Diónysos - The Epithets


A through K



ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE

Acratopotes - See Akratopótis.

Ægobolos - See Aigovólos.

Ælefthæréfs - (Eleutherius; Gr. Ἐλευθερεύς, ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΕΥΣ)

- Ælefthæréfs is Diónysos the Liberator; his name at Ælefthærai (Eleftheræ; Gr. Ελευθεραί), in Viohtía (Bœotia; Gr. Βοιωτία), and at Athínai (Athens; Gr. Ἀθῆναι); the same as the Liber of the Latins. (CM*p.181)

- Ælefthæréfs is Diónysos the Deliverer. "The oldest sanctuary of Dionysus is near the theatre. Within the precincts are two temples and two statues of Dionysus, the Eleuthereus (Deliverer; ed. Ælefthæréfs) and the one Alcamenes (ed. Alkamǽnis; Gr. Ἀλκαμένης) made of ivory and gold. There are paintings here--Dionysus bringing Hephaestus (ed. Íphaistos; Gr. Ἥφαιστος) up to heaven. One of the Greek legends is that Hephaestus, when he was born, was thrown down by Hera (ed. Íra; Gr. Ἥρα). In revenge, he sent as a gift a golden chair with invisible fetters. When Hera sat down she was held fast, and Hephaestus refused to listen to any other of the Gods save Dionysus--in him he reposed the fullest trust--and after making him drunk Dionysus brought him to heaven." (Paus. Guide to Greece, Attica Book I.20.3, trans. Jones)

- Ælefthæréfs is "a surname of Dionysus, which he derived either from Eleuther (ed. a son of Apóllohn [Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων] and Aithousa [Gr. Αἵθουσα]: Ælefthír Gr. Ἑλευθήρ), or the Boeotian town of Eleutherae (ed. Ælefthærai; Gr. Ελευθεραί); but it may also be regarded as equivalent to the Latin Liber, and thus describes Dionysus as the deliverer of man from care and sorrow. (Paus. i. 20. § 2, 38. § 8; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 101.) The form Eleutherius is certainly used in the sense of the deliverer, and occurs also as the surname of Zeus (ed. Zefs; Gr. Ζεύς). (Plut. Sympos. vii. in fin.; Pind. Ol. xii. 1; Strab. ix. p.412; Tacit. Ann. xv. 64.)" (DGRBM Vol.II, p. 9, right column)

Ærívromos - (Eribromos; Gr. Ἐρίβρομος, ΕΡΙΒΡΟΜΟΣ. Adjective.) loud-roaring Diónysos. Orph.H.30.1.

- Lexicon entry: ἐρίβρομος, ον, loud-shouting, of Bacchus, h.Bacch.56, Anacr.11, Panyas.13.2 ; loud-roaring, λέοντες Pi.O.11(10).21 ; χθών, νεφέλα, Id.P.6.3,11. (L&S p. 687, right column, within the entries beginning with ἐρίβομβος)

Æríphios - (Eriphios; Gr. Ἐρίϕιος, ΕΡΙΦΙΟΣ ) Æríphios was an epithet of Diónysos at Mætapóntiun (Metapontum; Gr. Μεταπόντιον). (L&S p. 689, right column; within the entries beginning with ἐρίϕειος)

Ærnæsípæplos - (Ernesipeplus; Gr. Ἐρνεσίπεπλος, ΕΡΝΕΣΙΠΕΠΛΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ἐρνεσίπεπλος [], ον,

wrapt in foliage, Orph.H.30.5. (L&S p. 691, left column.)

Æsymnetes - See Aisymnítis.

Agnós - (hagnos; Gr. ἁγνός, ΑΓΝΟΣ. Adjective.) Diónysos is Agnós, holy and pure, as is said in Orph. Hymn 30.4.

- Lexicon entry: ἁγνός, ή, όν, (cf. ἅγιος) pure, chaste, holy, Hom. (only in Od.), etc.: I. of places and things dedicated to Gods, hallowed; of frankincense, ἁγνὴ ὀδμή. 2. of divine persons,chaste, pure, Hom., mostly of Artemis; of Demeter, Demeter and Persephone; Apollo; Zeus: of the attributes of Gods. II.after Hom., of persons, undefiled, chaste, of maidens. 2. pure from blood, guiltless. 3. generally, pure, upright. (L&S p. 12, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Agrióhnios - (Agrionius; Gr. Ἀγριώνιος, ΑΓΡΙΩΝΙΟΣ) (L&S p. 15, right column)

- name of Diónysos by which he was worshipped at Orchomenus in Bœotia, and from which the festival of Agronia in that place and in his honor, derived its name. (DGRBM, Vol.1, p.76)

- etymology possibly from ἀγρεύς "hunter" or ἄγριος "living in the fields, wild, savage."

- "Agrionios. (Ploutarchos, Symp. viii.; Anton. xiv. Agrios, Living-in -the -fields, hence wild, fierce, uncultured; ruticus, as opposed to urbanus. Cf. Pagan or Painim, i.e. Villager; Boor, cultivator-of-the-soil; Churl, a male {e.g. carl-cat, a tom-cat}, hence a cultivator-of-the-soil; Clown, i.e. colonus.) The Savage. So called, according to Ploutarchos, who gives an account of his Orchomenian Festival, the Agrionia (Vide sup. VI. i. 2.), on account of his cruelty, i.e., the ferocious nature of his original cult. Human sacrifices were offered in early times to the God as Agrionios (Vide sup. IV. iii. 2; inf. IX. iii.), and this feature of his character is also illustrated by his being represented as attended by lions, tigers, and other wild beasts." (GDM2 pp.1-2)

Agrionius - See Agrióhnios.

Ágrios - (Agrius; Gr. Ἄγριος, ΑΓΡΙΟΣ) living in the fields, wild, savage. Orph. Hymn 30.3. Lexicon entry: ἄγριος, α, ον; also ος, ον (not in Trag. or com): living in the fields, wild, savage. I. of animals, opp. τιθασός ἥμερος, wild; of men, living in a wild state. 2. of trees, opp. ἥμερος, wild. 3. of countries, wild, uncultivated. II. mostly of men, beasts, etc.: 1. in moral sense, savage, fierce. 2. of temper, wild, fierce. (L&S p. 15, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Aigobolos - See Aigovólos.

Aigovólos - (Ægobolos; Gr. Αἰγοβόλος, ΑΙΓΟΒΟΛΟΣ)

- name of Diónysos, destroyer of the goat, an animal injurious to vines. (CM*p. 180)

- goat-slayer or goat-shooter, title of Dionysos, (Paus. 9.8.1)

Aiolómorphos - (Æolomorphos; Gr. Αἰολόμορφος, ΑΙΟΛΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ) Lexicon entry: αἰολόμορφος, ον, of changeful form, Orph.H.4.7, etc. (L&S p. 40, right column, within the entries beginning with αἰολόβουλος.)

Aióhn - (Aion or Aeon; Gr. Αἰών, ΑΙΩΝ) Aióhn is a deity identified with Diónysos in the teachings of Orphismós. This identification is supported in this quotation from the notes of a book by Vittorio D. Macchioro: "Aion was son of Kronos (Euripides: Heraclidai, 898), that is, identical with Protogonus according to Hellanikos' theogony (Kern, p. 130, 54; p. 158, 85); but Protogonus, Dionysus and Phanes are identical (Aristocriton Manichæus: θεοσοφία 116, 15, Buresch; = Kern, 61. Erichepaius was identical with Dionysus (Hesychius: Ἠριξεπαῖος; Proclus: In Platonis Timœum, II, 102 D, E; = Kern, 170); Phanes with Erichepaius (Orphic Hymns, VI, 9). Protogonus was one of the names of Phanes (Damascius: Quœstiones de primis principiis, III; = Kern, 64) and of Erichepaios (Proclus: In Platonis Timœum, 29A; = Kern, 167); Phanes was Aion (Proclus: In Platonis Timœium E; = Kern, 107). An inscription of a statue of Aion at Eleusis (Dittenberger: Sylloge Inscriptionum, 3rd ed., 1125) affords a statement about the identity of Phanes (Dionysus) and Aion. Aion was son of Kore, that is, the mother of Dionysus (Epiphonius: Panarion, 51, 22, 8-10). Epiphonius mistakes the Goddess Kore for the Virgin, owing to the meaning of the Greek word ϰόρη. (FROM ORPHEUS TO PAUL: A History of Orphism by Vittorio D. Macchioro, 1930, Henry Holt and Co. [New York], where this quotation may be found on pp. 251-252, note 22.)

Aisymnítis - (Æsymnetes; Gr. Αισυμνήτης, ΑΙΣΥΜΝΗΤΗΣ)

- Dionysos the Ruler (see also Esymnetes, below). (CM*p.180)

- (Gr.) Dionysos the Governor; or presiding over games: the name of one of his statues, said to have been found by Vulcan, and presented to Dardanus by Zeus himself (CM*p.181)

- Epithet of Dionysos in Achaia. (L&S p. 43, left column, within the entries beginning with αἰσυμνάω, edited for simplicity.)

- At Troy an image of Dionysos, created by Hephaestos and given as a gift by Zeus to Dardanus, had been left in a chest by Kassandra or Aeneas, so as to harm the Greeks. The surname of the God in this chest is Aisymnítis (Paus. 7. Αχαΐα 20.1). As part of the spoils of the war, Eurypylus, king of Thessaly, received the chest. Upon opening it, he went mad. In desperation, the Delphic Oracle was consulted. He was told: "Where you see men performing an odd sacrifice, dedicate the chest and settle there." When Eurypylus arrived at Aroë in Archaia, they were about to sacrifice a beautiful boy and girl to Artemis, atonement for a crime that had occurred in her temple. When Eurypylus presented the statue, a local oracle was fulfilled which declared that a foreign God would be offered by a foreign king. Eurypylus was freed of his madness; the people were also free of the obligation to human sacrifice and commenced the worship of Dionysos in honor of the event. (The entire story found in Pausanias 7. Αχαΐα 19 & 20)

- "Appointer-of-Destiny. The word also means ruler, regulator, or umpire; and, as applied to the God, he who directs the course of nature and being, and gives to all their meat in due season (Cf. Isodaites.)." (GDM2 p.3).

Aithiopais - (Anakreon, Frag. cxxxv.; Bergk., Poetae Lyrici Graeci, iii. 1040.) Child-of-the-sun-burnt-land ('Tis the clime of the East; 'tis the land of the Sun.' Cf. 'The sun-stricken plains of the Persians' [Eur. Bakchai, 14].] (Souce of all the previous from this entry: GDM2 p.4)

Akratopótis - (Acratopotes; Gr. Ἀκρατοπότης, ΑΚΡΑΤΟΠΟΤΗΣ. Etym. ἄκρατος "pure, unmixed wine")

- name of Diónysos, drinking pure wine; a name under which he was worshipped at Φιγαλεία, in Αρκαδία. (CM*p.180)

- Akratopótis or Άκρατος was a divine companion of Diónysos, worshipped in Attica (Paus. 1.2.5)

Alysius - name of Dionysos, from Alyssus, a fountain of Arcadia. (CM*p.180)

- A fountain near a sanctuary of Dionysos. It is said that drinking its waters could cure any harm caused by a rabid dog, for which reason it is called Alyssus (cure of madness). (Pausanias 8.19.2-3)

Ambrotus - See Ámvrotos.

Amphi ætus or Amphietes - (Gr. Ἀμφιετοῦς, ἈΜΦΙΕΕΤΟΥΣ) Amphietes Vakkhos is the God of the yearly festival. (Orphic Hymn LIII, title: Ἀμφιετοῦς, and line 1)

Amphi ætiros or Amphieteros - (Gr. Ἀμφιέτηρος, ἈΜΦΙΈΤΗΡΟΣ) Amphieteros is an epithet of Dionysos meaning celebrated in yearly festivals (Orphic Hymn 52, line 10). Variant of Amphietes.

Amphithales - (Gr. Ἀμφιθᾰλής, ἈΜΦΙΘᾸΛΉΣ) flourishing on all sides, all-abounding, of Gods. (L&S p.91, right column, within the definitions of Ἀμφιθᾰλεύς)

- (Orphic Hymn XLVI To Liknites, line 2) "Blooming-on-all-sides. This epithet, which also has the general meaning of All-flourishing, and as such is applied by Aischylos (ed. Aeschylus) to Zeus (Choephoroi, 394; ed. The Libation Bearers), alludes to the kosmic spirit of life beauty, Antheus, blooming all around." (GDM2 p.5)

Ámvrotos - (Ambrotus; Gr. Ἄμβροτος, ΑΜΒΡΟΤΟΣ) Immortal (Orphic Hymn 30.7: ἄμβροτε δαῖμον), as an epithet of Diónysos.

- Lexicon entry: ἄμβροτος, ον, also η, ον:— poet. Adj. immortal, divine, of persons as well as things, θεὸς ἄ. Il.20.358, Od.24.445. 2. epith. of all belonging to the Gods:—also Pythag., = five. (L&S p. 79, right column, edited fpr simplicity.)

Ánax - (Gr. Ἄναξ, ΑΝΑΞ) Diónysos is Ánax, the great Lord, Master, and King. (Orph. Hymn 30.2)

- Lexicon entry: ἄναξ [], ἄνακτος (cf. Ἄνακες), , rarely fem. ὦ ἄνα for ἄνασσα: (ϝάναξ):—lord, master. 1. of the Gods, esp. Apollo; of Zeus, Hom. only in voc.; esp. of the Dioscuri, cf. Ἄνακες, Ἄνακοι; of all the Gods, πάντων ἀνάκτων . . κοινοβωμίαν.—The irreg. voc. ἄνα (q. v.) is never addressed save to Gods; ὦναξ is freq. in Trag. and Com. II. of the Homeric heroes, esp. of Agamemnon, as general-in-chief:—also as a title of rank, e.g. of Teiresias, Od.11.144, 151.

Antauges - See Antavyís.

Antavyís - (Antauges; Gr. Ἀνταυγής, ΑΝΤΑΥΓΗΣ) Diónysos is Antavyís, the sparkling one. (Orph. Frag. Macrob. Saturnalia 1.18.12)

"Melting the bright ether that was before now unmoved,

he revealed to the Gods the fairest sight to be seen,

the one they now call both Phanes and Dionysos,

sovereign Euboules and Antauges seen from afar:

among men who dwell on earth, some give him one name, others another.

First he came into the light, and was named Dionysos,

because he whirls along the limitless length of Olympos;

but then he changed his name and took on forms of address of every sort

from every source, as suits the alternating seasons."

(trans. Robert A. Kaster, 2011. Macrobius Saturnalia I, LCL 510, Harvard Univ. Press [Cambridge, MA and London, England], where this quotation may be found on pp. 251-253.)

- Lexicon entry: Ἀνταυγής, reflecting light, sparkling: pr. n. Ἀνταύγης, of the sun, Orph.Fr.237. (L&S p. 150, right column; within the entries beginning with ἀνταυγάζω, edited for simplicity.)

Anthéfs - (Antheus; Gr. Ἀνθεὺς, ΑΝΘΕΥΣ)

- name of Dionysos, blooming, crowned with flowers; his name at Athens, and at Patræ, in Achaia. (CM*p.180)

- from ántheion (ἄνθειον) flower, blossom, as in the Anthæstíria (Anthesteria; Gr. Ἀνθεστήρια), Feast of Flowers, a feast in honor of Diónysos.

- Diónysos of Flowering (Pausanias 1.31.2 in the Peter Levi translation) or Dionysos Flower God (W.H.S. Jones numbers it as Pausanias 1.31.4) in Phlya and Myrrhinus (Myrrinous).

- Anthean (Pausanias 7.21.2 in the Peter Levi) or Antheus (Pausanias 7.21.6 in the W.H.S. Jones) in Patræ.

Antheus - See Anthéfs.

Aonius Deus - name of Diónysos, Theban God. Aonia (Greek: Αονία) was one of the names of Bœotia. (CM*p.180)

Áreios - (Gr. Ἄρειος, ΑΡΕΙΟΣ) Diónysos is called Áreios, warlike, in Orph.Hymn 30.4.

- Lexicon entry: Ἄρειος [], ον, also α, ον (lyr.); Ion. Ἀρήϊος, η, ον; Aeol. Ἀρεύϊος: (Ἄρης):—devoted to Ares, warlike, martial; in Hom., mostly of warriors. 2. Ἄρειος (also Ἄρεος, Ἄρηος) , (sc. μήν), name of month in Thessaly. 3. Ἄρειον πεδίον, = Campus Martius. 4. Ἄρειον, τό, = ξιφίον; = ἰσάτις. II. = Ἄριος. (L&S p. 237, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Áreos - See Áreios.

Ários - See Áreios.

Árritos - (Ἄρρητος, ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ) Diónysos is called Árritos, whose mind is not able to be expressed or understood, in Orphic Hymn 30.3. Lexicon Entry: ἄρρητος, ον, also η, ον:— unspoken. II. that cannot be spoken or expressed, ἀδιανόητον καὶ ἄ. καὶ ἄφθεγκτον καὶ ἄλογον Pl.Sph.238c: hence, unspeakable immense. III. not to be spoken: hence, 1. not to be divulged. 2. unutterable, horrible. 3. shameful to be spoken. (L&S p. 247, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Axites - (Greek: Αξιτης, ΑΞΙΤΗΣ)

- name of Dionysos, worthy; his name at Heræa, in Arcadia. (CM*p.180) (ed. worthy from ἄξιος?)

- "But Heræeus the son of Lycaon built Heræa: and this city is situated on the right hand of the river Alpheus. The greater part too of the city has a gradual elevation; but the remaining part extends to the river Alpheus. Near the river there are places for racing, which are separated from each other by myrtle, and other planted trees. Here too there are baths; and two temples of Bacchus, one which they call Polites, and the other Axites." (Pausanias 8.26.1, in the translation apparently by Thomas Taylor from 1793, Vol. 2, p.313) Peter Levi translates Axites as Dionysos of Increase; W.H.S. Jones translates Axites as Giver of Increase.

Β β ϐ Víta (Beta; Gr. βήτα) - Greek words beginning with the letter Víta (β) are, generally, transliterated with the letter V on this website where, like the Greeks, we follow the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek. Please visit this page: Pronouncing Ancient Greek.

Babactes - See Vaváktis.

Baccheion Anax - See Vakkheion Ánax.

Baccheos - See Vákkheios.

Baccheus - See Vakkhéfs.

Bacchiacus - See Vakkhiakós.

Bacchus - See Vákkhos.

Bassareus - See Vassaréfs.

Ben Semele - See Væn Sæmǽli.

Bicorniger - (Latin) name of Dionysos, two-horned. Bacchus is either portrayed with horns, the symbol of the rays of the sun, which this God represented; or, from the audacity and petulance which wine inspires. (CM*p.180)

- two-horned an epithet of Bacchus, Ovid Heroides 13, 33. (LD p. 236, middle column).

- "Like those who he of the two horns is believed to have touched with his vine-leafed rod, hither and thither I go, where madness drives." (Ovid Heroides XIII, verse 33, translated by Grant Showerman in Ovid. Heroides and Amores, Loeb Vol. 41, 1931)

Biformis - (Latin) (See also Dimorphos)

- name of Dionysos, two-formed; from his having changed himself into an old woman, when he fled from the persecution of Juno; or, from his being represented sometimes as a young, and sometimes as an old man. (CM*p.180)

- of double form; also a surname of Janus (ed. two faces). (Cassell's Latin Dictionary, revised by J.R.V. Marchant and Joseph F. Charles, 1892, p. 71.)

- called Biformis because he was both young and old, with a beard and without one, or because wine sometimes makes one cheerful and pleasant, sometimes peevish and morose. (The family magazine, or, Monthly abstract of general knowledge, edited by Origin Bacheler, 1833-4, Vol. 1, p.42)

- LD defines biformis as double or two-formed, two-shaped; Janus and Hermaphoditus are given as examples, but no mention of Bacchus. (LD p.237 left column)

Bimater - (Latin)

- name of Dionysos, having (as it were) two mothers, Semele, and the thigh of Zeus. (CM*p.180)

- Bimatris, adj., having two mother, poetic epithet of Bacchus...Ovid Meta. 4, 12; Hyginus Fab. 167; Anthol. Lat. 1, 19, 2 (where it is scanned Bimater). (LD p. 238, left column)

Boægenæs - See Vugenes.

Bougenes - See Vugenes.

Boukeros - See Vukeros.

Botryephorus - See Votryiphóros .

Botryokosmos - See Votryókozmos .

Bræsagenes - See Vresagenes.

Bræseus - See Vreseus.

Bræssaios or Vressaios - See Vressaios.

Brephoctonus - See Vræphoktónos.

Brisæus or Brisaios - See Vrisæos

Briseus - See Vriseus.

Bromios - See Vrómios.

Brumus - the name of Dionysos among the Romans. (BNP, v.1, p. 141) (CM*p.180)

- The Roman word Brumus is likely derived from the Greek Βρόμιος (Bromios)

- an ancient name of Bacchus (BNP p. 141, left column under the heading Brumae).

Buceros - See Voukǽrohs.

Bucornis - (Latin) name of Dionysos, expressive of his holding in his hand a bull's horn, which was intended to be used as a cup at feasts. (CM*p.180)

Bugenes - See Vouyænís .

Calydonius - see Kaludônios.

Cernunnos - name of Dionysos among the Gauls. (CM*p.181) (ed. CM* does not give its source for this, but it is likely from the monument of the Nautae Parisiaci [The Pillar of the Boatmen] from the time of Tiberius which bears an image of Cernunnos as a bearded God with the torc adorned antlers of a stag. The connection being that Dionysos is sometimes depicted with horns. Cernunnos has been equated with other Gods, including Zeus, who, in his manifestation of Zeus-Ammon, is also a horned God.)

Charitodotes - (Gr. Χᾰρῐτοδότης, ΧᾸΡῘΤΟΔΌΤΗΣ) = Charidotas, see below: Charidotas.

- epithet of Dionysos (Plu.2.158e)

- epithet of Hermes, cj. for χαριδότης in Jul.Or.4.148d

Charidotes - See Kharidóhtis.

Child - See Pais.

Chiropsalas - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, player of the harp. (CM*p.181)

Choiropsalas - (Gr. Χοιροψάλας, ΧΟΙΡΟΨΆΛΑΣ) "Clem. Alex. Protrept. ii. 39.) Sow-seeker. A phallic epithet. (Cf. II. Pet. ii. 22; Aristoph. Sphekes, 1304.)" (GDM2 p.7) (Polem.Hist.72)

Choö potes - (Gr. Χοοπότης, ΧΟΟΠΌΤΗΣ) name of Dionysos, drinking; because, on the second day of the Anthesteria (a festival in honor of Bacchus), every man drank out of his own choa, or vessel. (CM*p.181)

- "Deep-drinker. A name of Dionysos in connection with the Pitcher Feast or second day of the Anthesteria. (Vide sup. VI. i. 1.)" (GDM p.7)

- one who drinks whole χόες, of Dionysus, Possis 1. (L&S p.1998, left column, within the definitions beginning with χοο-πλάστης)

Choroimanes - (Gr. Χοροιμᾰνής, ΧΟΡΟΙΜᾸΝΉΣ) "(Orphic Hymn Trieterikos 52.7) Mad-after dancing. (Cf. Soph. Antigone, 1152; sup. IV. iii.1.) An epithet illustrative of the connection of the God with the rhythm of motion." (GDM2 p.7)

Chrysokeros - (Gr. Χρῡσόκερως, ΧΡῩΣΌΚΕΡΩΣ) "(Orphik Frag. vi.) Golden-horned. A solar epithet resulting from the combination of Kerasphoros and Chrysomitres. (Cf. Karneios, the Horned Sun, sup. IV. iii. 2.)" (GDM2 p.7)

Chrysokomes - (Gr. Χρῡσοκόμἡς, ΧΡῩΣΟΚΌΜΉΣ) epithet of Dionysos "(Hesiod Theog. 947.) Golden-haired. A solar epithet." (GDM2 p.7)

- epithet of Apollo, Tyrt.3.4, B. 4.2, E.Supp.975 (lyr.), Ar.Av.217 (anap.);ὁ X., abs. for Apollo, Pi.O.6.41, 7.32, E.Tr.254 (lyr.). (L&S p.2010, right column; within the definitions beginning with χρῡσοκομ-έω)

Chrysomitres - (Gr. Χρυσομίτρης, ΧΡΥΣΟΜΊΤΡΗΣ) epithet of Dionysos, with girdle or headband of gold. (S.OT209 lyr.) (L&S p.2010, right column; within the definitions beginning with χρυσο-λοπος)

Chrysopes - epithet of Dionysos "(Eur. Bak. 553; sup. IV. iii. 2.) Golden-faced. Elector, the Beaming Sun. (As to the solar phase of the God, vide inf. IX. iv.)"

Cissobryos - See Kissóvryos.

Cissus - See Kissós.

Colonates - name of Dionysos, from Colonæ, an eminence in Messenia. (CM*p.181) Colonæ or Colonae, Κολωναί, was a town in Troas, now probably Chemali; the same called Colone. (LD p. 370, center column)

Corniger - (Latin) name of Dionysos, horned. (See Bicorniger.) (CM*p.181)

- having or bearing horns, horned; Bacchus, I.--Subst. (LD p. 470, right column)

Corymbifer - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, bearing a cluster of berries; from a plant which was sacred to him bearing berries, like ivy. (CM*p.181)

Cresius - See Krísios.

Cruphius - See Krýphios.

Dæmon Bonus - name of Dionysos. The last cup of wine, at all festivals, was usually drunk to Bacchus under this appellation. (CM*p.181)

- Latin? If so, bonus = "morally good, honorable;" hence, good dæmon.

Dasýllios - (Dacyllius; Gr. Δασύλλιος, ΔΑΣΥΛΛΙΟΣ) Dasýllios is a name of Diónysos, frequenting the woods; his name at Megara. (CM p.181)

- "(Paus. i. 43.) The Savage. The epithet is primarily applied to places almost impenetrable from thick underwood, Latin densus. Hence it comes to mean that which is connected with, or belongs to, a remote and savage part of the country. (Cf. Agrióhnios, Ágrios, and Orǽskios.)" (GDM2 p.8)

- "Polyidus also built the sanctuary of Dionysus, and dedicated a wooden image that in our day is covered up except the face, which alone is exposed. By the side of it is a Satyr of Parian marble made by Praxiteles. This Dionysus they call Patroüs (Paternal); but the image of another, that they surname Dasyllius, they say was dedicated by Euchenor, son of Coeranus, son of Plyidus." (Paus. Attica, XLIII.5; tr. Jones, vol. I, p.233)

Dændrítis - (Dendrites; Gr. Δενδρίτης, ΔΕΝΔΡΙΤΗΣ) "(Plout. Peri Is. xxxv.; Pindaros, Frag. cxxx.) Lord-of-the-tree. A name given to the God as the cause of the growth of the fruits of the earth. (Cf. sup. III. i. 1; Donaldson, Theatre of the Greeks, 17.)" (GDM2 p. 8)

- Dændrítis is a name of Dionysus, (Plu.2.675f) (L&S p. 378, right column; within the definitions beginning with δενδρ-ήεις)

Dennis - Dennis is the Anglicized equivalent of Diónysos.

Diádokhos - (Diadochus; Gr. Διάδοχος, ΔΙΑΔΟΧΟΣ) Diádokhos is a successor. 2. Diádokhos was the ancient title given to the head of the Neoplatonic School in Athens. 3. Diádokhos is a title of Diónysos, i.e. successor to Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς).

- Lexicon entry: διάδοχὁς, succeeding a person in a thing. (L&S edited for simplicity.)

Dikǽros - (Dicerus; Gr. Δικέρως, ΔΙΚΕΡΩΣ) Dikǽros is an epithet meaning two-horned, applied to Diónysos (Orphic Hymn 30.3) and Apóllohn (Orphic Hymn 34.25), or to any God, for all true Gods have "horns." This phenomena of the Gods is a vast effusion of Aithír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ) which flows from their heads and which appears as something like horns; thus also, in iconography, horned animals are symbolic of divinity.

- Lexicon entry: δικέρως, ωτος, , , two-horned.: also δίκερως, ων. (L&S p. 430, left column, within the entries beginning with δίκελλα, edited for simplicity.)

Dimítohr - (Dimetor; Gr. Διμήτωρ, ΔΙΜΗΤΩΡ) epithet of Diónysos meaning twice-born, of Pæsæphóni, then born of Sæmǽli; he is also called thrice-born (Τρίγονος) when the birth from the leg of Zefs is included.

Dímorphos - (Gr. Δίμορϕος, ΔΙΜΟΡΦΟΣ. Cf. Latin Biformis.) name of Diónysos, having two forms or natures. One way this epithet has been interpreted is that Diónysos, like his pre-form Phánis and Zefs himself, is both male and female. (Orphic Hymn 30.3)

Diónysos - (Dionysus; Gr. Διόνυσος, ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΣ) Diónysos is Vákkhos (Bacchus; Gr. Βάκχος), son of Sæmǽli (Semele; Gr. Σεμέλη) and Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). While the name Bacchus appears frequently in Latin literature, Diónysos is the most common name of the God in Greek literature. The name Zagréfs (Zagreus; Gr. Ζαγρεύς) is applied only to the son of Pærsæphóni (Persephone; Gr. Περσεφόνη) by Zefs.

- Pronunciation: The D in Diónysos is pronounced like the th in thee, not like the hard th in thesis and certainly not like the d in darling. The next syllable, i, is pronounced like the ee in beet. The next syllable, o, is like the o in home. The ny is pronounced nee as in needle. The o of the final syllable, sos, is again pronounced like the o in home. Thus, Diónysos is pronounced: thee-OH-nee-sohs, with the accent on the second syllable.

- According to Nónnos: "Hermes, Maia's son, received him near the birthplace hill of Dracanon, and holding him in the crook of his arm flew through the air. He gave the newborn Lyaios a surname to suit his birth, and called him Dionysos, or Zeus-limp, because Zeus while he carried his burden lifted his foot with a limp from the weight of his thigh, and nysos (ed. νῦσος = χωλός) in the Syracusan language means limping." (Nónnos Διονυσιακά, 9.16-24, trans. W.H.D. Rouse, 1940. We are using the Loeb Classical Library 1962 edition, Vol. 1, Harvard Univ. Press [Cambridge, MA] and William Heinemann [London], where this quotation may be found on pp. 305-308.)

- Etym. Διός (genitive of Ζεύς) + Νῦσα and similar words implying "son." Robert Beekes finds this etymology improbable (see Vol. 1 p. 337 of his Etymological Dictionary of Greek, 2010, Brill.)

- Etym. Διός (genitive of Ζεύς) + οἶνος (wine), as explained from the Mystical point of view, the wine symbolic of the Aithír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ) of his father.

- the Greek name of Bacchus (not in the Augustan poets) (LD p. 583, center column)

Diphues - See Diphÿís.

Diphÿís - (Diphues; Gr. Διφῠής, ΔΙΦΥΗΣ) name of Diónysos, of two natures. Orph.H.30.2.

- Lexicon entry: διφῠής, ές: neut. pl. διφυῆ, also διφυᾶ:—of double nature or form. (L&S p.438, right column; within the definitions beginning with διφρῠγής, edited for simplicity.)

Dithýramvos - (dithyrambos; Gr. διθύραμβος, ΔΙΘΥΡΑΜΒΟΣ) - A dithýramvos was originally a hymn in honor of Diónysos, but later the term was applied to hymns for other Gods also. The word can also be used to refer to the contests where these songs are performed. Dithýramvos is also an epithet of Diónysos.

- Lexicon entry: δῑθύραμβοςdithyramb, metaph. of bombastic language. II. a name of Dionysus:—hence Δῐθυραμβογενής. (Pi. is said to have written it λῡθίραμβος (Fr.85) —as if from λῦθι ῥάμμα, the cry of Bacchus when sewn up in his father's thigh.) (L&S p. 427, right column, edited for simplicity)

Ebon - (Gr.) Dionysos the Youthful; or from the ebon, or ebony tree, which according to Virgil (see Georgic ii. 163), was peculiar to India. He was worshipped under this name at Naples. (CM*p.181)

Efkarpos or Eukarpos - (Gr. Εὔκαρπος, ΕΥΚΑΡΠΟΣ) fruitful, of women, h.Hom.30.5; of trees, corn, land, Pi.P.1.30, N.1.14, Pae.2.26, etc.; of sheep, Palaeph.18; φυτά, ζῷα, Ocell.4.9; [χώρη] -οτάτηHp.Aër.12; εὔ. θέρος S.Aj.671: metaph., -οτάτη ἀρετή Ph.1.647. II. Act., fruitful, fertilizing, ἀήρ Thphr.CP2.3.3; epith. of Aphrodite, S.Fr.847; of Dionysus, AP6.31; of Demeter, ib.7.394 (Phil.). (L&S p.717; right column, within the definitions beginning with the word εὐκάρπἑια)

- "Orphik Hymn, 50.4; ed. Lysios Lenaios) Fruitful. Also of Demeter. Applied to both divinities as representatives of the earth, bringing forth fruit in due season. (Cf. Pherkarpos (Orphik Hymn, 50.10), Fruit-yielding; Chloökarpos (Ibid. 53.8; ed. Amphietus-God of the Annual Feasts), Green-fruit-yielding; inf. Karpios.)"

Efkeraos or Eukeraos - (Gr. Εὐκέραος, ΕΥΚΈΡΑΟΣ) with beautiful horns, Mosch.2.52; Διόνυσος AP9.827 (Ammon.). L&S p.718, left column)

- "(Nonnos, vi. 209.) The Beautifully-horned. (Vide inf. Taurokeros.) (GDM2 p.13)

Efkissos or Eukissos - (Gr. Εὔκισσος, ΕΥΚΙΣΣΟΣ) ον, ivied, Ἑλικών AP7.407 (Diosc.). (L&S p.718. left column)

Efklayes or Euclius - (Gr. Εὐκλεής, ΕΥΚΛΕΉΣ) Dionysos the Glorious; renowned. (CM*p.181)

- of good report, famous, freq. of persons. II. Εὐκλῆς, Orphic title of Hades, IG14.641 (Thurii). (L&S p.718, left column)

Efrychaites or Eurychaites - (Gr. Εὐρυχαίτης, ΕΥΡΥΧΑΊΤΗΣ) Dor. -τᾱς, ὁ, with widestreaming hair, of Dionysus, Pi.I.7(6).4. (L&S p.731, left column; within the entries beginning with the word εὐρῠ-φᾰρέτρης)

Eiraphióhtis - (Eiraphiotes; Gr. Εἰραϕιώτης, ΕΙΡΑΦΙΩΤΗΣ) (See also Eriphios below.)

- Dionysos the Wrangler. (CM*p.181)

- the Quarreller, surname of Bacchus. (BNP p.291)

- epithet of Dionysos, meaning unclear. Nonnos defines it possibly as 'Father Botcher' although even this is not clear. So he dubbed Zeus' newly delivered Eiraphiotes, or 'Father Botcher,' because he had sewed up the baby in his breeding thigh." (Nonnos' Dionysiaca, IX. 16-24, as translated by W.H.D. Rouse in 1940, found on pp. 305-308 of Vol.I of the 1962 edition)

- Evelyn-White translates it as 'Insewn,' having been sewn into the thigh of Zeus. "For some say, at Dracanum; and some, on windy Icarus; and some, in Naxos, O Heaven-born (δῖον γἐνος), Insewn (εἰραϕιῶτα, Eraphiota)" (Homeric Hymns I.2; translated by H.G. Evelyn-White, 1914; found in the 1936 edition on pp.286-287 of the book entitled Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica)

- Lexicon entry: Εἰραϕῐὠτης, ου, ὁ (Aeolic Ἐρρᾰϕεὠτας Alcaeus 90), epithet of Bacchus. II. = ἔριϕος (Laconian) (L&S, p.490, left column)

Eleftherefs - See Ælefthærefs.

Elelefs or Eleleus - (Gr. Ἐλελεύς, ἘΛΕΛΕΎΣ) name of Dionysos, from the cry repeated by the Bacchanals at his festivals. (CM*p.181)

- from ἐλελεῦ

- "(Ovid. Metam. iv. 15.) The Shouter. This, according to Ovidius, was a common name of the God amongst the Hellenes. Eleleu or Alale is a loud cry or shout joyous, dolorous, or defiant. (Vide Vol. I. 157) As the epithet Elelichthon connects the God with motion, so Eleleus links him with sound. But as one signification is by no means necessarily exhaustive of an epithet, Eleleus may have a Semitic connection with helel, to 'irradiate'; and may also signify Lucifer, the Light-bringer. (Isaiah, xiv. 12.) The appropriateness of such an epithet to the solar Dionysos, 'leader of the chorus of fire-breathing stars,' is obvious." (GDM2 p.12)

Elelikhthon or Elelichthon - (Gr. Ἐλελίχθὡν, ἘΛΕΛΊΧΘὩΝ) earth-shaking, τετραορία Pi.P.2.4; Ἐλέλιχθον, i.e. Poseidon, ib.6.50:—in S.Ant.153 Dionysus is called ὁ Θήβας ἐ. because the ground shook beneath the feet of his dancing bands. (L&S p.531, right column; within the definitions beginning with ἐλελίχθ-ημα)

- "Let us go to all the gods' temples in all-night dancing. May earth-shaking Bacchus of Thebes be our leader." (Sophocles Antigone 151-154; trans. Wm. Blake Tyrrell and Larry J. Bennett)

- "(Soph. Antigone, 153.) Earth-shaker. This, which is also a common epithet of Poseidon, is applied to the God primarily as the patron of the orgiastic dance, by means of which he is the 'shaker of the land of Thebai.' So we read of the Bakchai, when phrensied, that 'nothing was unmoved by their running.' (Eur. Bak. 727.) The epithet, however has probably a secondary meaning as applied to a chthonian divinity; (Vide Rexichthon.) and is also connected with the God as the lord of motive power, one of the chief manifestations of life." (GDM2 p.12)

Eleutherius - See Ælefthærefs.

Ephaptor - (Gr. Ἐφάπτὡρ, ἘΦΆΠΤὩΡ)

- title of Dionysos: "(Orphik Hymn, Trieterikos lii. 9.) The Caresser. This epithet means primarily one-who-seizes-on, and hence a kindler or inflamer; (Cf. Eur. Bak. 777.) and, lastly, one-who-caresses. It contains the idea of the life-inflaming power of the world evolved into personal amorousness. (Cf. Polyparthenos.)" (GDM2 p.12)

- epithet of Zeus: "And Zeus Ephaptōr engendered offspring with his hand" (Aeschylus Supplices 312, trans. Pär Sanden, 2003, 2005; Symmachus Publishing, p.28)

- "one who touches, or, seizes. It is applied to Jupiter as touching Io, and having a son, thence named Επαϕος (ed. Epaphos). Æsch. Prom. 876. Supp. 309, 11." (A New and Complete Gradus: or, Poetical Lexicon of the Greek Language by Edward Maltby, 1830, G. Woodfall Publish., p.275)

- Lexicon entry: ἐφάπτ-ωρ, ορος, ὁ, also ἡ, laying hold of, seizing, ῥυσίων A.Supp.728. II. one who strokes or caresses, ib.312, 535 (lyr.) (with ref. to the name Ἔπαφος). (L&S p.741, left column, within the definitions beginning ἐφάπτ-ω)

Eraphiotes - See Eiraphiotes.

Erebintheos - See Erevinthinos.

Erebinthinus - See Erevinthinos.

Erevinthinos or Erebinthinus - (Gr. Ἐρεβίνθἱνος = Ἐρεβίνθειος; from ἐρέβινθος "chickpea") name of Dionysos, as having introduced not only the culture of the vine, but that of peas and other pulse also. (CM*p.181)

Eriboas - See Erivoas.

Eribremetes - See Erivremetes.

Eribromos - See Ærívromos.

Ericapaeus or Ericapæus - See Irikapaios.

Erikepaios - See Irikapaios.

Eriphios - See Æriphios.

Erivoas or Eriboas - (Gr. Ἐριβόας, ἘΡΙΒΌΑΣ) loud-shouting, of Bacchus, Pi.Fr.75.10 ; of Hermes, AP15.27.5 (Besant.). (L&S p.687, right column; within the entry starting with ἐρι-αύχην)

- "Pind. Dithyramboi, Frag. iii.) The Loud-crying. (Cf. Bromios.)" (GDM2 p.12)

Erivremetes or Eribremetes - (Gr. Ἐριβρεμέτης, ἘΡΙΒΡΕΜΈΤΗΣ) loud-thundering, Ζεύς Il.13.624 ; of Aeschylus, Ar.Ra.814(hex.); Διόνυσος D.P.578, etc.; loud-roaring, λέοντες Pi.I.4 (3).46 ; loud-sounding, αὐλόςAP6.195 (Arch.). (L&S p. 687, right column; within the entries beginning with ἐρί-βομβος)

Ernesipeplos - See Ærnæsípæplos.

Esymnetes - See Aisymnítis.

Euan - See Eván.

Euantes - See Evantís.

Euaster - See Evastír.

Eubouleus, Eubuleus, Euboleus, Efvoulefs - See Efvouléfs.

Eubules (ed. Efvolefs or Euboleus?) - (Gr.) Dionysos the Prudent Counsellor. The chief magistrates of Rhodes were obliged, by an express law, every day to entertain the principal men of that city, ay a public table, in order to deliberate what should be done on the day following. (CM*p.181)

Eucheus - (Gr.) name of Dionysos, pouring freely; expressive of his filling the glass to the brim. (CM*p.181)

Euclius - See Efklayes.

Euhan - See Eván.

Eukarpos - See Efkarpos.

Eukissos - See Efkissos.

Eukeraos - See Efkeraos.

Eurychaites - See Efrychaites.

Eván - (Euan; Gr. Εὐάν, ΕΥΑΝ) Lexicon entry: εὐάν [] εὔἁν , euhan, a cry of the Bacchanals, cf. εὐοῖ.—Acc. to Hsch., an Indian name for ivy, which was sacred to Bacchus. (L&S p. 706, left column, edited for simplicity.)

- name of Dionysos, so invoked by the Bacchantes. (CM*p.181)

Evantís - (Euantes; Gr. Εὐανθής, ΕΥΑΝΘΗΣ) Evantís is an epithet of Diónysos meaning decked with flowers.

Lexicon entry: εὐανθ-ής, ές, blooming, downy. II. rich in flowers, flowery; decked with flowers; freely flowering. 2. flowered, gay-coloured, gay, bright; pink, flushed. III. metaph., blooming, fresh, goodly. (L&S p. 706. left column, within the entries beginning εὐάνθεμον, edited for simplicity.)

Evastír - (Gr. Εὐαστήρ, ΕΥΑΣΤΉΡ) he who cries εὐαί, the ecstatic howl of joy of those who follow Diónysos. Orph.H.30.1.

Evastíros - (Gr. Εὐαστήρ, ΕΥΑΣΤΉΡ) he who cries εὐαί, the ecstatic howl of joy of those who follow Diónysos. Orph.H.30.1.

Évios - (Euius; Gr. Εὔιος, ΕΥΙΟΣ) Évios is an epithet of Diónysos referring to the ecstatic howl of joy, εὐαἵ, εὐοἱ, made by the God and those who worshipped him and participated in his orgies.

- Lexicon entry: Εὔιος (Εὔἱος EM391.15, cf. Lat. Euhius), , name of Bacchus, from the cry εὐαἵ, εὐοἱ, in lyr. passages; Εὔιος, = Βάκχος. II. εὔιος, ον, as Adj., Bacchic. (L&S p. 717, left column, edited for simplicity.)

- "Cornutus, the tutor of the Roman poet Persius (ed. 34-62 BCE), tells us that the wine treaders invoked the God by various names, such as 'Bakchos' and 'Euios.' [Cornutus, Theologiae graecae compendium XXIX.] Reference to these scenes was made at the Second Council of Constantinople, the Trullianum, in the year 691 A.D. Until that date the wine treaders still cried out 'Dionysos,' but this was now forbidden. [μἡ τὸ τοῦ βδελυκτοῦ Διονύσου ὄνομα τοὑς τὴν σταϕυλὴν ἐκθλίβοντας ἐν τοῖς ληνοῖς ἐπιβοᾶν, cited by P. Koukoules, Βυζαντινῶν βίος καὶ πολιτισμός , p. 293.]" (Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life by Carl Kerényi, 1976, Princeton Univ. Press. p. 67)

- (ed. Évios is a) name of Dionysos, implying, Well done, my son! words ascribed to Zeus, when he saw Bacchus returning victoriously from combating the Giants. Evoe, or Evan, was the exclamation with which the Bacchanals invoked their God during the celebration of his orgies. (CM*p.181)

Evvouléfs - (Eubuleus; Gr. Εὐβουλεύς) as an epithet of Diónysos. The name means prudent or of good counsel. In the mythology of Ælefsinian Mysteries the name seems to refer to a specific historical personage, but in the Orphic Hymns, it is applied many times to Diónysos. He is called by this name at 29.8 in the hymn to Περσεφόνη, at 30.6 in the hymn to Diónysos, at 41.8 in the hymn to Μήτηρ Ανταία, at 42.2 in the hymn to Μίσα, at 52.4 in the hymn to Τριετηρικός, and at 72.3 in the hymn to Τύχη, all these specifically referring to Diónysos as Εὐβουλεύς. In 56.3 the name is given to Ἄδωνις but this may be using the name in the sense that all souls who have been deified may be called Diónysi.

- " 'Eubouleus,' whose name means 'of good counsel,' is identified in ancient sources with Zeus and with Dionysus (e.g., at Orphic Hymn 30.6, Plut.Quaest. Conv. 7.9, 714c), and is an independent divinity in Eleusis, who has connections with the Underworld. Given that (ed. Golden) tablet no. 9 explicitly describes Eubouleus as the 'son of Zeus,' we can guess that in all four cases this name refers to Dionysus." (Ritual Texts for the Afterlife by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnston, 2007, Routledge, p. 123)

- "Eubuleus was often used as an epithet of Zeus (Frazer on Paus. 8. 9. 2), but inscriptions show that he was known in Eleusis as an independent God standing beside Demeter and Persephone (Ditt. Syll. 83, line 39) and as such he was also worshipped in the Islands. (Inscriptions from Paros, Amorgos, Delos, Mykonos; see L. Malten in Arch. Rel. Wiss. 1909, p. 440 with nn.) This God was at least in later times identified with Dionysos." Guthrie goes on to equate Dionysos with ᾍδης (Hades) in this epithet of Eubuleus. (Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton edition on p. 179)

- Orphic Hymn 18. To Plouton: "Euboulos, you once took pure Demeter's daughter as your bride..." (line 12, trans. by Apostolos N. Athanassakis, 1977; found in the 1988 Scholar Press reprint on p. 29) In the hymn, Plouton, Chthonic Zeus, and Eubouleus are equated.

- Orphic Hymn 30. To Dionysos: "Resourceful Eubouleus, immortal God sired by Zeus when he mated with Persephone in unspeakable union." (lines 6-7, Athanassakis p. 43.)

- Orphic Hymn 52. To the God of Triennial Feasts: "I call upon you, blessed, many-named and frenzied Bacchos, bull-horned Nysian redeemer, God of the wine-press, conceived in fire. Nourished in the thigh, O Lord of the Cradle, you marshal torch-lit processions in the night, O filleted and thyrsus-shaking Eubouleus." (lines 1-4, Athanassakis p. 69.)

- Then there is Evvouléfs and his brother Τριπτόλεμος, sons of Δυσαύλης. He is a demi-God and is associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Fufluns - Fufluns is an Etruscan name for Dionysos.

Gynaimanes or Gunaimanes - (Gr. Γῠναιμᾰνής, ΓῨΝΑΙΜᾸΝΉΣ) ές, = γυναικομανής, mad for women, Il.3.39, h.Bacch. 17, Ael.NA15.14, Q.S.1.726:—in late Ep. γῠναικο-μανέων, as if a part., ib. 735, Nonn.D.2.125, al. II. making women mad, Hsch. (L&S p.363, right column)

- "(Hom. Hymn, Eis Dionyson, Frag. v.) The Erotic. (Cf. Polyparthenos.)" (GDM2 p.14)

Hebon - (Gr.) Dionysos the Youthful; his name in Campania: perpetual youth was one of his attributes. (CM*p.181)

Hyes - "(Souidas, in voc. Hyes.) Lord-of-fertilising-moisture. (Cf. Phleon.) Semele was called Hye, and the Nymphs who nursed Dionysos the Hyades. (Sup. IV. i. 3.) This fertilising moisture forms the basis of the Phoenician Mot of Mokh, 'which some interpret to mean slime, others, putridity of watery secretion,' (Sanch. i. l. As to Mokh, vide Vol. I. 77. The reading in the MSS. was Môt, or Môth, which Bishop Cumberland, dissenting from Bochart, connected with an Arabic word matha; he observes, 'the verb signifies to steep, or macerate, in water; the noun denotes such a confusion and solution as is thereby made; a mucilage, as Physicians say.; [Sanchoniatho's Phoenician History, 4]. Bunsen, after noticing that Movers rejects a Semitic explanation, reads Môkh, Heb. ***, putrefieri [Egypt's Place, iv. 176].) that aqueous chaos which generally occupies an early and a prominent place in kosmogonies. (Cf. Berosos, i. 4; Gen. i. 2-10.) The epithet is also applied to Zeus and to Sabazios; to the former, as the lord of the broad heaven whence comes that water or fertilising moisture, which is best of all things; (Pind. Olymp. i l.) and to the latter, in the same sense as to Dionysos himself, i.e., as the principle of life-vigour in its phase of vivifying moistness. (Cf. Strabo, X. iii. 18.)" (GDM2 p.14)

Hyetes - See Iætes.

Hygiates - See Igiates.

Hymenios - See Imænios.

Hypnophobes - See Ipnophoves.

Iætes or Hyetes - (Gr. Υετής, ΥΕΤΉΣ; Ὑετίς, ὙΕΤΊΣ; Ὑετός, ὙΕΤΌΣ; all three referring to rain) name of Dionysos, either from Hya, one of the names of his mother Semele; or, from his festivals taking place in a rainy season. (CM*p.182)

Iakkos, Iacchus, or Iacchos - (Greek: Ἴακχος) The word is often, but not always, an epithet of Dionysos or chthonic (terrestrial) Hermes. Iacchos is also called Dysaulos, who is a demi-God of the Eleusinian Mysteries, the father of Triptolemus and Eubuleus, and a brother of Celeus. Iacchos is sometimes called Thesmophoros (ed. the Lawgiver).

- Iacchus - name of Dionysos, from the noise and shouts which the Bacchanals raised at his festivals; or, from the clamor attendant on intoxication. (CM p.182)

- Iacchus - a poetic and mystical appellation of Bacchus (LD p.874, left column)

- "(Herod. viii. 65; Soph. Triptolemos, Frag. xi.; Eur. Kyk. 69 [ed. The Cyclops]; Aristoph. Bat. 316.[ed. The Frogs] ) Dionysos, as the Lord of Sound, considered as a shout personified; (Vide sup. VI. ii. 2.) from ia, a cry, a natural formation, and Bakchos (ed. Vakkhos). Ia, in Ionik ie, is equivalent to boe (ed. voe); and similarly, we find Briakchos as a varient of Iakchos. (Soph. Frag. dcccxcv.)" (GDM2 p.15)

- "No Bacchus here! Not here the dance,

or the women whirling the thyrsos,

or the timbrels shaken,

where the springs rill up!

Not here the gleam of wine,

and no more at Nysa with nymphs,

crying Iacchos! Iacchos!" (Euripides The Cyclops 63-69, trans. William Arrowsmith, 1956, Univ. of Chicago Press, from The Complete Greek Tragedies Vol.III Euripides, p.235)

- "CHORUS: O Iacchus! power excelling,

Here in stately temples dwelling,

O Iacchus! O Iacchus!

Come to tread this verdant level,

Come to dance in mystic revel,

Come whilst round thy forehead hurtles

Many a wreath of fruitful myrtles,

Come with wild and saucy paces

Mingling in our joyous dance,

Pure and holy, which embraces

All the charms of all the Graces,

When the mystic choirs advance.

XANTHIAS: Holy and sacred queen, Demeter’s daughter,

O, what a jolly whiff of pork breathed o’er me!

DIONYSOS: Hist! and perchance you’ll get some tripe yourself.

CHORUS: Come, arise, from sleep awaking,

Come the fiery torches shaking,

O Iacchus! O Iacchus!

Morning Star that shinest nightly.

Lo, the mead is blazing brightly,

Age forgets its years and sadness,

Agèd knees curvet for gladness,

Lift thy flashing torches o’er us,

Marshal all thy blameless train,

Lead, O, lead the way before us;

Lead the lovely youthful Chorus

To the marshy flowery plain."

(Aristophanes The Frogs 329-351, trans. B. B. Rogers, Vol. VIII, Part 9. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909–14; Bartleby.com, 2001.www.bartleby.com/8/9/.)

- "Now most of the Greeks assigned to Dionysos, Apollon, Hecate, the Muses, and above all to Demeter, everything of an orgiastic or Bakkhic or choral nature, as well as the mystic element in initiations; and they give the name Iakkhos not only to Dionysus but also to the leader-in-chief of the mysteries, who is the genius (ed. daimon, spirit or attendant spirit) of Demeter." (Strabo, Geography 10. 3. 10, trans. Jones, 1917)

- "Every year the Athenians observe this festival for the Mother (ed. Demetra) and the Maiden (ed. Persephone), and any Athenian or other Hellene who wishes is initiated. The voice which you hear is the ‘Iakkhos’ (George Rawlinson translates this "Dionysiac" but the actual word is Ἰακχάζουσι) they cry at this festival." (Herodotus' Histories 8. 65. 4, trans. Godley, 1920)

Igiates or Hygiates - (Gr. Ὑγιάτης, ὙΓΙΆΤΗΣ) "The Healer. An epithet also applied to the solar Apollon. As the beneficent, wise-counselling, righteous-law-giving, (Cf. inf. Thesmophoros.) prophetic, solar divinity, lord of life and reproduction, Dionysos is necessarily a Theos Soter or Saviour Deity; the life, as well as the light, of the world. Thus the Gods shout joyously when Phibos springs up on Delos, and the people exclaim on the return of day 'Our life, our spirit is come back.' (Mythology of the Aryan Nations, i. 103.) Thus, too, Hygieia, the personification of health, is the daughter or wife of Askelpios, the great physician, who 'subsists in Apollo;' and who, according to Proklos, springs to light from the dance of the Sun-God, the Sun of Righteousness, Hyperion the Climber, 'with healing in his wings.' (Cf. Orphik Hymn, lxvii.; ed. Asklepios.)" (GDM2 p.14-15)

- ὑγῐ-άτης [ᾱ], ου, ὁ, Health-giver, a name of Dionysus, Ath.2.36b, Eust.1624.37. (L&S p.1842, left column, within the entries beginning with ὑγῐ-άζω carried over from the previous page.)

Ignigena - (Latin) [etymology: ignis - fire + gena - born {Latin borrowed from the Greek genos, γένος, ginomai, γίνομαι}] .

- Dionysos the Fire-Born; in allusion to the mode of his birth. (CM*p.182)

- Ignigena, the fire-born, a poetical epithet of Bacchus, whose mother, Semele, was killed by lightning. (LD p.880, right column)

- Ovid Metamorphosis 4. 12: variously translated as child of flaming fire (A.D. Melville), born from fire (Yasmin Syed), brought into the world by force of fire or lightning (Alexander Adam).

- Apollodoros (Frazer), Book III. IV.3, pp.317-319: "But Zeus loved Semele and bedded with her unknown to Hera. Now Zeus had agreed to do for her whatever she asked, and deceived by Hera she asked that he would come to her as he came when he was wooing Hera. Unable to refuse, Zeus came to her bridal chamber in a chariot, with lightnings and thunderings, and launched a thunderbolt. But Semele expired of fright, and Zeus, snatching the sixth-month abortive child from the fire, sewed it in his thigh. ....... But at the proper time Zeus undid the stitches and gave birth to Dionysus, and entrusted him to Hermes."

Imænios or Hymenios - (Gr. Ὑμενήϊος, ὙΜΕΝΉΙΟΣ) [ῠ], ὁ, epith. of Dionysus, AP9.524.21. (L&S p.1849. left column at the very top)

- "(Anthol. Palat. ix. 524) As God of marriage. The hymenaios (ed. ὑμέναιος) was the wedding song sung by the bride's attendants as she was conducted to the bridegroom's residence; and, afterwards, Hymen appears as the institution of marriage personified. Dionysos, as the beneficent lord of life and 'source of joy to mortals,' is appropriately connected with wedding ceremonies." (GDM2 p.15)

Indianus - the Indian Bacchus. (CM*p.182)

- (ed. or simply:) Indian (LD p. 933, center column)

Inverecundus Deus - (Latin) name of Dionysos, shameless God. (CM*p.182)

- without shame, shameless, immodest. I. of persons: Deus, i.e. Bacchus (LD p.994, left column)

Iobacchus - name of Dionysos, from the exclamation Iobacche, used in his festivals. (CM*p.182)

Ipnophoves or Hypnophobes - (Gr. Ὑπνοφόβης, ὙΠΝΟΦΌΒΗΣ) ου, ὁ, driving away sleep, of Dionysus, AP9.524.21 (L&S p.1873, right column, within the entries beginning with the word ὑπνο-φᾰνής)

- "The-terrifier-during-sleep. Applied to the God as the lord of the vine, excess of wine frequently producing dreadful dreams." (GDM2 p.15)

Irikapaios - (Ericapaeus; Gr. Ἠρικαπαῖος, ΗΡΙΚΑΠΑΙΟΣ; also: Ἠρικεπαῖος)

- In Orphic theogony, Irikapaios is Phanis (Phanes; Gr. Φάνης, ΦΑΝΗΣ), or an evolution of Phánis. Damáskios (Damascius; Gr. Δαμάσκιος) calls him Power. He is described by G.R.S. Mead (Orpheus, 1895/1965, Barnes & Noble, New York, p. 107), as one of three aspects of Phánis known as the Triple God born from the Egg. In this description, Irikapaios is the power, Mítis (Metis; Gr. Μῆτις) is intellect, while Phanis is the father. (Ibid. Mead, p. 109)

- Orphic Hymn Triætirikós (Trietericus; Gr. Τριετηρικός) 52.6, he is called Frist-Born and both the father and the son of the Gods: πρωτόγον', Ἠρικεπαῖε, θεῶν πάτερ ἠδὲ καὶ υἱέ.

- Irikapaios is a name for Diónysos. (L&S p. 778, left column)

Isodaites - (Gr. Ἰσοδαίτης, ἸΣΟΔΑΊΤΗΣ; from ἴσως, equally) "(Plout. Peri Ei, ix.) The Equal-divider. Applied to Dionysos as the God of nature who gives every one his portion in due season; the plastic spirit, who distributes the riches and treasures of the universe, and who both receives and reproduces. Hence it is also an appellation fo the Lord of the Under-world, the possessor of the buried treasures of the earth, and master of life and death; and so is at times applied to Aïdes (Cf. Hesych. in voc. Isodetes; Creuzer, Symbolik, iv. 94.)." (GDM2 p.15)

- Lexicon entry: ἰσο-δαίτης, ου, ὁ (δαίω) dividing equally, giving to all alike, epith. of Dionysus and Pluto, Plu.2.389a, Luc.Ep.Sat.32; of Pluto, Hsch. (ἰσοδέτης cod.). II. Subst., name of a δαίμων, Hyp.Fr.177. (L&S p.837, right column, within the definitions of ἰσο-γλώχῑν)

Jupiter Puer - (Latin) literally Jupiter the boy.

- "The deity who made the greatest contribution to Basque vocabulary is Zagreus-Dionysos who appears in Italy as Jupiter Puer." (Zagreus in Ancient Basque Religion by George W. Elderkin, 1952, Princeton Univ., p.1)

Kalydônios or Calydonius - (Gr. Καλυδωνιος, ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝΙΟΣ), epithet of Dionysos

- from Calydon, a city of Ætolia. (CM*p.181)

- surnamed Calydonian or Kaludônios, after the image of the God brought from Calydon to Patrae. "In this part of the city is also a sanctuary of Dionysus surnamed Calydonian, for the image of Dionysus too was brought from Calydon. When Calydon was still inhabited, among the Calydonians who became priests of the God was Coresus, who more than any other man suffered cruel wrongs because of love. He was in love with Callirhoë, a maiden. But the love of Coresus for Callirhoë was equalled by the maiden's hatred of him. When the maiden refused to change her mind, in spite of the many prayers and promises of Coresus, he then went as a suppliant to the image of Dionysus. The God listened to the prayer of his priest, and the Calydonians at once became raving as though through drink, and they were still out of their minds when death overtook them. So they appealed to the oracle at Dodona. For the inhabitants of this part of the mainland, the Aetolians and their Acarnanian and Epeirot neighbors, considered that the truest oracles were the doves and the responses from the oak. On this occasion the oracles from Dodona declared that it was the wrath of Dionysus that caused the plague, which would not cease until Coresus sacrificed to Dionysus either Callirhoë herself or one who had the courage to die in her stead. When the maiden could find no means of escape, she next appealed to her foster parents. These too failing her, there was no other way except for her to be put to the sword. When everything had been prepared for the sacrifice according to the oracle from Dodona, the maiden was led like a victim to the altar. Coresus stood ready to sacrifice, when, his resentment giving way to love, he slew himself in place of Callirhoë. He thus proved in deed that his love was more genuine than that of any other man we know. When Callirhoë saw Coresus lying dead, the maiden repented. Overcome by pity for Coresus, and by shame at her conduct towards him, she cut her throat at the spring in Calydon not far from the harbor, and later generations call the spring Callirhoë after her." (Paus. Book 7, Achaia, XXI.1-5; Loeb III, pp. 291-293)

Kathársios - (catharsius; Gr. καθάρσιος, ΚΑΘΑΡΣΙΟΣ. Adj.) Lexicon entry: κᾰθάρσιος, ον, (καθαίρω) cleansing from guilt or defilement, purifying, Ζεύς; of Dionysus; of sacrifice. (L&S p. 851, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Kerasphoros - (Gr. Κεράσφορὁς, ΚΕΡΆΣΦΟΡὉΣ) epithet of Dionysos, horned. (Luc.Bacch.2)

Kharidóhtis - (charidotes; Gr. χαριδώτης, ΧΑΡΙΔΩΤΙΣ. Noun.) Lexicon entry: χᾰρῐδώτης, ου, , joy-giver, epith. of Hermes; of Dionysus; of Zeus; Dor. χᾰρῐδώτας:—fem. χᾰρῐδῶτις, ιδος, Orph.H.55.9 (ed. Aphrodíti).

Kid - Dionysos is called Kid because, as an infant, he was transformed into a kid by Zeus after Hera had driven his care-keepers mad. "And he conveyed him to Ino and Athamas, and persuaded them to rear him as a girl. But Hera indignantly drove them mad, and Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and killed him, and Ino threw Melicertes into a boiling cauldron, then carrying it with the dead child she sprang into the deep. And she herself is called Leucothea, and the boy is called Palaemon, such being the names they get from sailors; for they succour storm-tossed mariners. And the Isthmian games were instituted by Sisyphus in honour of Melicertes. But Zeus eluded the wrath of Hera by turning Dionysus into a kid, and Hermes brought him to the nymphs who dwelt at Nysa in Asia, whom Zeus afterwards changed into stars and named them the Hyades." (Apollodoros (Frazer), Book III. IV.3, pp.319-321)

King and Successor - See Kliromonos.

Kissóvryos - (Cissobryos; Κισσόβρυος, ΚΙΣΣΟΒΡΥΟΣ) Lexicon entry: κισσόβρῠος, ον, luxuriant with ivy, Orph.Hymn 30.4. (L&S p. 954, left column.)

Kissós - (Cissus; Gr. Κισσός, ΚΙΣΣΟΣ) name of Dionysos, ivy; he was worshipped under this name at Acharnæ, in Attica, as this place was remarkable for the first growth of the ivy. (CM*p.181)

Klironómos - (Cleronomus; Gr. Κληρονόμος, ΚΛΗΡΟΝΌΜΟΣ) Diónysos is Klironómos, the heir and successor (διάδοχος) to Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς); this makes Diónysos the Sixth King.

- "(Zeus speaks) Give ear ye Gods; this one have I made your king." (Orphicorum Fragmenta 208, Rhapsodic Theogony, preserved from Próklos (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος), from Otto Kern's work, found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie in 1952, p. 141 of the 1993 edition.)

- "For Night (ed. Nyx) receives the sceptre from Phanes; Heaven (ed. Ouranós) derives from Night, the dominion over wholes; and Bacchus who is the last king of the Gods receives the kingdom from Jupiter (ed. Zefs). For the father (ed. Zefs) establishes him in the royal throne, puts into his hand the sceptre, and makes him the king of all the mundane Gods.

'Hear me ye Gods, I place over you a king.'

κλυτε θεοι τον δ' υμμιν βασιλεα τιθημι'

(Extract from the Manuscript Scolia of Proklos On the Kratýlos of Plátohn, found in The Theology of Plato: Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1816; Prometheus Trust, 1999, p. 673.)

- "Zeus then, the father, ruled all things, but Bakchos ruled after him." (Orphicorum Fragmenta 218, Rhapsodic Theogony, preserved from Próklos (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος), from Otto Kern's work, Ibid. Guthrie, p. 141)

- "By this marriage with the heavenly dragon (ed. Zefs disguised as a serpent), the womb of Persephone swelled with living fruit, and she bore Zagreus the horned baby, who by himself climbed upon the heavenly throne of Zeus and brandished lightning in his little hand, and newly born, lifted and carried thunderbolts in his tender fingers." (Nónnos [Nonnus; Gr. Νόννος] Διονυσιακά VI. 164-168, trans. W.H.D. Rouse in 1940, found on pp. 225-227 of Vol. I of the 1962 edition)

- Diónysos speaks: "Grant one grace to me the lover, O Phrygian Zeus! When I was a little one, Rheia who is still my nurse told me that you gave lightning to Zagreus, the first Dionysos, before he could speak plain---gave him your fiery lance and rattling thunder and showers of rain out of the sky, and he was another Rainy Zeus while yet a babbling baby!" (Nónnos [Nonnus; Gr. Νόννος] Διονυσιακά X.292-299, trans. by W.H.D. Rouse in 1940, found on p.349, Vol. I of the 1962 edition)

- Deriades, king of the Indians, to his troops: "I have heard how Zeus once gave his throne and the sceptre of Olympos as prerogative to Zagreus the ancient Dionysos---lightning to Zagreus, vine to wineface Bacchos!" (Nónnos [Nonnus; Gr. Νόννος] Διονυσιακά XXXIX.70-73, trans. by W.H.D. Rouse in 1940, found on p. 129, Vol. III of the 1962 edition)

- Addressed to Silenos: "Come, rouse to sacred Joy thy pupil king..." (The Hymns of Orpheus, LIII. To Silenus, Satyrus, and the Priestesses of Bacchus, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1792; found here in the 1981 reprint by the The Philosophical Research Society on p. 185. The more traditional numbering of the hymn is 54.)

- "...from Proclus, in Tim. p. 191. as follows. 'Orpheus delivers the kings of the Gods, who preside over the universe according to a perfect number; Phanes, Night (ed. Nyx), Heaven (ed. Sky, i.e. Ouranós), Saturn (ed. Krónos), Jupiter (ed. Zefs), Bacchus (ed. Diónysos). For Phanes is first adorned with a scepter, is the first king, and the celebrated Ericapæus. But the second king is Night, who receives the sceptre from the father Phanes. The third is Heaven, invested with government from Night. The fourth Saturn, the oppressor as they say of his father. The fifth is Jupiter, the ruler of his father. And the sixth of these is Bacchus." (The Hymns of Orpheus trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792; found in a footnote to hymn V. To Protogonus, on p. 119.)

Kradiaios - (Cradiæus; Gr. Κραδιαῖος, ΚΡΑΔΙΑΙΟΣ) Kradiaios Diónysos is the infant Bacchus, taken from the thigh (or genital area) of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and given to Ípta (Ippa or Hipta; Gr. Ἵπτα) to be taken to Mount Ida.

- " 'Kradiaios' can have two meanings, and this is the key to the secret. It can be derived either from kradia ("heart") or from krade ("fig tree"); in the latter case, it means an object made from a fig branch or fig wood. According to one myth, Dionysos himself fashioned a phallus from fig wood for use in a mystic rite connected with his return from the under world....According to the sources the object that was preserved by Pallas Athena was the sacrificed he-goat's male organ...it is very likely that in place of the dried member, or along with it, a phallus of fig wood was used the following year in the ceremony serving to 'awaken' Liknites, the God lying in the liknon, the basket serving as a winnow." (Dionysos by Carl Kerényi, 1976, Princeton Univ. Press, p. 260)

- κρᾰδιαῖος, α, ον, of or belonging to the heart: metaph., κόσμου κ. κύκλον Procl.H.1.6. II. made of fig-shoots, λίκνον Orph.Fr.199 (codd. Procl.); sed leg. το<ν> κ. Διόνυσον. (L&S p. 988, right column)

Krísios - (Cresius; Gr. Κρήσιος, ΚΡΗΣΙΟΣ) name of Dionysos, one of his names at Argos, which Vakkhos had selected as the place of burial for Ariadne. (CM*p.181)

- "Besides this building there is the tomb of Crotopus and a temple of Cretan Dionysus. For they say that the God, having made war on Perseus, afterwards laid aside his enmity, and received great honours at the hands of the Argives, including this precinct set specially apart for himself. It was afterwards called the precinct of the Cretan God, because, when Ariadne died, Dionysos buried her here." (Paus. ii. 23. § 7. trans. W.H.S. Jones, 1918, Loeb)

Krýphios - (Cruphius; Gr. Κρύφιος, ΚΡΥΦΙΟΣ) Diónysos is called Krýphios, secret, in Orphic Hymn 30.3. Lexicon entry: κρύφιος [], α, ον, also ος, ον:—hidden, concealed. 2. secret, clandestine. 3. occult, Procl.Inst.121, Dam.Pr.151; latent. (L&S p. 1000, right column, edited for simplicity.)


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.

We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology.

Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.

How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.

The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia, Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase (Γῆς παῖς εἰμί καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος) are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara, κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς).PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.

We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology.

Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

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ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE

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