Æpithymíama - (epithymiama; Gr. ἐπιθυμίαμα, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΜΑ. Noun.) offering of incense. Cf. Æpithymíasis.

Æpithymiáoh - (epithymiao; Gr. ἐπιθυμιάω, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΩ. Verb.) to offer incense.

Æpithymíasis - (epithymiasis; Gr. ἐπιθυμίασις, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΣΙΣ. Noun.) an offering of incense. Cf. Æpithymíama.

Æpithymiatrós - (epithymiatros; Gr. ἐπιθυμιατρός, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΤΡΟΣ. Noun.) he/she who burns incense.

Ammohniakón - (ammoniacom; Gr. ἀμμωνιακόν, ΑΜΜΩΝΙΑΚΟΝ. Noun.) gum ammoniac, incense-resin from the perennial herb Dorema ammoniacum found near the oracular shrine of Ζεύς-Ἄμμων in Egypt.

Ammoniac, Gum – See Ammohniakón.

Aróhmata - (aromata; Gr. ἀρώματα, ΑΡΩΜΑΤΑ, plural of ἄρωμα. Noun.) aromatic herbs and spices.

Aromatic Herbs – See Aróhmata.

Bay Laurel – See Dáphni.

Bdǽllion - (guggul or bdellium; Gr. βδέλλιον, ΒΔΕΛΛΙΟΝ. Noun) Bdǽllion is guggul, the oleo-gum resin collected from Commiphora wightii, also known by the name Balsamodendrum mukul, the Indian bdellium-tree. Bdǽllion is thought of as an offering to Áris (Ares or Mars; Gr. Ἄρης). Bdǽllion is believed by some to be a type of myrrh, but this is incorrect as it is entirely distinct; it comes from a different plant and has a unique fragrance. Cf. Smýrna.

Bdellium - See Bdǽllion.

Benzoin - See Stýrax.

Boat – See Navicula.

Censer – See Thymiatírion.

Copal - (Etym. from the Nahuatl [Aztec] word copalli, "incense.") Copal is a resin incense obtained from a variety of trees in Central America used ubiquitously in Mexican churches and elsewhere, as well as in Native American religious rituals from these regions. Since the copals come from various different trees, there is considerable variety in fragrance between variant types. There are resins marketed as copal which originate in East Africa as well.

Dalós - (firebrand; Gr. δαλός, ΔΑΛΟΣ. Noun.) a firebrand, likely meaning burning aromatic wood for incense.

Dáphni - (bay laurel; Gr. δάφνη, ΔΑΦΝΗ. Noun.) Laurus nobilis, the common culinary bay-leaf, used as an incense-offering.

Frankincense - See Livanohtós and Lívanos.

Galbanum - See Khalváni.

Guggul - See Bdǽllion.

Incense - See Thymía and Thymíama.

Kalkolívanos - (chalcolibanus; χαλκολίβανος, ΧΑΛΚΟΛΙΒΑΝΟΣ. Noun.) yellow frankincense, quality brass.

Khalváni - (chalbane; Gr. χαλβάνη, ΧΑΛΒΑΝΗ. Noun.) galbanum, a fragrant resin from all-heal, Ferula galbaniflua.

Krókos (crocus; Gr. κρόκος, ΚΡΟΚΟΣ. Noun.) saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, and the dried stigmas which are the culinary spice saffron.

Laurel, Bay - See Dáphni.

Ládanon - (labdanum; Gr. λάδανον, ΛΑΔΑΝΟΝ. Noun.) labdanum, a highly fragrant resin obtained from the kísthos (Gr. κίσθος, κίστος, or κισθός) shrub, rock-rose.

Livanohtós - (libanotos; Gr. λιβανωτός, ΛΙΒΑΝΩΤΟΣ. Noun.) Livanohtós is incense or frankincense. The use of frankincense is of such great antiquity and its use was so ubiquitous that this word, which originally meant simply “incense,” came to mean frankincense. Cf. Lívanos.

Lívanos - (libanos; Gr. λίβανος, ΛΙΒΑΝΟΣ. Noun.) the frankincense tree, particularly Boswellia sacra, but all of the Boswellia genus. Cf. Livanohtós.

Mánna - (Gr. μάννα, ΜΑΝΝΑ. Noun.) The incense mánna is called for in several Orphic hymns, but it is unclear what exactly it was. Mánna may be the sweet sap of Fraxinus ornus, the Flowering Ash or Ash-Manna tree, but there is great uncertainty. It may have been simply powdered frankincense.

Mýrra - (Gr. μύρρα, ΜΥΡΡΑ = σμύρνα, both Nouns.) Aeol. for smýrna, myrrh. Cf. Smýrna.

Myrrh - See Mýrra and Smýrna.

Navicula - The navicula (Latin for small ship) or boat is a portable container which holds incense supplies, incense and a spoon for placing it on the coals, this term used in Christian churches.

OlibanumOlibanum is an alternate name for frankincense. See Livanohtós.

Smýrna (myrrh; Gr. σμύρνα, ΣΜΥΡΝΑ = μύρρα, both Nouns.) myrrh, a gum obtained from Balsamodendron myrrha, an Arabian tree.

Staktí - (Gr. στακτή, ΣΤΑΚΤΗ. Noun.) oil of myrrh.

Storax – See Stýrax.

Stýrax - (storax; Gr. στύραξ, ΣΤΥΡΑΞ. Noun.) storax resin, the word also designates the tree from which the resin comes, Styrax officinalis.

Thurible - A thurible is a hanging thymiatírion (incense-burner) which can also be swung by hand to fumigate or purify. Cf. Thymiatírion and Thymiató.

Thurifer – (from Medieval Latin turibulum) priest, priestess or attendant (acolyte) who holds the thymiatírion (censer).

Thyíeis - (thyeis; Gr. θυήεις, ΘΥΕΙΣ. Pronounced: thee-EE-ees. Adjective) fragrant or smoking with incense.

Thymía - (Gr. θυμία, ΘΥΜΙΑ = θυμίαμα. Noun.) incense. See Thymíama.

Thymíama - (Gr. θυμίαμα, ΘΥΜΙΑΜΑ. Plural is θυμιάματα. Noun.) incense.

Thymiatírion - (Gr. θυμιατήριον, ΘΥΜΙΑΤΗΡΙΟΝ. Noun.) censer, an incense-burner.

Thymiató - (Gr. θυμιατό, ΘΥΜΙΑΤΟ. Noun.) Thymiató is modern Greek for the hanging thymiatírion (thurible) used in Christian churches. These often very beautiful and expensive censers can be used in Ællinismόs, if you can afford one, for general use or fumigation/purification. The three chains represent for the Christians the trinity, but they could represent for us the Three Zefs (Olympian Zefs, Poseidóhn, and Ploutohn) and the single chain from the top of the thurible could represent the Kózmos. Cf. Thymiatírion and Thurible.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.

We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology.

Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.

How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.

The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia, Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase (Γῆς παῖς εἰμί καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος) are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara, κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς).

PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology , the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

SPELLING: uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages:

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek

Transliteration of Ancient Greek

Pronouncing the Names of the Gods in Hellenismos

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