t - Illustrated Glossary of Hellenic Polytheism

T - Illustrated Glossary of Hellenic Polytheism




A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U and V W, X, and Y Z

PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this Glossary, you will find fascinating stories. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

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ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE

Τ, τ (TAU) - The Greek letter TAU (pronounced tahf) sounds like the t in Toledo or tumble. See Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.

Tækhni - (techni; Gr. τέχνη, ΤΈΧΝΗ) Tækhni is skill. Tækhni (skill) is often contrasted with tykhi (tychi or tuche: luck; Gr. Gr. τύχη, ΤΎΧΗ)

Lexicon entry: τέχνη art, skill, cunning of hand, esp. in metalworking. 2. craft, cunning, in bad sense. 3. way, manner, or means whereby a thing is gained, without any definite sense of art or craft, μηδεμιῇ τ. in no wise, Hdt.1.112; ἰθέῃ τ. straightway, Id.9.57; πάσῃ τ. by all means. II. an art, craft. III. an art or craft, i.e. a set of rules, system or method of making or doing, whether of the useful arts, or of the fine arts. IV. = τέχνημα, work of art, handiwork. V. = συντεχνία. VI. treatise on Grammar, D.T. tit., or on Rhetoric, Anaximenes Lampsacenus tit. (L&S p. 1785 left column; within the entries beginning on p. 1784 under the initial entry τεχνάζω, edited for simplicity.)

Tælæsiourgós - (telesiourgos; Gr. τελεσιουργός, ΤΕΛΕΣΙΟΥΓΟΣ) completing a work, working out its end, effective. 2. creating perfection. 3. epithet of Zeus, τελεσθεὶς Διὶ. (L&S p. 1770, right column, within the entries beginning with τελεσῐουργ-έω. Edited for simplicity.)

Tælæstiki Tækhni or Telestiki Techni - (Gr. Τελεστικη τεχνη, ΤΕΛΕΣΤΙΚΗ ΤΕΧΝΗ) Tælæstiki Tækhni is "The Telestic Art. Is the art pertaining to Mystic operations." (TTS XV p. 10)

Tælos - (telos; Gr. τέλοϛ, ΤΈΛΟΣ) Tælos is the purpose, end result, designed goal, the consummation. Tælos is the etymological root of teleology, the study of design and purpose in the kosmos.

Tarchaniota Marullus, Michael - See Mároullos, Mikhaḯl Tarkhaneióhtis .

Tartaros - the underworld, the prison of the Titan Gods. The primordial God of the pit beneath the earth, Tartaros is the son of Aether and Gaia. Uniting with his mother, Gaia, Tartaros fathered Typhoeus, the Gigantes, and Echidna.

Tauros - See Tavros.

Taurus - See Tavros.

Tavros - (Gr. Ταύρος, ΤΑΥΡΟΣ) Tavros is the eighth month of the Mystery year, beginning April 21. Tavros is the Greek equivalent of the zodiacal sign Taurus. Tavros is ruled by the Goddess Aphrothite (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη). It is a month of Stability (Stathærotita; Gr. Σταθερότητα).

Liddell & Scott defines Tavros: the bull as a sign of the Zodiac. (L&S p. 1761, left column)

Techni - See Tækhni.

Telesiourgos - See Tælæsiourgós.

Telesterion of Demeter, the - A great hall at Eleusis that could hold 3000 initiates. It was the sacred heart of Eleusis having twelve parts or levels representing the actions of the Twelve Olympians on the soul. Its etymological root is telos, the goal, the achievement of the goal.

Telestic Art - See Tælæstiki Tækhni.

Telestiki Techni - See Tælæstiki Tækhni.

Teletai - mystical rites of initiation, for instance in Orphic teaching.

Telos - See Tælos.

Temenos - (Gr. Τέμενος, ΤΈΜΕΝΟΣ) Temenos is a sacred area or yard that may or may not contain a temple.

Temenos of Dionysos - The Temenos of Dionysos was in the Limnae of Athens where were fourteen altars, representing the pairs of Titans and the centers of the soul.

Temperance - See Sohphrosýni. Please visit this page: Virtue in Hellenismos.

Terpsikhore (Terpsichore) - One of the nine Mousai (Muses), daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the Muse of choral song and dance.

terrestrial deity - See khthonios.

Tethys - See Tithys.

Θ, θ (THETA) - The Greek letter THETA is pronounced like the hard th in the word theory, not like the soft th in this or there. The soft th is the sound of the Greek letter DELTA (Δ, δ). On this website, both THETA and DELTA are represented with th, with the exception that words beginning with DELTA are spelled with a D, even though the pronunciation is like a soft th. This is a weakness in our system; for those students who wish to perfect their pronunciation, for these words (words spelled with a th) you will need to consult the actual word in Greek letters. See Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.

Thæá - (Thea; Gr. Θεά, ΘΕΑ; pronounced thay-AH') Thæá is a Goddess (singular); it is the feminine of Thæós (Gr. Θεός). The plural of Thæá is Thǽainai (Goddesses; Gr. Θέαιναι). See Thæí.

Thæí - (Theoi; Gr. Θεοί, ΘΕΟΙ; pronounced: thay-EE') Thæí is the Greek word meaning Gods or the Gods. Thæí refers to all the Gods, whether thought of as masculine or feminine. Thæí is the plural of Thæós .

Thæodikía - (Theodicy; Gr. Θεοδικία, ΘΕΟΔΙΚΙΑ. Etymology: Θεός [God] + Δίικη [Justice], thus, "the justice of God") Thæodikía is an explanation of why evil exists in a Kósmos in which the Gods are sovereign.

Thæogamía - (Theogamia; Gr. Θεογαμία, ΘΕΟΓΑΜΙΑ) Thæogamía is a festival of Íra (Hera; Gr. Ἥρα) and Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). Please visit this page: Thæogamía.

Thæogonía - Please visit these pages: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony and Orphic Cosmogony and Theogony.

Thæokólos - (theokolos; Gr. θεοκόλος, ΘΕΟΚΌΛΟΣ = θεήκολος) A thæokólos is a servant or a God, a priest. In our tradition, anyone who officiates (i.e. reads hymns) at ritual is a priest or priestess but once the ritual is concluded, they are no longer a priest/priestess.

Thæokrasía - (Gr. θεοκρασία, ΘΕΟΚΡΑΣΙΑ) mingling with God, Iamb.VP33.240, Dam.Isid.5. II. Divine Mingling, title of work by Pherecydes of Syros, Suid. (L&S)

- Thæokrasía is a term which can be equated with syncretism, but it involves more of a blending of the qualities of one God into another rather than a direct identification of one God with another, although the areas these ideas cover can be confusing.

Thælipsía - (Theolepsia; Gr. θεοληψία, ΘΕΟΛΗΨΙΑ. Etym. Θεός, a "deity" + λῆψις, "attack of," as in a fever.) Thælipsía is inspiration, Plu.2.763a. 2. superstition, ib.56e. 3 frenzy, madness, Vett.Val.210.4 (pl.). (L&S p. 790, right column)

Thæohrós - (theoros; Gr. θεωρός, ΘΕΩΡΟΣ) Lexicon entry: θεωρός, (v. infr.), envoy sent to consult an oracle; to present an offering; to be present at festivals. 2. generally, envoy, sent to kings regarded as divine. II. title of a magistrate at Mantinea; at Naupactus; at Thasos. III. spectator, opp. ἀγωνιστής; one who travels to see men and things. (L&S p. 797, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Thæológos - (Theologus; Gr. Θεολόγος, ΘΕΟΛΟΓΟΣ) Thæológos is a surname of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς) meaning theologian, primarily because he gave us the Thægonía (Theogony; Gr. Θεογονία), the origin of the Thæí (Theoi; Gr. Θεοί), the Gods. The term is also applied to Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), by the Neoplatonists.

- Lexicon entry: θεολόγος, one who discourses of the Gods, of poets such as Hesiod and Orpheus; of cosmologists (like the Orphics); of diviners and prophets. 2. theologian (L&S p. 790, right column, within the entries beginning θεολογεῖον.)

- Theologus, (Lat.), one who treats of the deity and of divine things, a theologian. (LD p. 1867, center column)

Thæopháneia - (Theophania; Gr. θεοφανεια ΘΕΟΦΑΝΕΙΑ) Thæopháneia is the appearance of a God to a mortal. Thæopháneia rarely occurs, even in the lives of the greatest of men. If a God does deem it necessary to appear to a mortal, it is highly unusual that this would occur in the waking state; such an appearance will usually appear in the state between dreaming and waking, or in a dream itself. The contents of such dreams, if genuine, are always important and they must be interpreted.

Thæorós - See Thæohrós.

Thæós - (Theos; Gr. Θεός, ΘΕΟΣ. Plural is Θεοί. ) Thæós is a divinity, a God.

Thæouryía - Please visit this page: Theurgy in Hellenismos.

Tháfmas - (Thaumas; Gr. Θαῦμας, ΘΑΥΜΑΣ) 1) Tháfmas, the sea-God, is the son of Póntos (Pontus; Gr. Πόντος) and Yaia (Gaia; Gr. Γαῖα), and he is the father of Íris (Iris; Gr. Ἶρις) and the Árpyïai (Harpies; Gr. Ἅρπυιαι). 2) There was a centaur named Tháfmas.

Thalia (1) - one of the three Graces (Charities), the Goddess of Good Cheer

Thalia or Thaleia (2) - one of the nine Mousai (Muses), daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne, mother of the Korybantes by Apollon. Thalia is the Muse of Comedy and Pastoral Poetry.

Thanatos - death

Thargelia - Thargelia is a festival celebrating the birth of Apollo. The day previous to Thargelia is the birthday of his twin sister, Artemis. Visit this page: Thargelia.

thargelos - Thargelos is a loaf, cake, or porridge of grain made as an offering to Apollo on Thargelia.

Thárros - See Thrásos.

Thársos - See Thrásos.

Thaumantos - epithet of Iris meaning 'daughter of Thaumas'.

Thaumas - See Thafmas.

Theater (Gr. Theatron, Θέατρον, ΘΈΑΤῬΟΝ) dramatic performance connected particularly with the worship of Dionysos.

Thebes - A place-name found frequently in ancient Greek literature, it must be clear that there are two entirely different cities with this name.

1) Greek Thebes is a city in southern Boeotia. It is the background for many important stories including the story of Cadmus, who founded the city, Pentheus (and thereby the God Dionysos), and the so-called Theban (or Oedipus) Cycle of tragedies by Sophocles, namely, Oedipus Tyrannus, Antigone, and Oedipus at Kolonus.

2) Egyptian Thebes was an city of Upper Egypt on the Nile, the capitol for a period. At one time, it included Karnak, Luxor, and the Valley of the Kings. It was a great center for the worship of Amon, whom we associate with Zeus. Egyptian Thebes was finally destroyed during the reign of the Emperor Augustus by Cornelius Gallus.

Theióhdohs - (theodos; Gr. θειώδως, ΘΕΙΏΔΩΣ) Theióhdohs means godliness. Cf. theiotis.

Theios - (Gr. Θεῖος, ΘΕΙΟΣ) Theios means divine.

Theios anír - (theios aner; Gr. θεῖος ἀνήρ. θεῖος means "divine" and ἀνήρ means "man.") A theios anír is one inspired by the Gods, a divinely inspired person. Such an individual was said to be Onomákritos (Onomacritus; Gr. Ὀνομάκριτος), the compiler of Orphic oracles (χρησμολόγος) in the time of Peisístratos (Peisistratus; Gr. Πεισίστρατος). Onomákritos was accused of creating oracles of his own invention and covertly adding them to his collection of known Orphic works, but a common opinion concerning Onomákritos was that he was a theios anír, and that the oracles in question are to be accepted as genuinely inspired.

Theiótis - (Gr. θειότης, ΘΕΙΌΤΗΣ) Theiótis means divine nature, divinity, godliness. Cf. Theióhdohs.

Theism - Theism is the belief in Gods or a God. There are many ways in which people believe in deity and these various beliefs have been classified with terminology in order to try to understand them; much of this terminology can be found on this page: Glossary of Hellenic Theistic Terminology.

Themis - the Titan daughter of Ouranos and Gaia (Sky and Earth). She succeeded Gaia as the prophetess at Delphi, who then gave it to Phoebe, who gave it to Apollon. Themis is the Goddess of Divine Law and teaches mankind how to worship and all the rules of justice, morality, and piety. She was a bride of Zeus before Hera, by whom she bore the following children: the Moirai, the Horai, and the Nymphai. She is also the mother of Prometheus (according to Aeschylus).

theodicy - See th æ odikia.

Theodosius I - (Flavius Theodosius I) - born 347 CE in Spain, died 395 in Milan. Theodosius I was the Roman Emperor responsible for making (Nicene) Christianity the official state religion beginning in 380 CE. His actions were the cause of the greatest persecution of all non-Christian beliefs during his reign and afterwords, the sacking and decimation of numerous temples, eventually driving opposing beliefs into absolute secrecy. The persecution was so insidious that it was not even feasible to become a martyr because your entire estate was confiscated, ruining your family.

Although Constantine I is often given credit for the Christianization of the Empire, it was Theodosius I who was responsible for absolute intolerance to all other beliefs. The persecution of the ancient way surpassed any persecution previously committed by the Roman empire against Christians and it had an entirely different motive: it was designed to completely eradicate any view other than the Christian view. No other belief was tolerated. Not only was polytheism suppressed, but even Christians who did not accept the details of the Nicene creed. In particular, the Arian Christians were declared heretics and suffered greatly, many thousands were slaughtered and survivors either converted or fled entirely from the Empire.

The Emperor took Christian authority seriously, even submitting to the penance imposed by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, who, under threat of excommunication, commanded Theodosius to wear sack-cloth and ashes and publicly repent for the slaughter of 7,000 at Thessalonika .

It was during and as a direct result of the reign of Theodosius I that the Sacred Mysteries of Eleusis (in existence since at least 1600 BCE) ended in 380 CE, the Olympic Games at Olympia (a gift-offering to Zeus) ended in 393, and the Eternal Fire of Vesta (Hestia) was extinguished at Rome in 394.

Theogamia – See Thæogamía.

Theogony - Please visit these pages: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony and Orphic Cosmogony and Theogony.

Theoi - See Thæi.

Theologus - See Thæológos.

Theophany - See Thæopháneia.

theophoric name - Etymology: theo - "deity", pherein meaning "to bear, or carry", so a theophoric name is a name the carries the deity within it. For instance, the name of the God Apollo can be found in Apollodoros, Apolloneia, Apollonios, and Apollophilios.

Theoros - See Thæohrós.

Theos - See Thæi.

therapon - servant, or warrior's attendant (such as Patroclus to Achilles) This Greek word is the root of the English word therapy. Another meaning is ritual substitute.

Theurgy - Please visit this page: Thæourgia.

Thnitós - (thenitos; Gr. θνητός, ΘΝΗΤΟΣ) Lexicon entry: θνητός, ή, όν, also ός, όν: Dor. θνᾱτός (v. infr.): Aeol. θνᾶτος:—liable to death, mortal, opp. ἀθάνατος, freq. in Hom.. 2. of things, befitting mortals, human. (L&S p. 802, right column, edited for simplicity.) Cf. Mortós and Vrotós.

Thought, Aristotle's Laws of - See Laws of Thought, Aristotle's.

Thrásos (Gr. θράσος, L&S p. 804, right column) = Thársos (Gr. θάρσος, L&S p. 785, left column) = Thárros (Gr. θάρρος, L&S p. 784, right column, starting with θαρρᾰλέος) = Courage. Cf. Andreia (Gr. Ἀνδρεία, ΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ), meaning manliness or courage. Thrásos or Courage is one of the Four Cardinal Virtues of classical antiquity. Please visit this page: Virtue in Hellenismos.

thriskeia - (threskia or threskeia; Gr. θρησκεία, ΘΡΗΣΚΕΊΑ) [pronunciation: threes-KEE-yah] Thriskeia is organized worship and ritual, the outward expression of religious belief. Thiskeia is usually translated into English with the word religion. Thriskeia is religion. When the belief system of Hellenismos is put into practice and organized into temples and ritual, this is called thriskeia. To say that Hellenismos is merely thriskeia is misleading because Hellenismos is not creedal but philosophical, in the highest sense of the term. In other words, the genuine Hellenismos is more based on the manner in which we live our lives rather than on the organized outward forms and beliefs. Thriskeia is an aspect of Hellenismos, but is not inclusive of its entire meaning.

Lexicon entry for threskeia: θρησκ-εία, Ion. θρησκ-είη, ἡ, (θρησκεύω) religious worship, cult, ritual, ἡ περὶ τὰ ἱρὰ θ. Hdt.2.18, IG12(5).141.5 (Paros, iii B.C.), J.AJ17.9.3, etc.; τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος SIG801 D (Delph., i A.D.); ἡ περί τινος θ. ib. 867.48 (Ephesus, ii A.D.): pl., rites, Hdt.2.37, D.H.2.63, PGnom. 185 (ii A.D.), Wilcken Chr.72 (iii A.D.). 2. religion, service of God, LXX Wi.14.18, Act.Ap.26.5, Ep.Jac.1.26; θ. τοῦ θεοῦ μία ἐστί, μὴ εἶναι κακόν Corp.Herm.12 fin.; ἑκατέρα θ., i.e. Christianity and Paganism, Them.Or.5.69c; θ. τῶν ἀγγέλων worshipping of angels, Ep.Col.2.18. 3. in bad sense, religious formalism, ἀντὶ ὁσιότητος Ph.1.195; θ. βιωτική vulgar superstition, Sor.1.4. (L&S p.806, left column)

thumiama (thymiama) - (Greek: θυμίαμα) Thumiama is the Greek word for incense. Incendere is the Latin word for incense.

Lexicon entry: θῡμἰἀζω (ed. thumiasdo), = θῡμἰιἀω (ed. thumiiao), Gp.I 2.8.8. θῡμἰαἰνω (ed. thumiaiuo),= θῡμἰιἀω (ed. thumiiao), Gloss. θῡμἰᾱμα (ed. thumiama), Ion. θῡμἰηυα (ed. thumiayua), ατος, τὀ,incense (L&S p.809)

Dictionary entry: Incense, subs. P. and V. θῡμιαμᾰτα (ed. thumiamata), τἀ, V. ἐπῐθῡμιαμᾰτα (ed.epithumiamata), τἀ. Fill with incense, v. trans. V. θειοῦν (ed. theioun) (Eur., Hel. 866). Burn as incense: V. ἐκθῡμιᾶν (ed. ekthumian). Reeking with incense, adj.: V. θυοδὀκος (ed. thuodokos). (English-Greek Dictionary, compiled by S.C. Woodhouse, 1910; found in the 1987 Routledge & Kegan Paul edition on p.427)

Thunderbolt - See Kæravnós.

thymós - (Gr. θῡμός, ΘῩΜΌΣ) Thymós is "anger: An appetite of the soul directed to the avengement of incidental molestations." (TTS XV p.10) In reality, this ancient word has many meanings, as can be seen in the lexicon entry


- Lexicon entry: θῡμός, ὁ, soul, spirit, as the principle of life, feeling and thought, esp. of strong feeling and passion (rightly derived from θύω (B) by Pl.Cra. 419e ἀπὸ τῆς θύσεως καὶ ζέσεως τῆς ψυχῆς): I. in physical sense, breath, life. 2. spirit, strength. 3. πάτασσε δὲ θ. ἑκάστου each man's heart beat high. II. soul, as shown by the feelings and passions; and so, 1. desire or inclination, esp. desire for meat and drink, appetite. 2. mind, temper, will. 3. spirit, courage; personified, Passion, Emotion. 4. the seat of anger. 5. the heart, as the seat of the emotions, esp. joy or grief. 6. mind, soul, as the seat of thought. (L&S p. 810, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Thyræus - (Gr) surname of Apollo from a word signifying gate, entrance: his altars were often placed inentrances. (CM p.24)

Thyrsos - (Thyrsus; Gr. Θύρσος, ΘΎΡΣΟΣ) The Thyrsos is a staff made of fennel, covered in ivy, and topped with a pine cone. The Thyrsos is used by the devotees of Dionysos in ritual. It is a phallic symbol. The pine is a tree sacred to Iphaistos, the great Olympian God, and the pine-cone is related symbolically to the Fire of the God, pushing the soul to the higher levels, to deification, like a swirling rhombos (rhombus; Gr. ῥόμβος).

Thraicius Sacerdos - surname of Orpheus, from his Thracian origin. (CM p.443)

Thrásos - (Gr. θράσος, L&S p. 804) = Thásos (Gr. θράσος, L&S p. 785) = Thárros (Gr. θάρρος, L&S p. 784 starting with θαρρᾰλέος) Thrásos is Courage, one of the Four Cardinal Virtues of classical antiquity. Cf. Andreia.

Thyrxeus - surname of Apollo. He had an oracle of universal resort under this name at Cyane in Lycia, where the votaries of the God, by looking into a fountain which was sacred to him, were able to discover all they wished to know. (CM p.24)

Timí - (τιμή, ΤΙΜΗ) Lexicon entry: τῑμ-ή, ἡ, (τίω, v. ad fin.). worship, esteem, honour, and in pl. honours, such as are accorded to Gods or to superiors, or bestowed (whether by Gods or men) as a reward for services. 2.honour, dignity, lordship. 3. a dignity, office, magistracy, and in pl., civic honours. b. a person in authority, an authority. 4. present of honour, compliment, offering, e.g. to the Gods. II. of things, worth, value, price. 2.valuation, estimate, for purposes of assessment. III. compensation, satisfaction, penalty. (L&S p. 1793, right column, within the entries beginning with τῑμέω, edited for simplicity) Cf. Klǽos and Dóxa.

Titán - (Gr. Τιτάν. Plural is Titánæs or Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες) Please visit this page: Titans-Titánæs-Τιτᾶνες.

Titánæs - (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες) Titánæs is the plural of Titán. For more information on the Titánæs, please visit this page: Titans-Titánæs-Τιτᾶνες.

Tithys or Tethys - (Gr. Τηθύς, ΤΗΘΎΣ) Tithys is the Sea.

Lexicon entry: Τηθύς, ύος, ἡ, Tethys, wife of Oceanus, nurse of Hera, Il.14.201, 302; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, mother of the river-gods and Oceanides,Hes.Th.136,337, cf. A.Pr.137 (anap.), Th.311 (lyr.); Ὠκεανὸν . . καὶ Τηθὺν ἐποίησαν τῆς γενέσεως πατέρας Arist.Metaph. 983b30; taken as type of a very old woman, prob. in Call.Iamb.1.248(Hermes 69.174); cf. προτήθυς. II. in later writers, the Sea, Lyc.1069, AP7.214.6 (Arch.), Nonn.D.31.187, Orph.A.335, etc., cf. Porph. ap. Eus.PE3.11, Suid. [ῡ in disyll. cases, ῠin trisyll.] (L&S p. 1786, right column)

The Sea has symbolism in Hellenismos. The Sea represents the middle area of the soul, the middle area of the Orphic egg, the dominion of Poseithohn (Poseidon; Gr. Gr. Ποσειδῶν, ΠΟΣΕΙΔΩΝ), for Poseithohn rules all the sea and the Middle Sky extending to the Moon. So, the Sea represents the influence of Poseithohn. This influence of Poseithohn is the Progress, or evolution, of the soul, the sixth Natural Law.

Tityus - described alternately as a son of Gaia, or the son of Zeus and Elara. He was a giant and the father of Europa. He assaulted Leto, the mother of Apollo, and was then slain by Apollo and his sister Artemis.

Toksotis - See Toxotis.

Tólma - (Gr. τόλμα, ΤΟΛΜΑ) Tólma is a Greek cosmological term meaning audacity or daring; it represents the Orphic Earth (Gaia) rupturing the Primordial mixture, asserting itself as separate.

Top - The Top is one of the Toys of Diónysos. See Rómvos.

Toxotis - (Gr. Τοξότης,ΤΟΞΟΤΗΣ) Toxotis is the third month of the Mystery year, beginning November 21. Toxotis is the Greek equivalent of the zodiacal sign Sagittarius. Toxotis is ruled by the Goddess Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις, ἌΡΤΕΜΙΣ). It is a month of Changing (Mætavoli; Gr. Μεταϐολἠ).

Toxotis is described in Liddell & Scott as the Archer, Sagittarius, a sign in the Zodiac. (L&S p.1805, right column)

Toys of Dionysos - Please visit this page: The Toys of Diónysos.

Transmigration of the soul - Please visit this page: REINCARNATION.

trees - The tree is symbolic in Hellenic religion of the Ethereal Vehicle of the soul and the various trees are sacred to different Gods and Goddesses.

Hestia - the chaste tree

Ares - manna ash (not with certainty)

Artemis - walnut and cypress

Hera - the chaste tree and pomegranate

Poseidon - the pine tree

Athena - the olive tree

Aphrodite - apple and myrtle

Apollo - laurel and larkspur

Hermes - the strawberry tree

Zeus - the oak (Greek: drus) as well as the olive tree

Demetra - although wheat, barley, and mint are sacred to her, no tree seems to be associated with Demetra

Dionysos - silver fir

THE TREES UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE GODS: THE GODS, according to an ancient legend, made choice of certain trees to be under their special protection. Jupiter chose the oak, Venus the myrtle, Apollo the laurel, Cybele the pine, and Hercules the poplar. Minerva, wondering why they had preferred trees not yielding fruit, inquired the reason for their choice. Jupiter replied, "It is lest we should seem to covet the honor for the fruit." But said Minerva, "Let anyone say what he will the olive is more dear to me on account of its fruit." Then said Jupiter, "My daughter, you are rightly called wise; for unless what we do is useful, the glory of it is vain." (Aesop's Fables, Fable No. 268, trans. George Fyler Townsend, 1871.)

Tríaina (Trident; Gr. Τρίαινα, ΤΡΙΑΙΝΑ. Roman: Fuscina or Tridens.) The Tríaina is the three-pronged spear or scepter of Poseidóhn which has the power to cause earthquakes, sea-storms, and even to crack rocks.

Trident - See Tríaina.

Triennial feasts - see Trieterika.

Trieterika (Trieterica) - (Greek: Τριετηρικου, ΤΡΙΕΤΗΡΙΚΟΥ) the Triennial Feasts of Dionysos. The festivals are honored in the 52nd Orphic Hymn, To the God of Triennial Feasts (LI. To Trietericus, in Taylor). The word is defined as three years, but the meaning is a bit unclear as some sources say alternate years; Athanassakis says this in his commentary to the hymns on p.129 (yet he cites the Homeric Hymn To Dionysos 1.11 "so shall mortals ever sacrifice perfect hecatombs to you at your feasts each three years."- Evelyn-White translation). The Perseus Latin study tool explains the Latin Trietericus: "of three years, i. e. (since in reckoning intervals of time both extremes were counted), biennial, of alternate years." This is in agreement with Farnell's The Cults of the Greek States Vol.5, p.178: "It appears also, from Ovid's account of them, that the Trieterica were always held in the winter. Now there is nothing in nature that regularly takes place in the winter of every alternate year that primitive man could possibly observe." What exactly the feasts celebrated is equally obscure.

Triple Heart, The - A prayer to Apollo in English and ancient Greek: THE TRIPLE HEART - ΤΡΙΠΛΉ ΚΑΡΔΊΑ.

Tripli Karthia - A prayer to Apollo in English and ancient Greek: THE TRIPLE HEART - ΤΡΙΠΛΉ ΚΑΡΔΊΑ.

Tripod - See Tripous.

Tripous - (Tripod; Gr. Τρίπους, ΤΡΊΠΟΥΣ) The Tripous is the three-legged seat of the Pythia (Gr. Πυθία), the priestess who was chosen to act as the voice of the Oracle of Apollohn at the God's sanctuary at Dælphi (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί). The seat of the Tripous is symbolic of the soul; the three legs symbolize the phallic or fertilizing ability of the three parts of soul.

Triptolemos - [Greek: Τριπτόλεμος] The parentage of Triptolemos varies greatly depending on what source you quote from: Okeanos and Gaia, Trokhilos & Eleusis, Keleos and Mataneira, etc. For the purpose of this article, we view Triptolemos as the son of King Celeus of Eleusis by Metaneira. He is a demi-God and is closely associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries.

While Queen Demetra was searching for her daughter Persephone, King Celeus received her with great kindness. Demeter taught his son, prince Triptolemos, agriculture, and she gave him seeds and a winged chariot drawn by serpents so that he might travel the world teaching this great gift.

In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Triptolemos (along with Celeus, Diocles, Eumolpos, and Polyxeinus) is described as one of the first great priests of the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Tritogeneia - an epithet of Athena. The meaning of Tritogeneia is not certain. By some accounts, Athena was born near Lake Triton (Tritonis) in Libya, or the stream named Triton in Boeotia. Other suggestions are "Triton-born", or "Third-born", or from the Athamanian dialect tritô meaning "head", thus, born from the head of Zeus.

Trojan War - Perhaps the most famous war of all time, the Trojan war was believed by people in antiquity to have occurred somewhere around the 13th or 12th Century BCE. These events were accepted as history and not thought of as mere legend.

The war was fought over Helen, the wife of Menelaus, who was abducted by the Trojan prince Paris (Alexandros) and brought back to Troy. This war is a major Hellenic myth and many scholars believe that it is a historical event. The account of the war is associated with Homer's epic poem The Iliad, but the poem only recounts events from the final year of the decade-long war, ending before the sacking of the city. The narrative is part of a great stream of mythology which can be traced back to the beginnings of the Gods themselves, and in particular, to the family descended from King Tantalus. The chronology culminates after the Trojan War with the Trial of Orestes.

Tropai - See Tropí.

Tropí (Gr. Τροπή, singular. Τροπαί, plural) a turning. 2. Solstice. A Tropí is a Solstice. Cf. Iliostásio.

Tros - Son of Ericthonius, king of Dardania. He was the father of Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. The city of Troy was named after him and another name associated with Troy, Illion, derives from his son's name. It is also from his name that the Dardanians were called Trojans.

tuche - See tykhi.

tutelary deity - see patron deity.

Twelve Days of Dionysos - The Twelve Days of Dionysos is a holiday beginning on December 24 of each year in honor of Dionysos. Visit this page: Twelve Days of Dionysos

Twelve Olympian Gods - visit this page: Olympian Gods and Dionysos

tychi - See tykhi.

tykhi, tyche, tychi or tuche - (Gr. τύχη, ΤΎΧΗ) Tykhi is luck, fate, chance, or fortune. Tykhi (luck) can be contrasted with tækhni (techni or skill; Gr. τέχνη, ΤΈΧΝΗ). Tykhi is also personified as a Goddess; the Romans called her Fortuna.

Lexicon entry (greatly simplified): τύχη the act of a God. b. the act of a human being, πέμψον τιν' ὅστις σημανεῖ—ποίας τύχας; will order—what action? Id.IT1209 (troch.). 2. esp. ἀναγκαία τύχη, as a paraphrase for Ἀνάγκη, Necessity, Fate. II. regarded as an agent or cause beyond human control: 1. fortune, providence, fate. 2. chance, regarded as an impersonal cause. III. regarded as a result: 1. good fortune, success. 2. ill fortune. 3. in a neutral sense, mostly in pl. 'fortunes'. 4. the quality of the fortune or fate may be indicated by an Adj. 5. with gen. (or possess. Adj.) of the person who enjoys or endures the fortune or fate. IV. the τ. or ἀγαθὴ τ. of a person or city is sts. thought of as permanently belonging to him or it, as a faculty for good fortune, destiny, almost = δαίμων. 2. = Lat. Fortuna. 3. position, station in life. V. Astrol. uses: 1. = Σελήνη, Vett. Val.126.15; ἀγαθὴ τ. the κλῆρος of the moon, Cat.Cod.Astr.4.81. 2. ἀγαθὴ and κακὴ τ. names of two of the twelve regions. (L&S p.1839, left column)

Typhaon, Typhon, Typhoeus - There is confusion with these names:

1) Typhaon, called a monstrous plague to man, was given birth by Queen Hera alone, without it having a father, and then Hera gave him to the Python at Delphi. The Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo describes this story. Apollo then goes on to destroy the Python, but the hymn is confusing at this point, and it would be easy to mistake it as saying that Apollon slew Typhaon. But it was the Python that he slew.

2) Hesiod describes Typhaon as the result of the mating of Typhoeus with a terrible hurricane. This Typhaon consorted with Echidna and produced the Chimera, the Sphinx, Cerberus, and the Lernaean Hydra.

3) Typhoeus or Typhon, the youngest son of Tartaros and Gaia, is depicted as a storm daemon with a hundred heads, serpentine legs, and wings. Gaia, angered at Zeus for having bound the Titans in Tartaros, produced the Typhon and the Giants to dethrone him, unsuccessfully.

ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE

The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kosmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages:

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek

Transliteration of Ancient Greek

Pronouncing the Names of the Gods in Hellenismos

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