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TITANS - ΤΙΤΑΝΕΣ
Who Stretch the Soul


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TITÁNÆS: OPENING STATEMENTS

Titánæs (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες [plural]. Τιτάν is singular. Τιτανίς is feminine singular. Τιτανίδες is feminine plural. Note: We are generally using the term Titánæs to refer to both the female and male deities, but the word is actually masculine. Etym. from the verb τιταίνω "stretch" "exert" [Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 207]; the Titánæs stretch the soul.)

The Titánæs are great Gods of Ællinismόs (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. They are the forefathers of everything. They are the powers of the natural world. It is critical to have some grasp of their function, since they are central to the kozmology, the functioning of the universe. They play a significant role in the mythology of Orphismós (Orphism; Gr. Ορφισμός), which is the teachings of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς), the great Thæólogos (theologist; Gr. Θεόλογὁς) of Ællinismόs, and by extension, they play a significant role in the Mystíria, the deepest meaning of the religion, for Orphéfs is the founder of the Mysteries.

The Elder Titánæs are members of the Ouranídai (Οὐρανίδαι), the sons (Τιτᾶνες) and daughters (Τιτανίδες) of Yaia (Γαῖα) and Ouranós (Οὐρανός). The Titánæs exercised dominion over the Kózmos (Κόσμος) in the Silver Age (according to the Orphic view), and had as their rulers majestic Rǽa and Krónos, all this before Zefs (Ζεύς) and the Olympians assumed power. The Titánæs are connected with the seven centers of the soul and with the Toys of Diónysos, which represent the Mystíria (Gr. Μυστήρια). In the Mysteries, we talk of seven pairs of Titánæs, but in the writings of various mythographers, you will find lists of sometimes six or sometimes seven of the Elder Titánæs, along with their Goddess consorts.

Promithéfs (Προμηθεύς), the Younger Titán, is often thought of as the great benefactor of mankind, for in his mythology, he gave to man the gift of fire and other wondrous things, with no regard for his own comfort. But it is not just Promithéfs; all of the Titánæs have given mankind great gifts, as is stated by the ancient historian Diódohros Sikæliótis (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης) in his Vivliothíki Istorikí (Historical Library; Gr. Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική):

"Each one of them was the discoverer of things of benefit to mankind, and because of the benefaction they conferred upon all men, they were accorded honours and everlasting fame." 
(Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική 5.66.3, trans. C. H. Oldfather, 1939. Diodorus of Sicily: The Library of History III, Harvard Univ. Press [Cambridge MA and London England] where this quotation may be found on p. 275.)

Therefore, when the mythology at times depicts the Titánæs in ways which could be construed as unfavorable, remember that the Greeks very much enjoy telling a good story, and they are not at all afraid to take poetic liberties, sometimes of a grand nature. They relish their embellishments, using considerable ingenuity to conceal things from the ears of those who would be inappropriate for the precious content which lies at the heart of the the tales they tell, wonderful tales which are frequently misunderstood.


THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE TITÁNÆS

The Titánæs and the Titanídæs each have their own individual stories which tell of their births and magnificent qualities, but there are three narratives in which these deities act as a group:


The Defeat of Ouranós and the Reign of Rǽa and Krónos

According to the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony, two groups of children were born to 
Yaia and Ouranós; these were the Kýklohpæs (Cyclops; Gr. Κύκλωπες, plural), each of which had but one eye, and the Ækatóngkheiræs (The Hundred-handers; Gr. Ἑκατόγχειρες), each of whom had one-hundred arms and fifty heads. They were an unruly bunch and hated by their father who hid them in the deep recesses of Earth. This greatly displeased their mother who plotted against him. In secret, she conceived seven mighty sons and lovely daughters, the great Titánæs. Yaia made an admantine sickle and conspired with her sons to execute her plan, with Krónos as their leader. When Ouranós came to lie with Yaia and stretched out his great body, the Titánæs bound him while Krónos took the sickle and severed his father's genitals, casting them into the sea; a foam formed from which emerged beautiful Aphrodíti (Gr. Ἀφροδίτη).

The Titánæs now assumed dominion over the Kózmos (Κόσμος) during the period known as the Silver Age, with Rǽa and Krónos as rulers. Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) calls this the Golden Age but it is different in the Orphic literature.


The Defeat of Krónos and the Reign of Íra and Zefs

Krónos had been given an oracle that one of his own offspring would overthrow him as he had overthrown his own father; to prevent this, he swallowed each of his children as they were bore to Rǽa. This continued for some time until Rǽa could bare it no longer. When she gave birth to mighty Zefs she brought the infant to the Cave of Nyx (Νύξ) for safe-keeping. She swaddled a stone and fed it to Krónos, who swallowed it thinking that it was the newborn baby. The stone acted as an emetic and Krónos vomited up all the children who then assumed their places in the Kózmos, but the time was not yet ripe for Zefs

Now when Zefs had grown in strength, Nyx advised him to find a means to intoxicate his father with honey and follow him into the oaken wood. Zefs confided this to his mother who took the advice and held a banquet for her husband. She served him great drafts of honey and Krónos' head began to swirl. He wandered off into the woods and collapsed to the forest floor where the Titanic conspirators bound him. Zefs then castrated him just as Krónos had castrated his own father. Zefs is now Ýpatos (Ὕπατος), the highest, the supreme deity and he reigns with glorious Íra at his side, who is his equal.

Again, this story is told differently in Isíodos' Theogony.


The Sacrifice of Zagréfs

The third narrative in which the Titánæs act as a group concerns the life of Zagréfs (Zagreus; Gr. Ζαγρεύς). This story is told in its most complete form in the Dionysiaká (Διονυσιακά) of Nónnos of Panopolítis (Νόννος ὁ Πανοπολίτης), and what is missing from this narrative can be reconstructed from the Orphic fragments collected by Otto Kern. 

Zefs produced a son with Pærsæphóni (Περσεφόνη) (Orphic Frag. 58, Νόννος 6.155-168). He named this son Zagréfs and presented him to the Titánæs and all the Gods. He then gave Zagréfs his thunderbolts and declared him king (O.F. 208). The Titánæs covered their faces with chalk (Νόννος 6.169) and lured the God with a basket of toys (O.F. 34). Zagréfs picked up from this basket a mirror, which mesmerized him, giving the Titánæs their chance. They seized little Zagréfs and with knives dismembered him (Νόννος 155-205). Into seven parts did they divide him (O.F. 34, 35, 210) and Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) was sent to retrieve still beating heart, which she delivered to her father in a silver casket; the limbs were taken to Mount Parnassós (Παρνασσός) by Apóllohn (O.F. 210 & 35). Zefs blasted the Titánæs with a thunderbolt (O.F. 35) and from this blast came forth soot from which Zefs fashioned a new generation (O.F. 140, 220), and the souls of all the creatures are immortal for these souls are born from aithír (αἰθήρ) (O.F. 228) of the child-God. And from the heart of Zagréfs was soon to be born Diónysos (Νόννος 24.48).

This mythology conceals a deeper meaning. The Titánæs are presented with Zagréfs; he is presented as their king. They invite Zagréfs with symbolic toys, beginning with the Mirror; they "stretch" the centers of his soul, preparing him for the influence of mighty Zéfs, a great metamorphosis. 

Next comes the great ritual. When mortals do ritual, it is a holy act, but when Gods do ritual, it is monumental. The victim is not an animal; the victim is not human: the Titánæs are going to sacrifice Zagréfs who is a God. They prepare the victim by cutting him into pieces, leaving aside his limbs and heart. Next they place the meat on spits, roast it and partake of the offerings by eating some. The meaning of the actions of the Titánæs can be gleaned from various descriptions of sacrifice from ancient literature.

The offering is received by the king of Gods and men. Zefs blasted the Titánæs with his thunderbolts, which indicates an enormous metamorphosis. From the ashes Zefs creates a new generation of man infused with the divinity of Zagréfs, infused with Aithír, and infused with the essence of the Titánæs, the powers of the natural world. The little beating heart of Zagréfs is then conceived in Sæmǽli (Semele; Gr. Σεμέλη), later to be sewn into the leg of Zefs and transformed into Diónysos. All these stories can be found in more complete form in the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony: The Sixth King.

The sacrifice of Zagréfs and the eating of his flesh is echoed in our ritual when we make offerings. The offerings are given to the Gods, they become the property of the Gods. When we share in the offerings, such as sipping some of the libation, we are sharing in the possession of the Gods, and taking part in what belongs to them. It is a form of communion.



IDEAS ABOUT THE TITÁNÆS

Having heard these stories about the Titánæs, it would be easy to assume that they are some kind of evil beings, castrating fathers and slicing apart children, but the reality is the exact opposite. The mythology is symbolic. We know the Titánæs are Gods and that the nature of all Gods is benevolent. In the words of Plátohn 

(Plato; Gr. 

Ρλάτων):

"Whereas, the truth is that God is never in any way unrighteous--he is perfect righteousness..." (Πλάτων Θεαίτητος 176, trans. Benjamin Jowett, 1892.)

When you examine the individual qualities of the Titánæs, you will find that they are the source of all good things: the great streams and rivers of the world; the sun, the moon, and the constellations of stars; law and justice; as well as the very existence of mankind itself, because they are said to have created mortal beings. Indeed, the Titánæs are the source of all these gifts and many others as well.

There is an interpretation of the mythology of the castration of Ouranós which considers the image of Sky (Ouranós means "sky"), laying down on Earth, with the Titánæs at the four corners, holding him down, such that the entire Kózmos is held in place by the Titánæs, like pillars, with Kíos (Κοῖος) in the north, Kreios (Κρεῖος) at the south, Iapætós (Ἰαπετός) in the east, Ypæríohn (Ὑπερίων) in the west, and Krónos (Κρόνος), as Time, at the center. Surrounding all this, the mighty river Okæanós (Ὠκεανός) flows. 

Another interpretation is that the castration of Ouranós is the transference of the generative power in the procession of kingship, the progression of Aithír (Αἰθήρ), the active and productive element, the unfolding known as the Six Vasileis (Basileis = Kings; Gr. Βασιλεῖς), with the generative power at last being transferred to Zefs (Ζεύς).

Yet another way to understand the magnificence of the Titánæs is to consider their very antique and venerable place in the generation of the Kózmos, and their position in the family-line of the Gods. What is called the first generation of deities are the primordial Gods, those mighty ones such as Phánis (Φάνης), Nyx (Νύξ), Yaia and Ouranós. The Titánæs follow directly after and are the second generation of Gods. The third generation is that of the glorious Olympians. The Titánæs generate and have control over natural phenomena, while the Olympians have dominion over the underlying natural laws which govern these phenomena and all existence. Every God in the universe is worthy of worship, but these early generations of Gods are deserving of the greatest veneration and awe.


THE SEVEN PAIRS OF TITANS: The Elder Titans
 
The first six pairs of Titans in this list are members of the Ouranídai (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 134), that is, progeny of Ouranós and Yaia. They are called Elder Titans. The last pair, Dióhni (Διώνη) and Promithéfs (Προμηθεύς), are younger Titans. Taken together, they are known as the Seven Pairs of Titans.

1. Rǽa and Krónos

Krónos (Κρόνοςis the youngest (last-born) of the Titánæs (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 137) and the greatest. Krónos deposed his father Ouranós by castrating him, thus becoming the fourth in the progression of Aithír (Αἰθήρ) known as the Six Kings. He had dominion over the Kózmos in the Silver Age (Orphic frag. 140. Πρόκλος Commentary on Rempubl. II 74, 26 KrἩσίοδος calls this the Golden Age.) Ouranós is a pre-form of Krónos as Krónos is a pre-form of Zefs (Ζεύς), his son.

Rǽa (Rhea; Gr. Ῥέα, meaning "easily" or "effortlessly." Etym. ῥέω "to flow, stream." [Πλάτων Κρατύλος 402] Also, ῥᾶ "easily."), according to Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 133, is the daughter of Ouranós (Οὐρανός) and Yi (Γῆ), like her brother and husband Krónos. To Krónos she bore Æstía (Ἑστία), Dimítir (Δημήτηρ), Íra (Ήρα), Ploutohn (Πλούτων), Poseidóhn (Ποσειδῶν), and Zefs (Ζεύς). Krónos devoured all his children, and would have done so to Zefs as well, but for a trick of Rǽa. When Zefs grew sufficiently in strength, he deposed and castrated Krónos (Orphic frag. 154: ὃ καὶ πάσχει ὁ Κρόνος καὶ δεθεὶς ἐκτέμνεται ὡς ὁ Οὐρανός). The Olympians, under the rule of Zefs, have assumed power over the Kózmos forever.

Rǽa is equated with the Mother of the Gods, the Phrygian Kyvǽli (Κυβέλη), who taught Diónysos the Mysteries (Ἀπολλόδωρος Βιβλιοθήκη Book 3.5.1). Diónysos imparted the Mystíria to Khárohps (Χάρωψ), to whom he gave the kingdom of Thráki (Θράκη). Khárohps gave them to his son Íagros (Οἴαγρος), who in turn taught them to his son, Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς). Orphéfs disseminated the Mysteries throughout the world and thereby provides the means to be freed from the sorrowful circle of births (κύκλος γενέσεως).

Rǽa is the second in the progression of Earth known as the Three Vasíleiai (βασίλειαι), the Three Queens: Yaia, Rǽa, and Íra. Rǽa is, therefore, a pre-form of Íra.


2. Tithýs and Okæanós 

Okæanós (Oceanus or Ocean; Gr. Ὠκεανός) is the God of the great river which surrounds the earth; Tithýs (Tethys; Gr. Τηθύς. Etym. τήθη "grandmother."), his sister and wife, is its Goddess. 

By Okæanós, Tithýs gave birth to the mighty fresh-water rivers (Ποταμοί); she gave birth to her daughters the Nýmphai (Νύμφαι) of the streams, springs, and fountains who are called the Okæanídæs (Ὠκεανίδες[Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 337-370]; and she gave birth to the Clouds (Νεφέλαι) [Orphic Hymn 22, line 7].

Okæanós, according to the mythology, is the first-born of the Titánæs, as said by Ἡσίοδος in his Thæogonía. The opening of the Orphic Hymn to Okæanós attributes to him an intimate connection to the birth of the Gods:

"Ocean I call, whose nature ever flows, From whom at first both Gods and men arose." (Trans. Thomas Taylor, 1792.)

This same thought occurs in Ἰλιάς as Íra (Ἥρα) speaks (line 200):

"I am going to the world's end, to visit Oceanus, from whom all we Gods proceed..."
(Ὅμηρος Ἰλιάς 14.200, trans. Samuel Butler 1898.)

Amongst many other children of these Gods, Okæanós bore by Tithýs the river Styx (Στύξ) by which the Gods swear oaths which may not be broken.

3. Phívi and Kíos 

Phívi (Phoebe; Gr. Φοίβη, "the bright one.") is the great deity by whose means oracular ability is passed down. To her husband Kíos (Κοῖος), Phívi bore Astæría (Ἀστερία, the "starry one") who, in turn, bore Ækáti (Ἑκάτη [Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 409-412], the great Goddess of Virtue who gives oracles concerning areas which are hidden to us, as though in darkness. And Phívi and Kíos also brought forth Litóh (Λητώ) [Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 404-406], who coupled with Zefs and gave birth to Ártæmis (Ἄρτεμις) and Apóllohn (Ἀπόλλων). Apóllohn is the mighty God of light, who speaks the oracles of his father. Phívi had possession of the oracle at Dælphí (Δελφοί). Yaia (Γαῖα) held it first, but Yaia gave it to Thǽmis (Θέμις), who in turn gave it to Phívi. Finally, Phívi made a present of the Dælphic Oracle to Apóllohn (Αἰσχύλος Εὐμενίδες opening verse), who, thereby, is in possession of the oracle of both Earth (through Phívi) and Heaven (through Zefs).

Κοῖος is the Ionic spelling of ποῖος, which is a word of querying; hence, Kíos is thought of as a God of the intellect, the questioning mind. The Latin mythographer Hyginus calls him Polus, after the Greek Pólos (Πόλος), which is the axis of the celestial sphere. His wife, Phívi (Φοίβη), had dominion over Dælphí (Δελφοί); Dælphí is the axis of the earth, corresponding to the celestial axis of her husband Kíos.

4. Theia Evrypháæssa and Ypæríohn

Theia: (Theia Euryphaessa; Gr. Θεία Εὐρυφάεσσα. Etym. θεία means "aunt," or from θειάζω, which means "inspired" or "oracular," also θέα, "sight." Εὐρυφάεσσα is an epithet of the Goddess meaning "far-shining.") Theia is the Titan Goddess of light and is associated with glittering gold, the color most associated with the Gods. Her light illuminates not only the precious metals of gold and silver, but it shines through and glorifies the precious gems of the world. Theia is bound in love to her husband, Ypæríohn, by whom she bore illustrious children of light: Sælíni (Σελήνη), the Goddess of the Moon; Ióhs (Ἠώς), the Goddess of Dawn; and Ílios (Ἥλιος), the God of the Sun [Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 371].

Ypæríohn: (Hyperion; Gr. Ὑπερίων. Etym. ὑπέρ "above," the high one.) As stated above, Ypæríohn and Theia are the parents of the Sun, the Moon, and the Dawn (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 371). Ypæríohn is the source of these heavenly bodies, admirable not only for their light, but also for how they assist mankind in the measurement of time, in particular, the months and days.

5. Thǽmis and Iapætós
Thǽmis (Themis; Gr. Θέμις. Etym. θέμις is "law and justice as established by custom.") was the wife of Zefs before Íra (Ἥρα). By him she bore the Órai (Ὧραι): Evnomía (Eunomia or Good Order; Gr. Εὐνομία), Díki (Dike or Justice; Gr. Δίκη), and Eiríni (Eirene or Peace; Gr. Εἰρήνη), which is indicative of the nature of Thǽmis as being the great Goddess of divine Law. Thǽmis also bore by Zefs the Mírai (Μοῖραι): Klohthóh (Κλωθώ), Lákhæsis (Λάχεσις), and Átropos (Ἄτροπος). All this can be found in Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία at 901-906.

Thǽmis reveals the will of the Gods and divine law and justice to mankind by means of her oracular ability (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική Book V. 67. 4). Yaia (Γαῖα) held the oracle at Dælphí (Δελφοί) and gave it to Thǽmis; Thǽmis gave the oracle to Phívi, who then made a present of it to Apóllohn (Αἰσχύλος Εὐμενίδες opening verse).

Iapætós (Iapetus or Japetus; Gr. Ἰαπετός. Etym. ἰάπτω meaning "to wound, pierce, spear") is a great benefactor and ancestor of mankind and all things mortal, for his sons, Promithéfs and Æpimithéfs, are said to have created the race of men.

The sons of Iapætós are all by Klymǽni (Κλυμένη) [Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 371] who is always listed as his wife. Nonetheless, there is an interesting confusion with this mythology where, for instance, Αἰσχύλος in Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης (8, 211, and 873) says that Thǽmis or Yaia is the mother of Promithéfs. This author was taught that the pair of Iapætós is Thǽmis, whom he loved, but that she rejected him for Zefs. My teacher also taught me the more common view of Klymǽni being the wife of Iapætós, so perhaps the idea of Thǽmis as the pair of Iapætós is more the view of the Mystíria. The sons of Iapætós are:

Átlas (Ἄτλας)
Promithéfs (Προμηθεύς, "forethought")
Æpimithéfs (Ἐπιμηθεύς, "hindsight")
Mænítios (Μενοίτιος)

6. Mnimosýni and Kreios

Mnimosýni (Mnemosyne; Gr. Μνημοσύνη) is the great Goddess of Memory, by which we can understand the past, with even the possibility of remembering past lives. 

"...everything is worn and withered away by time, whereas time itself never ages, but remains immortal because of memory." (Φιλόστρατος Τὰ ἐς τὸν Τυανέα Ἀπολλώνιον 1.14, trans. F. C. Conybeare, 1912.)

Kreios (Crius or Krios; Gr. Κρεῖος. Etym. = κριός "ram" also the constellation and astrological sign "Aries.") loved Mnimosýni but she rejected him for Zefs by whom she is the mother of the Mousai (Μοῦσαι) (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 53). She is the great Titanís who discovered the use of reason and the power of using names, thereby enabling us to use speech (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική Book V. 67. 3).

Kreios is the father by Evryvía (Εὐρυβία) of Astraios (Ἀστραῖος), Pállas (Πάλλας), and Pǽrsis (Πέρσης, father of Εκάτη by Astæría).

Kreios is connected with the constellation which bears his name (Aries), which is associated with the beginning of spring and the agricultural year, and standing at the beginning, he is thought of as representing and conducting all the great constellations of the heavens and the measurement of the temporal portions of the year.

7. Dióhni and Promithéfs
Dióhni (Dione; Gr. Διώνη. Etym. feminine of Διός, the genitive of Ζεύς) is not one of the Ouranídai (although Hyginus in the preface to his book of mythology and Ἀπολλόδωρος Βιβλιοθήκη 1.2 disagrees), for she is the daughter of Okæanós and Tithýs (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 353). Ὅμηρος Ἰλιάς Book 5.370 says that Dióhni is the mother of Aphrodíti by Zefs (also Orphic frag. 183 Πρόκλος Commentary on the Κρατύλος 406c), who Plátohn calls Pándimos Aphrodíti, the common or popular Aphrodíti of sexual union (Συμπόσιον 180 d-e). Dióhni accompanies Zefs in his oracular ability (Στράβων Γεωγραφικά 7.7.12) as his temple-associate. Dióhni is a pre-form of Dimítir (Δημήτηρ).

Promithéfs (Prometheus; Gr. Προμηθεύς. Etym. from προμήθεια "foresight, forethought.") is actually a Younger Titán, being a son of Iapætós and Klymǽni (Κλυμένη), according to Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 507. Despite the fact that he is not one of the elder Titánæs, he is included as one of the Seven who present the Toys to Diónysos, and belongs in this list. There are various stories about Promithéfs but they can be summarized thus: he is said to have created the human race out of Earth and Water (Ἀπολλόδωρος Βιβλιοθήκη 1.7.1 [Frazer]). He is the father of Defkalíohn (Δευκαλίων) (Ἀπολλόδωρος Βιβλιοθήκη 1.7.2 [Frazer]), and, thus, is a direct ancestor of the human race. Following this, Promithéfs proved to be a great friend to mankind, bestowing great benefits on us while often suffering greatly for his efforts on our behalf.

Aiskhýlos (Αἰσχύλος), the tragedian, describes the importance of Promithéfs to mankind: 

Promithéfs: Through me mankind ceased to foresee death.
Leader of Chorus: What remedy could heal that sad disease?
Promithéfs: Blind hopes I made to dwell in them.
Leader of Chorus: O merciful boon for mortals.
Promithéfs: And more than all I gave them fire.
Leader of Chorus: And so in their brief life they are lords of flaming fire?
Promithéfs: Through it they will learn many arts.
(Αἰσχύλος Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης 250-256, trans. Paul Elmer More, 1899.)


And in a passage commonly referred to as the Catalog of the Arts:

Promithéfs speaks: "...listen to the sad story of mankind, who like children lived until I gave them understanding and a portion of reason; yet not in disparagement of men I speak, but meaning to set forth the greatness of my charity. For seeing they saw not, and hearing they understood not, but like as shapes in a dream they wrought all the days of their life in confusion. No houses of brick raised in the warmth of the sun they had, nor fabrics of wood, but like the little ants they dwelt underground in the sunless depth of caverns. No certain sign of approaching winter they knew, no harbinger of flowering spring or fruitful summer; ever they labored at random, till I taught them to discern the seasons by the rising and the obscure setting of the stars. Numbers I invented for them, the chiefest of all discoveries; I taught them the grouping of letters, to be a memorial and record of the past, the mistress of the arts and mother of the Muses. I first brought under the yoke beasts of burden, who by draft and carrying relieved men of their hardest labors; I yoked the proud horse to the chariot, teaching him obedience to the reins, to be the adornment of wealth and luxury. I too contrived for sailors sea-faring vessels with their flaxen wings. Alas for me! such inventions I devised for mankind, but for myself I have no cunning to escape disaster....

(Ibid. Paul Elmer More, 1899, Αἰσχύλος Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης 444-471.)


ONE MORE PAIR OF TITÁNÆS

Phórkys and Kitóh 

Phórkys (Phorcys; Gr. Φόρκυς) is the son of Póntos (Πόντος) and Yaia (Γαῖα) (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 237). He is a great God of the Sea who fathered many giant sea-monsters. In Orphic fragment 114 (according to Próklos in his commentary on the Τίμαιος) he is included in the list of Titánæs rather than Promithéfs (as in our list of the seven above). Therefore it would be legitimate to think of him as one of the seven Titánæs with Kitóh (Κητώ) being his consort. This author was taught that Promithéfs holds the seventh seat and in deference to my teacher, we accept this.


THE YOUNGER 
TITÁNÆS

The Ouranídai, the sons and daughters of Ouranós, are called the Elder Titánæs. Sometimes the descendants of these deities are also called Titánæs, deities such as Ækáti (Hecate; the daughter of Pǽrsis [Perses; Gr. Πέρσης], son of Kreios), Litóh (Leto, daughter of Kíos and Phívi), and, as has already been seen, 
Dióhni and Promithéfs. These deities and others are called the Younger Titánæs.

Ækáti - (Hecate; Gr. Ἑκάτη) Please visit this page: Ækáti.

Astæría - (Asteria; Gr. Ἀστερία, "of the stars") Astæría is one of the Younger Titanídæs (Τιτανίδες), the daughter of Kíos and Phívi. Astæría is the sister of Litóh and the mother of Ækáti. With these close relationships to Phívi, Apóllohn, and Ækáti, Astæría is connected with oracular power.

Following the battle of the Titánæs, Astæría was pursued by Zefs (Ζεύς) and avoided him by transforming herself into a quail, falling into the sea and becoming the island Astæría, later called Ortiyía (Ορτυγία. Etym. ὄρτυξ "quail."), and finally called Dílos (Δήλος "famous"), where she agreed to be the birthplace of Apóllohn (Ἀπόλλων), but there is confusion regarding the island, whether there were two islands (Ortiyía and Dílos) with 
Ártæmis (Ἄρτεμις) born on Ortiyía previous to her brother

Átlas - (Gr. Ἄτλας) Átlas is the son of Iapætós and Klymǽni, according to Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 507. He led the Titánæs in their war against Zefs, thereby being condemned to carry the heavens on his shoulders. According to Ὅμηρος Ὀδύσσεια I.52, Átlas knows the depths of the sea and "holds the tall pillars which keep the earth and heaven apart."

Díki – See Órai.

Eiríni – See Órai.

Evnomía – See Órai.

Ílios - (Ἥλιος) Ílios is the God of the Sun, the daughter of Theia and Ypæríohn.

Ióhs - (Ἠώς) Ióhs is the Goddess of Dawn, the daughter of Theia and Ypæríohn.

Kourítæs - (Curetes; Gr. Κουρῆτες) According the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony, the Kourítæs are sons of Rhǽa (Ῥέα): 

μόνη δὲ ἡ Ῥέα τους Κούρητας ἀπογεννᾶι
"where Rǽa alone generated the Kourítæs"
(Orphic fragment 150, trans. by the author.)

Thus, being progeny of an Elder Titanís, they are members of the Younger Titánæs.

Mírai - (Μοῖραι): The Mírai or the Fates are daughters of Thǽmis and Zefs. They are: Klohthóh (Κλωθώ), Lákhæsis (Λάχεσις), and Átropos (Ἄτροπος).

Mousai - (Μοῦσαι) The Mousai, nine great Goddesses of the arts, are daughters of Mnimosýni and Zefs. They are the companions of Apóllohn, who is their leader. The Mousai are: Kleióh (Κλειώ), Eftǽrpi (Εὐτέρπη), Tháleia (Θάλεια), Mælpomǽni (Μελπομένη), Tærpsikhóra (Τερψιχόρα), Æratóh (Ἐρατώ), Polýmnia (Πολύμνια), Ouranía (Οὐρανία), and Kalliópi (Καλλιόπη).

Litóh - (Λητώ) The daughter of Phívi and Kíos. Litóh is the mother of Ártæmis and Apóllohn.

Næphǽlai - (Νεφέλαι) The water Nýmphai of the clouds, daughters of Tithýs and Okæanós.

Okeanídæs – (Ὠκεανίδες) The three-thousand water Nýmphai daughters of Tithýs and Okæanós.

OlympiansBecause they are the progeny of the Elder Titánæs Rǽa and Krónos, the following Olympians are Younger Titánæs: Æstía, Dimítir, Íra, Ploutohn, Poseidóhn, and Zefs.

Órai - (Ὧραι) The Órai are daughters of Thǽmis and Zefs. They are: Evnomía (Good Order; Gr. Εὐνομία), Díki (Justice; Gr. Δίκη), and Eiríni (Peace; Gr. Εἰρήνη).

Potamí – (Ποταμοί) The Gods of the rivers and streams, children of Tithýs and Okæanós.

Promithéfs - (Προμηθεύς) Promithéfs is the son of Klymǽni and Iapætós. Askhýlos says he is the son of Thǽmis or Yaia.

Sælíni - (Σελήνη) Sælíni is the Goddess of the Moon, the daughter of Theia and Ypæríohn. 




THE ORPHIC HYMN TO THE 
TITÁNÆS (trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792.)

37. Titánæs [Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες]

The Fumigation from Frankincense.

O Mighty Titans, who from heav'n and earth
Derive your noble and illustrious birth,
Our fathers fires, in Tartarus profound
Who dwell, deep merg'd beneath the solid ground:
Fountains and principles, from whom began
Th' afflicted, miserable, race of man:
Who not alone in earth's retreats abide,
But in the ocean and the air reside;
Since ev'ry species from your nature flows,
Which all prolific, nothing barren knows:
Avert your rage, if from th' infernal seats
One of your tribe should visit our retreats.

37. Τιτάνων, θυμίαμα λίβανον.

Τιτῆνες, Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀγλαὰ τέκνα,
ἡμετέρων πρόγονοι πατέρων, γαίης ὑπένερθεν
οἴκοις Ταρταρίοισι μυχῶι χθονὸς ἐνναίοντες,
ἀρχαὶ καὶ πηγαὶ πάντων θνητῶν πολυμόχθων,
εἰναλίων, πτηνῶν τε καὶ οἳ χθόνα ναιετάουσιν·
ἐξ ὑμέων γὰρ πᾶσα πέλει γενεὰ κατὰ κόσμον.
ὑμᾶς κικλήσκω μῆνιν χαλεπὴν ἀποπέμπειν,
εἴ τις ἀπὸ χθονίων προγόνων οἴκοις επελάσθη.



GLOSSARY OF THE TITÁNÆS

Ouranídai - (Uranidae; Gr. Οὐρανίδαι, ΟΥΡΑΝΙΔΑΙ. Noun. Οὐρανίδης is singular.Ouranídai is another name for the Ouraníohnæs (Οὐρανίωνες), the children of Ouranós.

Ouraníohnes (Uraniones; Gr. Οὐρανίωνες, ΟΥΡΑΝΙΩΝΕΣ. Noun. Fem. is θεαὶ Οὐρανιῶναι.Ouraníohnæs is another name for the Ouranídai, the children of Ouranós; it can also be used as a general term for the Gods.

Titán - (Gr. Τιτάν, ΤΙΤΑΝ. Noun. Plural is Τιτᾶνες. Etym. τιταίνω "to stretch," as in stretching the string of a bow, also it can be the act of gathering one's energy to put something into action; the Titánæs "stretch" and thereby open the centers of the soul and help us gather energy to do so.) Titan. Cf. Titánæs.

Titánæs - (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες, ΤΙΤΑΝΕΣ. Noun. Plural) Titans. Cf. Titán.

Titánia - (Gr. Τιτάνια, ΤΙΤΑΝΙΑ. Noun.) Titánia is a festival of the Titánæs.

Titanídæs - (Gr. Τιτάνιδες, ΤΙΤΑΝΙΔΕΣ. Noun. Feminine plural.) Titan Goddesses. Cf. Titanís.

Titanís - (Gr. Τιτανίς, ΤΙΤΑΝΙΣ. Noun. Feminine singular.) Titan Goddess. Cf. Titanídæs.

Titanographía - (Gr. Τιτανογραφία, ΤΙΤΑΝΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ. Noun.) Titanographía is a history of the Titánæs.

Titanomakhía - (Gr. Τιτανομαχία, ΤΙΤΑΝΟΜΑΧΙΑ. Noun.) Titanomakhía is a battle of Titánæs. This is a story which can be found in the Thæogonía of Ἡσίοδος but is absent from the Orphic fragmentsThis does not mean that a similar story was not originally present in the Orphic theogony, simply that there are no extant fragments which support it, but there are some scholars (such as M. L. West) who think that it would be illogical for the Τιτανομαχία to have been included because the Titans would need to have been condemned to Tartaros (Τάρταρος) and then restored again in order to participate in the sacrifice of Zagréfs (Ζαγρεύς).

Titanóömai - (Gr. τιτανόομαι, ΤΙΤΑΝΟΟΜΑ. Verb. Etym. τίτανος, a white earth, likely gypsumTitanóömai is to be whitened or plastered. The Titánæs whitened their faces with chalk and offered the basket of toys to Diónysos.


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.
How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The 
Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).

 

PLEASE NOTE:
 

 Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as 

 

, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek        

 

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