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GLOSSARY OF VIRTUE

MODERN TERMINOLOGY REGARDING VIRTUE AS WELL AS TERMS FROM ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
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GLOSSARY OF VIRTUE

NOTE: A list of abbreviations can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME.

Adikía - (Gr. ἀδικία, ΑΔΙΚΙΑ. Noun; ἄδικος is an adjective with the same meaning.) Lexicon entry: ἀδικία, Ion. -ιη,wrongdoing, injusticeII. wrongful act, offence:—in pl., Pl.Phd.82a. (L&S p. 23, right column, amongst the entries beginning with ἀδίκημα, edited for simplicity.)

Ádikos - See Adikía.

Ǽlæos (Eleos; Gr. Ἔλεος. Noun.) Ǽlæos is pitymercycompassion. (L&S p. 532, left column)

Æpieikeia - (epieikeia or epikeia; Gr. ἐπιείκεια, ΕΠΙΕΙΚΕΙΑ. Pronounced: ay-pee-EE-kee-ah) Æpieikeia is equity and is included in the discussion of Justice. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) in the Ηθικών Νικομαχείων ( beginning at 1137a32) speaks of equity overriding the letter of the law when justice demands it.
- Lexicon entry: ἐπιείκειαreasonableness2. equity, opp. strict law. 3. of persons, reasonablenessfairness; also,goodnessvirtuousnessII. personified, Clemency. (L&S p. 632, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Æpistími - (episteme; Gr. ἐπιστήμη, ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗ) Æpistími is scientific knowledge and is one of five intellectual virtues required to make choices. See Intellectual Virtues, The Five.

Ǽrgon - (ergon; Gr. ἔργον, ΕΡΓΟΝ. Noun.) Ǽrgon means function or work. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) argues that the ǽrgon, the function or work, which most exemplifies the human animal is reason. This ǽrgon, if used properly and developed, enables us to be fully human, to live appropriately as a human being; to do so is to develop the virtue or excellence of rationality, which is inherent in our nature.

Ainarǽtis (Gr. αἰναρέτης, ΑΙΝΑΡΕΤΗΣ) Lexicon entry: αἰνᾰρέτης, ου, ὁ, (αἰνός) terribly brave, voc. -έτη (v.l.-έτα)Il.16.31. (L&S p. 39, right column)


Alitrós - (Gr. ἀλιτρός, ΑΛΙΤΡΟΣ. Adjective.) Lexicon entry: ἀλιτρόςόν, = ἀλιτηρόςsinnerwicked; as Subst., δαίμοσιν ἀλιτρός sinner against the Gods. (L&S p. 67, left column, edited for simplicity.) 

Andreia - (Gr. Ἀνδρεία, ΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ) Andreia is manliness or Courage, one of the Four Cardinal Virtues of classical antiquity. Cf. Thrásos.

Antipæponthós, to - (to antipeponthos; Gr. τὸ ἀντιπεπονθός) To antipæponthós is reciprocity in a legal sense and is a subject of justice, as discussed in Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Ἀριστοτέλης) Ηθικών Νικομαχείων Book 5.5 1132b22.

Apátheia - (Gr. ἀπάθεια, ΑΠΑΘΕΙΑ. Etym. α "not" + πάθος "passion.") Apátheia is freedom from emotion and the passions and was regarded by the Stoics as a virtue. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Ἀριστοτέλης) does not talk of apátheia in respect to virtue because he accepts the passions as essential to the human experience, seeing the ideal as a mean between extremes of passion.

Arætí - (Arete; Gr. Ἀρετή, ΑΡΕΤΗ) Arætí is Virtue.
- Lexicon entry: 
Lexicon entryi: ἀρετή [ᾰ], ἡ, goodnessexcellence, of any kind, in Hom. esp. of manly qualities; so of the Gods, chiefly in pl., glorious deeds, wonders, miracles; also of women, for valour, displayed brave deeds. b. later, of the Gods, chiefly in pl., glorious deeds, wonders, miracles. 2. generally, excellence; esp. moral virtuegood nature,kindness3. prosperityOd.13.45II. active meritgood service done him. III. reward of excellencedistinctionfameIV. Ἀρετή personified (ed. the feminine personification of Virtue). (L&S p. 238, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Arætiphóros - (aretephorus; Gr. ἀρετηφόρος, ΑΡΕΤΗΦΟΡΟΣ. Adjective.) Lexicon entry: ἀρετηφόρος [ᾰ], ον, virtuous.(L&S p. 238, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Arætóömai - (aretoömai; Gr. ἀρετόομαι, ΑΡΕΤΟΟΜΑΙ) Lexicon entry: ἀρετόομαι [], Pass., become excellentgrow in goodness. (L&S p. 238, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Aretaic ethics = Virtue Ethics (Etym. ἀρετή "goodness, excellence") Aretaic ethics contends that virtuous behavior flows naturally from a person of strong character and thus attempts to develop means in which to effect that result. The roots of Aretaic ethics lie in ancient Greek philosophy, in particular, from the teachings of Sohkrátis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης), Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), and Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης).

Arete - See Arætí.

Aretephorus - See Arætiphóros.


Aretoömai - See Arætóömai.

Aristeia - (Gr. ἀριστεία, ΑΡΙΣΤΕΙΑ) Aristeia is another name for Arætí or Virtue.
- Lexicon entry: ἀριστεία [ᾰρ], Ion. ἀριστείηexcellenceprowess. (L&S p. 240, right column, edited for simplicity.) Brill translates ἀριστεία as superiorityvaloract of courage. (Brill DAG p. 296, middle column, edited for simplicity.)
- Cf. Arætí.

Casuistry - (Etym. casus "case.") Casuistry is a term that is used in more than one way. Often it is a derogatory term which refers to a type of sophistry or other types of unsound reasoning, but as regards to ethics, the word has a more neutral meaning. In this regard, casuistry examines morality not so much from theory, but from actual instances or cases (hence its etymology). Casuistry tries to determine the particulars of a situation in order to ascertain the morality of a case in question. 

C
ategorical Imperative - The categorical imperative is terminology associated with the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), which contends that virtuous activity is determined by universals in which one must choose behavior according to a rational obligation based on human necessity. It is referred to as an "imperative" because it is an end in itself and does not aim to attain some other or "hypothetical" end, for, in this view, subjective considerations in choosing actions are regarded as unreliable, being ulterior or secondary experiences. The result of this thinking is an emphasis on pursuing moral action based on reason, rather than subjective experience, and this provides an imperative to do one's duty for its own sake, in contrast, for instance, to consequentialism, which determines action by consideration of ends or results. The categorical imperative contends that moral action should be followed for its own sake, for it has inherent value beyond its result, that the consequences of action do not make the action moral, but an action is either moral or immoral of its own nature. To give an absurd example, if someone intends to kill someone, but accidentally kills a serial murderer, while the result of his action may have a benefit, he himself is not performing a virtuous action; similarly, if an individual is called to jury-duty but somehow the wrong person is convicted, if he performed his duty to the best of his ability, he has acted virtuously, regardless of a bad outcome. Cf. Deontological ethics.

Chrestoëtheia - See Khristöítheia.


Chrestotes - See Khristótis.



Consequentialism - Consequentialism is the branch of normative ethics  which holds the view that morality is best judged by the consequences of action. There are various manifestations of consequentialism, probably the most familiar being utilitarianism. Cf. Utilitarianism.

C
ourage - See Andreia and Thrásos.

Dǽspina - (Despoina; Gr. Δέσποινα, ΔΕΣΠΟΙΝΑLexicon entry: δέσποινα, ἡ, fem. of δεσπότης, mistress, lady of the house, of Penelope, of Arete. 2. princess, queen3. coupled with the names of Goddesses, δ. ἙκάτηἌρτεμιςδ. νύμφη; esp. as a name of Persephone. 4. in Thessaly, simply, = γυνή. 5. at Rome, Empress. (L&S p. 880, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Deontological ethics - (Ety. from δέον "that which is binding, needful, right" [L&S]) Deontological ethics judges the morality of action as measured against a set of rules and it is connected with duty and one's obligations. Cf.Categorical Imperative.

Dikaiosýni - (Gr. δικαιοσύνη, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΎΝΗ)  (thiki; Gr. δίκη, ΔΙΚΗ) Dikaiosýni is justicerighteousnessDikaiosýni is one of the Four Boniform VirtuesPlátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), in Politeia (The Republic; Gr. Πολιτεία), compares the Justice of the individual to the justice of the pólis (city-state; Gr. πόλις). He describes a pólis divided into three parts, the productive populace, the guardians, and the ruler. When all three do their proper job, the pólis is in harmony and in a state of justice. Likewise, in the individual, when the three parts of the soul, the appetite, the spirit, and the mind, have the accompanying virtues of temperance, courage, and wisdom, the same virtues required for the three parts of the pólis, then the soul is in harmony and is just. This view of justice being one of several presented in the dialogue.

Eleos - See Ǽlæos.

Epieikeia - See Æpieikeia.

Epikeia - See Æpieikeia.

Episteme - See Æpistími.

Equity - See Æpieikeia.

Ergon - See Ǽrgon.

Eudaimonia - See Evdaimonía.

Evdaimonía - (eudaimonia; Gr. εὐδαιμονία, ΕΥΔΑΙΜΟΝΙΑ. Etym. εὖ "kindly" + δαίμων "spirit" or "divinity."Evdaimoníais happiness or flourishing; it is included in a discussion of virtue because many philosophers contend that true happiness cannot be acquired without virtue. If the teleology of the acquisition of virtue is evdaimonía, and if the acquisition of virtue is what is most desired for us by the Blessed Gods, then it follows that the Blessed Gods desire our lives to flourish and for us to be happy.
- Lexicon entry: εὐδαιμονία, Ion. -ιηprosperitygood fortuneopulence2. true, full happinessb. personified as a divinity. (L&S p. 708, right column, within the entries beginning with εὐδαιμονέω, edited for simplicity.)

Intellectual Virtues, The Five - According to Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης), there are three aspects of the soul which determine action: sensation, intellect and desire. Sensation is based on mere reaction to stimuli, and, hence, does not originate action. Therefore, to make choices depends on intellect and desire. To achieve a virtuous result requires inclination of the mind as regards to choice, choice being deliberate desire (óræxis [orexis; Gr. ὄρεξις]), and that choice (proairæsis [Gr. προαίρεσις]) must be based on knowledge, action which requires reason. Here we are speaking of the achievement of truth in regard to our action, this being a practical application of the intellect. Aristotǽlis proposes [Ηθικών Νικομαχείων VI.3-7] that there are five intellectual virtues which determine this process:

1. Æpistími - (episteme; Gr. ἐπιστήμη)
2. Tǽkhni - (techne; Gr. τέχνη)
3. Phrónisis - (phronesis; Gr. Φρόνησις)
4. Nous - (Gr. νοῦς)
5. Sophía (Gr. Σοφία)

Jurisprudence - (Etym. Latin jurisprudentiajuris "body of law" + prudentia "knowledge" or "sagacity.") Jurisprudence is the theory or philosophy of law and is a concern of Dikaiosýni, Justice.

Justice - See Dikaiosýni.

Khristöítheia - (chrestoëtheia; Gr. χρηστοήθεια, ΧΡΗΣΤΟΗΘΕΙΑ) Lexicon entry: χρηστοήθειαgoodness of heart. (L&S p. 2007, left column, within the entries beginning with χρηστογραφία, edited for simplicity.)

Khristótis - (chrestotes; Gr. χρηστότης, ΧΡΗΣΤΟΤΗΣ) Lexicon entry: χρηστότηςητοςgoodnesshonesty,uprightnessII. goodness of heartkindness (but in depreciatory sense, soft-heartedness). 2. simplicitysilly good nature. (L&S p. 2007, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Mægalopsykhía - (megalopsychia; Gr. μεγαλοψυχία, ΜΕΓΑΛΟΨΥΧΙΑ) Mægalopsykhía is one of the the virtues; it is often translated by the word pride, but this is inadequate. Mægalopsykhía is certainly not pride in the sense of a vice, but, rather, it's definition is contained in the word itself: μεγαλο "great" + ψυχία "soulness." Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) defines mægalopsykhía as a mid-point between vanity and timidity, so the pride which comes with this virtue is based on an honest assessment of one's merits. Mægalopsykhía is magnanimity and has an aristocratic sense in that he who possesses it also possesses a wealth of virtue and the material means to be generous within the boundary of proper moderation.

Mǽson, to - See Mæsótis.

Mæsótis - (mesotes; Gr. μεσότης, ΜΕΣΟΤΗΣ. Also τό μέσον) Mæsótis is the meanthe middle point. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) defines virtue as a mean between two opposites, the mæsótis. It could be said that the mæsótis is the famous Delphic maxim, μηδὲν ἄγαν, "nothing to excess."

Meson, to - See Mæsótis.

Mesotes - See Mæsótis.

Natural Law - Natural law is the philosophical position that there are rights and values which are inherent in the Kózmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος) and that they can be discerned by reason and that these rights and values are not artificial constructions and that they supersede human laws. Natural law should not be confused with the Natural Laws, the fundamental laws which govern the universe, although there is a connection between them.

Normative Ethics - Normative ethics is the philosophical study of virtuous or ethical action, how, from a moral perspective, should one proceed when confronted with the situations one encounters in life. There are various approaches which have developed which address ethical action: Aretaic or Virtue Ethics (moral character), Consequentialism (teleology), Deontology (duty), and various others, each of these categories also having variants.

Nous - (Gr. νοῦς, ΝΟΥΣ) Nous is mindintuition, an intelligence which enables us to examine our experience, draw conclusions, and make successful decisions concerning our action. Nous is according to Aristotǽlis, is one of five intellectual virtues required in order to make choices. See Intellectual Virtues, The Four.

Óræxis - (orexis; Gr. ὄρεξις, ΟΡΕΞΙΣ) Óræxis is desirecravingstrivingappetiteyearningÓræxis is not the same as ǽrohs (eros; Gr. ἔρως) or attraction. Aristotǽlis (Περὶ Ψυχῆς [De Anima] 431-433) portrays óræxis as a function of the soul, the capacity to pursue an object of desire; it is that which pushes the soul into motion. 
- Lexicon entry: ὄρεξις, εως, ἡ, (ὀρέγω) general word for all kinds of appetencyconation, including ἐπιθυμίαθυμός,βούλησις; opp. φυγή; opp. ἔκκλισις1. c. gen. objecti, longing or yearning after a thing, desire for it. 2. abs., propension,appetency. (L&S p. 1247, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Osía (Gr. Ὁσία, ΟΣΙΑ. [fem. of ὅσιος]Osía is divine lawII. the service or worship owed by man to Godritesofferings, etc. 2. funeral riteslast honours paid to the dead(L&S p. 1260, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Osiótis - (Gr. ὁσιότης, ΟΣΙΟΤΗΣ) Osiótis is pietyreverence to the Gods, listed as a fifth boniform (i.e. cardinal) virtue in Πλάτων Πρωταγόρας 330b.
- Lexicon entry: 
ὁσιότηςητος, disposition to observe divine lawpiety, Pl.Prt.329c, Euthphr.14d; πρὸς θεῶν ὁ. piety towards them (ed. the Gods [θεῶν]), Plu.Alc.34; also, like Lat. pietas. (L&S p. 1261, left column at the top of the page within the entries beginning οσία from the previous page, edited for simplicity.)


Páthos - (Gr. πάθος, ΠΑΘΟΣ; plural is πάθη.) Páthos is passionPassion is regarded as a passive state; in other words, passion is something which comes upon you, independent of your will.
- Lexicon entry: πάθος [], εοςτό, (πάσχωthat which happens to a person or thing. 2. what one has experienced, good or bad, experienceb. in bad sense, misfortunecalamityc. = πάθημαII. of the soul, emotionpassionIII. state,condition2. incidents of things, changes or happenings occurring in them. 3. propertiesqualities of things, opp.οὐσίαIV. Gramm., modification in form of words (esp. dialectal). 2. in Syntax, modified construction, of omission or redundancy. b. passivityc. in writing, signs other than accents and breathings. V. Rhet., emotional style or treatment. (L&S p. 1285, right column, edited for simplicity.)


Philótis - (philotes; Gr. φιλότης, ΦΙΛΟΤΗΣ) Philótis is friendship. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης), in Ηθικών Νικομαχείων Book 8, discusses friendship in great detail. He identifies three types: 1. friendship based on utility, 2.friendship based on mutual pleasure, and 3. perfect friendship, the highest form and a great virtue, being a partnership between two people which fosters the highest character development.

Phronesis - See Phrónisis.

Phrónisis - (Phronesis; Gr. Φρόνησις, ΦΡΟΝΗΣΙΣOne of the Four Boniform Virtues is called Wisdom; it consists of two parts: phrónisis, practical wisdom or prudence, and Sophía (Gr. Σοφία), elevated wisdom. Phrónisis is often translated with the word prudencea practical wisdom which enables us to order our lives in an excellent way. Phrónisis, according to Aristotǽlis, is one of five intellectual virtues required in order to make choices. See also Virtues, The Four Boniform and Intellectual Virtues, The Five.

Proairæsis - (proairesis or prohairesis; Gr. προαίρεσις, ΠΡΟΑΙΡΕΣΙΣ) Proairæsis is choice or, according to Aristotǽlis (Aristotle)conscious choice, the volition of choice, deliberative desire (ὄρεξις)Proairæsis is a term, in the field of Ethics, which indicates deliberate choice which, in certain circumstances, determines whether an action (πρᾶξις) is moral or immoral (ed. or neutral). Proairæsis is the result of deliberation (βούλευσις). In the Stoicism of Æpíktitos (Epictetus; Gr. Ἐπίκτητος)proairæsis is the result of a deliberation between what is perceived to be within one's power to change or effect, and that which is not in one's power to change or effect, and assenting only to the former by which only can one make a free choice.
-
 Lexicon entry: προαίρεσιςεωςchoosing one thing before anotherpurpose, resolution; opp. ἀνάγκητὰ κατὰ π. ἀδικήματα wrongs done from malice prepense, as a test of freedomπαρὰ τὴν π. contrary to one's purpose; as characteristic of moral actioninclinationmotive. (L&S p. 1466 right column, first entry only, edited for simplicity.)

R
eciprocity - See Antipæponthós, to.

Sohphrosýni - (Sophrosyne; Gr. Σωφροσύνη) Sohphrosýni is continencemoderationself-controlself-discipline, ortemperance based upon thorough self-examination. Sohphrosýni is one of the Four Boniform Virtues of classical antiquity. Sohphrosýni is a great virtue not adequately described in a few words. The word and its meanings are discussed in Kharmídis (Charmides; Gr. Χαρμίδης), a dialogue of Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), but in the text, Sohkrátis (Socrates; Gr. Σωκράτης) rejects four definitions: quietness, humility, doing one's own business, and knowing one's self. Although there is no final resolution to the dialogue, it seems that each of these proposed definitions has some application to the topic, in particular the final one. Aristotǽlis describes sohphrosýni as a virtue concerned with one's relationship to pleasure, particularly in regard to the sense of touch; sohphrosýni is the mean between licentiousness and insensitivity.

Sophía - (Gr. Σοφία, ΣΟΦΙΑ) One of the Four Boniform Virtues is called Wisdom; it consists of two parts: phrónisis, practical wisdom or prudence, and sophía, elevated wisdom. Sophía or theory, according to Aristotǽlis, is the most noble wisdom which gives us the ability to integrate all of our knowledge and to gain insight into the deepest truth.Sophía is one of five intellectual virtues which enable us to make choices. See Intellectual Virtues, The Five.


Sophrosyne - See Sohphrosýni.

Tǽkhni - (techne; Gr. τέχνη, ΤΕΧΝΙ) Tǽkhni is artapplied knowledge, the creative ability. Tǽkhni, according to Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης), is one of five intellectual virtues required to make choices. See Intellectual Virtues, The Five.

Tǽlos - (Telos; Gr. τέλος, ΤΕΛΟΣ) Tǽlos, in philosophy, means the end or purpose of actionconsummation, or final cause. Tǽlos is the etymological root of teleology, the understanding of things by means of their ultimate function or goal. Aristotǽlis (Aristotle; Gr. Ἀριστοτέλης) argues that the ultimate tǽlos for human beings is evdaimonía, true happiness, and that true happiness can only be obtained by living a virtuous life.

Techne - See Tǽkhni.

Telos - See Tǽlos.

T
emperance - See Sohphrosýni.

Thrásos (Gr. θράσος, L&S p. 804, right column) = Thársos (Gr. θάρσος, L&S p. 785, left column) = Thárros (Gr. θάρρος, L&S p. 784, right column, starting with θαρρᾰλέος) = Courage. Cf. Andreia (Gr. Ἀνδρεία, ΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ), meaning manliness or courageThrásos or Courage is one of the Four Boniform Virtues of classical antiquity.

Utilitarianism - Utilitarian ethics judges virtue from the perspective of utility; how does the action in question affect a result in regard to the well-being, happiness, and usefulness of sentient beings or nature as a whole. Utilitarianismattempts to seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people. These ideas were developed by the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), who identified driving factors in utility as pleasure and pain. Bentham's ideas were later expanded by another English philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism.

Virtue Ethics - See Aretaic ethics.

Virtues, The Four Boniform = The Four Cardinal Virtues (Etym. boniform "of the form of the good."). The Four Boniform Virtues are Courage (Andreia; Gr. Ἀνδρεία), Temperance (Sohphrosýni; Gr. Σωφροσύνη), Justice (Dikaiosýni; Gr. Δικαιοσύνη), and Wisdom (Sophía [elevated and theoretical wisdom; Gr. Σοφία] and Phrónisis [practical wisdom; Gr. Φρόνησις])

Virtues, The Four Cardinal
 - See Virtues, The Four Boniform.


Wisdom - See Phrónisis and Sophía.

Zetaretesiades - See Zitarætisiádis.

Zitarætisiádis - (zetaretesiades; Gr. ζηταρετησιάδης, ΖΗΤΑΡΕΤΗΣΙΑΔΗΣ. Noun.) Lexicon entry: ζητᾰρετησιάδης, ου, ὁ, virtue-seeker. (L&S p. 756, left column, edited for simplicity.)




The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.
Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The 
Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς). 



PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as 

, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

PHOTO COPYRIGHT INFORMATION: The many pages of this website incorporate images, some created by the author, but many obtained from outside sources. To find out more information about these images and why this website can use them, visit this link: Photo Copyright Information

DISCLAIMER: The inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) with the views of HellenicGods.org by the external sources from which they were obtained.

Further, the inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) by HellenicGods.org of the contents or views of any external sources from which they were obtained.

For more information: Inquire.hellenicgods@gmail.com

For answers to many questions: Hellenismos FAQ

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