithír sparks and flows from his horns so brilliantly. Trágos is the root from which we derive the word tragedy, from τραγῳδία, the "he-goat song," and, in antiquity, the choruses of men in goat masks would sing songs to Diónysos.
Triætirikós - (Trietericus; Gr. Τριετηρικός, ΤΡΙΕΤΗΡΙΚΟΣ) Triætirikós is Diónysos of the three-year festivals (τριετηρίς) which were in reality held every two years (because the ancient Greeks counted inclusively). He is called this in Orphic Hymn 52 (title) and referred to in Orph. Hymn 30.5.
- Lexicon entry: τρῐετηρικός, ή, όν, belonging to a τριετηρίς, παντέλεια Plu.2.671d; ἀγῶνες τρῐετηρικός (ed. 3-year ἀγών, i.e. contest) IG5(1).662.6 (Laconia), cf. POxy.2105.3 (ii A. D.). (L&S p. 1818, right column, within the entries beginning with τριετήρ.)
Trietericus - See Triætirikós.
Trígonos - (Trigonus; Gr. Τρίγονος, ΤΡΙΓΟΝΟΣ) Trígonos means thrice-born Diónysos, born of Pæsæphóni, then born of Sæmǽli, and born from the leg of Zefs. (Orphic hymn 30.2)
Triumphus - (Latin) name of Dionysos, the same as the Greek Thriambus (triumphs being ascribed to his splendid return from India) above. (CM*p.183)
- (ed. from) triumphus, I. TRIVMPE, an exclamation used in the solemn processions of the Arval brothers: ENOS MARMOR IVVATO. --II. A solemn and magnificent entrance of a general into Rome after having obtained an important victory, a triumphal procession , triumph. --B. Trop. a triumph, victory. (LD p. 1903, left column)
Urotalt - name of Dionysos among the Arabians. (CM*p.183)
V, the letter - Β β ϐ Víta (Beta; Gr. βήτα) - Greek words beginning with the letter Víta (β) are, generally, transliterated with the letter V on this website where, like the Greeks, we follow the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek. Please visit this page: Pronouncing Ancient Greek.
Væn Sæmǽli - (Ben Semele; Gr. Βεν Σεμέλη, ΒΕΝ ΣΕΜΈΛΗ) [ed. Ben of Hebrew or Egyptian origin? ...Ben = son, as in Benjamin, Hebrew Binymin, 'son of the south or the right hand']
- Dionysos, son of Semele. (CM*p.180)
- "To commemorate the ancient state of mankind, he (ed. Dionysos) appeared under the symbol of a child, with a seraph by his side, and assumed the name of Ben-Semele ('child of representation,' note to text)." (The New Pantheon, or, Fabulous History of the Heathen Gods, Goddesses, Heroes,... by Samuel Boyse, 1771, p. 126)
Vakkhéfs - (Baccheus; Gr. Βακχἑύς, ΒΑΚΧΕΥΣ) = Βάκχος (only in lyr.), Orph.H.45.2, etc. (L&S p. 303, right column, within the entries beginning with Βακχεία, edited for simplicity.)
Vakkheion Ánax - (Baccheion Anax; Gr. Βακχεῖον Ἄναξ) Vákkhic lord. From his name Vákkhos (Bacchus; Gr. Βάκχος) + ἄναξ, "king." Orph. Hymn 30.2.
Vákkheios - (Baccheos; Gr. Βάκχἑιος, ΒΆΚΧἙΙΟΣ) "(Herod. iv. 79; Soph. Oid. Tyr.1185) A form of Bakchos, and hence used adjectively, e.g., 'the Bakchik grape.' (Soph.Thyestes en Sikyoni, Frag. viii.) The God was worshipped at Korinthos as Bakcheios the Exciter-to-phrensy." (GDM2 p.5)
- Lexicon entry: Βάκχειος, or Βακχεῖος, α, ον, also Βάκχιος, or Βακχεῖος, α, ον (to suit the metre), fem. ος:— of or belonging to Bacchus and his rites, hence, frenzied, rapt. II. as Subst., Βάκχιος, ὁ, = Βάκχος. 2. Βάκχια or -εῖα, τά, v. Βακχεῖον. 3. Βακχεῖος (sc. πούς), ὁ, the bacchius, a metrical foot of three syllables. (L&S p. 303, right column, within the entries beginning with Βακχἑία, edited for simplicity.)
Vakkhiakós - (Gr. Βακχἑιακός, ΒΑΚΧἙΙΑΚΌΣ) = Βακχεῖος. See Vákkheios.
Vákkhos - (Bacchus; Gr. Βάκχος, ΒΆΚΧΟΣ ) = Diónysos.
- The Romans call him Bacchus, but the word is derived from the Greek Βάκχος.
- Lexicon entry: Bacchus, name of Diónysos. 2. Ζεὺς Β. Epigr.Gr.1035.22. II. wine. III. Bacchanal: generally anyone inspired, frantic. 2. branch carried by initiates. IV. a kind of grey mullet. V. garland, βάκχοισιν κεφαλὰς περιάνθεσιν ἐστέψαντο Nic.Fr.130. VI. = κλαυθμός (Phoenician) (L&S, edited for simplicity, p. 303)
- "He is also called both by Greeks and Romans Bacchus (Βἀκχος), that is, the noisy or riotous God, which was originally a mere epithet or surname of Dionysus, but does not occur till after the time of Herodotus." (DGRBM, Vol. 1, p. 1046, entry: Dionysos)
- son of Jupiter and a Theban woman, Semele; God of wine (as such also called Liber, the deliverer, Lysæus, the care-dispeller; as intoxicating and inspiring, he is God of poets) (LD p. 218, right column).
Vassaréfs - (Bassareus; Gr. βασσαρεύς, ΒΑΣΣΑΡΕΥΣ)
- name of Dionysos, from Bassarus, a town of Lydia, where he had a temple; from a sort of long robe, termed bassaris (ed. Gr. βασσαρἰς, also called bassara, βασσἀρα), made of fox-skin, which Bacchus carries in his expeditions; from Bassare, one of his nurses; from a buskin worn by him; from the Hebrew word bassar, to gather grapes; or, according to Herodotus, from the animals bassaria, which drew his chariot. (CM*p.180)
- "Bassareus. (Hor. Car. I. xviii. 11.) This epithet is manifold in meaning, and signifies (1) That which is spread abroad, i.e., matter or the material world; (2) The vintage gatherer; and (3) is equivalent in Hellenik acceptation to Spotted-skin-wearer, the name Bassara being given to the Thrakian Bakchai clad in skins. (Vide sup. IV. i. 2; V. i.)" (GDM2 p.6)
- Lexicon entry: βασσαρεύς, έως, ὁ, name of Bacchus, Corn.ND30, Hor. Od.1.18.11. (L&S)
Vaváktis - (Babactes; Gr. Βαβáκτης, ΒΑΒΑΚΤΗΣ)
- Dionysos the Loquacious (ed. talkative). (CM*p.180)
- reveler, of Pan; of Dionysos (L&S p.300, left column)
Votryiphóros - (Botryephorus; Gr. Βοτρυηφόρος, ΒΟΤΡΥΗΦΟΡΟΣ) Dionysos is Votryiphóros, laden with grapes. (Orph. Hymn 30.5)
- Lexicon entry: βοτρῠηφόρος, ον, grape-bearing, ἄμπελος (ed. vine or vineyard) Ph.1.681.
Votryókozmos - (Botryokosmos; Gr. Βοτρυόκοσμος, ΒΟΤΡΥΟΚΟΣΜΟΣ) Lexicon entry: βοτρῠόκοσμος, ον,
decked with grapes, Orph.H.52.11. (L&S p. 323, right column, within the entries beginning with βοτρῠόδωρος)
- "The Grape-decked. The Kosmos is the universe in orderly arrangement, as opposed to the Indigesta Moles or Unfashioned Mass of Chaos; and the epithet in question, although I do not say that such was its original meaning, aptly exemplifies the connection between the grape and wine, symbol of all life and passion, and the spirit of kosmic life. Thus understood, it is equivalent to Lord-of-the-universal wine-life." (GDM2 p. 6)
Vræphoktónos - (Brephoctonus; Gr. Βρεφοκτόνος, ΒΡΕΦΟΚΤΟΝΟΣ)
- Vræphoktónos is an epithet of Diónysos meaning he who kills babies, meaning that he destroys the childish and foolish misunderstanding of the worl d.
- Lexicon entry: βρεφοκτόνος, ον, childmurdering, Lyc.229. (L&S p. 329, right column, within the entries beginning with βρεφοκομἐω)
Vresagenes or Bræsagenes - (Greek: Βρησαγενἠς, ΒΡΗΣΑΓΕΝἨΣ) title of Dionysos (L&S p.330)
- Dionysos named after Vrisa, Vriseos on the island of Lesbos. Genes means "born of", therefore, born in (Brisa, Bræsa) Vrisa.
Vreseus or Bræseus - (Greek: Βρησεὐς, ΒΡΗΣΕΥΣ) title of Dionysos (L&S p.330, within the definitions of Βρησαγενἠς)
Vressaios or Bræssaios - (Greek: Βρησσαῖος, ΒΡΗΣΣΑΙΟΣ) title of Dionysos (L&S p.330, within the definitions of Βρησαγενἠς)
Vrisæos, Brisæus or Brisaios - (Greek: Βρισαῖος, ΒΡΙΣΑΙΟΣ)
- name of Dionysos, pressing heavily; from his having invented the process of treading the grapes; from the name of his nurse; from his discovering the uses of honey and wine; or, from the promontory of Brix, in the isle of Lesbos. (CM*p.180)
- a surname of Dionysos, derived from mount Brisa in Lesbos (Steph.Byz. e. v. Βρἰσα, ΒΡἸΣΑ), or from a nymph Brisa, who was said to have brought up the God. (Schol. ad Pers. Sat. i. 76.) (DGRBM p.504, right column)
- "Brisaios. (Androtion, Frag. lix.; cf. Persius, Sat. i. 76.) A name said to have been given to the God from Brisa, a promontory of Lesbos, where he had a temple. It is probably of Semitic origin (Kendrick, Phoenicia, 100.), and is applied to Dionysos as the discoverer of honey (Cf. Eur. Bak. 142 et seg.), which, as a natural production of the fostering earth, is sacred to him." (GDM2 p.6)
Vriseus or Briseus - (Greek: Βρῑσεὐς, ἐως; written Βρεισ-, ii A.D.)
- title of Dionysos at Smyrna (L&S p. 330, right column)
- the father of Briseis, son of Ardys and king of the Leleges at Pedasus or a priest at Lyrnessus. (Homer Iliad i.392, ii. 689) Briseus is said to have hanged himself when he lost his daughter. (DGRBM p.504)
Vrómios - (Bromios; Gr. βρόμιος, ΒΡΟΜΙΟΣ) Lexicon entry: βρόμιος, α, ον, (βρόμος) sounding, φόρμιγξ; noisy, boisterous, whence, II. Βρόμιος, ὁ, as a name of Bacchus; Βρομίου πῶμα, i.e. wine. 2. Adj. Βρόμιος, α, ον, Bacchic:—also Βρομιώδγς, ες, Bacchic. (L&S p. 330, right column, within the entries beginning with βρομιάζομαι, edited for simplicity.)
Vouyænís - (bugenes; Gr. βουγενής, ΒΟΥΓΕΝΗΣ)
- Lexicon entry: βουγενής, ές, = βοηγενής (ed. born of an ox, of bees); of bees (ed. as in the myth of Aristaios); Διόνυσος Plu.2.364f: metaph. of souls, Porph.Antr.18. (L&S p. 324, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- name of Dionysos, either from his being born of a bull; from his being represented with horns, as the inventor of husbandry; or, from his being the son of Zeus-Ammon, who is depicted with horns. (CM*p.181)
Voukǽrohs - (buceros; Gr. Βουκέρως, ΒΟΥΚΕΡΩΣ) horned like an ox or cow; Ἴακχος Sophocles Fr.959. (L&S p. 324, left column, within the entries beginning with βουκέντης, edited for simplicity.).
Xantus - name of Dionysos. (See Melanaigis) (CM*p.183)
Zagréfs - (Zagreus; Gr. Ζαγρεύς, ΖΑΥΡΕΥΣ. Etym. ζωός "alive, living" + ἀγρέω - "take, seize." ) Zagréfs is the son of Pærsæphóni (Persephone; Gr. Περσεφόνη) and Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) who was cut up and sacrificed by the Titánæs (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες). His heart was retrieved from which was born Diónysos. (See The Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony: The Sixth King)
- name of Dionysos, making many captives. (CM*p.183)
- Zagréfs: "son of Zeus and Persephone, slain by the Titans and resuscitated as Dionysus" (L&S, p. 752)
- The name Zagréfs is related to the word ζωγρέω. Lexicon entry: ζωγρέω, (ζωός, ἀγρέω) take, save alive, take captive instead of killing. II. restore to life and strength, revive; preserve alive. (L&S p. 758, right column within the entries beginning with ζωγρεἰα, edited for simplicity.)
- Walter Otto calls Zagréfs the 'Great Hunter', which he takes to be derived from ἀγρεὐων. Lexicon entry: ἂγρευμα is defined as "prey," ἂγρεὐς as "hunter." (L&S p. 14, edited for simplicity.)
- M.L. West disagrees with this etymology: "The etymologist (ed. not referring to Walter Otto but to an early etymological book) falsely explains Zagreus' name from za - 'very' and agreuein 'hunt.' " West is referring to the entry for Zagreus from the Etymologicum Gudianum, defined as "the one who greatly hunts." This is explained in Professor West's book Greek Epic Fragments, 2003, on p. 61. Look for "3 Etymologicum Gudianum" in the middle of the page and read note 17, where his comment is made. Dr. West does not, in this book, offer his own etymology, although he may elsewhere.
Zeuth - one of the original Cabiritic divinities, supposed by some to be the same with Dionysos. (CM*p.183)
FOR ABBREVIATIONS A through K, visit this page: Dionysos - The Epithets I
The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology.
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.
Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.
How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.
The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia, Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase (Γῆς παῖς εἰμί καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος) are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara, κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς).P LEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.
The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology.
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.
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