ORPHIC FRAGMENT 27 - OTTO KERN

HellenicGods.org

HOME          GLOSSARY           RESOURCE           ART          LOGOS          CONTACT

For links to many more fragments: The Orphic Fragments of Otto Kern.

SUMMARY: In this fragment, Aristotǽlîs (Ἀριστοτέλης) summarizes the view of Orphic poetry, that the soul is carried on the winds, and that it enters (the body) through respiration. 

27. (241) Περὶ Ψυχῆς Ἀριστοτέλους Α 5, 410 b 19: 

φαίνεται γὰρ εἶναί τινα μόνιμα τῶν ζώιων κατὰ τόπον. καίτοι δοκεῖ γε ταύτην μόνην τῶν κινήσεων κινεῖν ἡ ψυχὴ τὸ ζῶιον· ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ὅσοι τὸν νοῦν καὶ τὸ αἰσθητικὸν ἐκ τῶν στοιχείων ποιοῦσιν· φαίνεται γὰρ τά τε φυτὰ ζῆν οὐ μετέχοντα φορᾶς οὐδ’ αἰσθήσεως, καὶ τῶν ζώιων πολλὰ διάνοιαν οὐκ ἔχειν. εἰ δέ τις καὶ ταῦτα παραχωρήσειε καὶ θείη τὸν νοῦν μέρος τι τῆς ψυχῆς, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὸ αἰσθητικόν, οὐδ’ ἂν οὕτω λέγοιεν καθόλου περὶ πάσης ψυχῆς οὐδὲ περὶ ὅλης οὐδεμιᾶς (οὐδὲ μιᾶς E, οὐδὲ περὶ μιᾶς Simplic.). τοῦτο δὲ πέπονθε καὶ ὁ ἐν τοῖς Ὀρφικοῖς ἔπεσι καλουμένοις λόγος· φησὶ γὰρ τὴν ψυχὴν ἐκ τοῦ ὅλου εἰσιέναι ἀναπνεόντων. φερομένην ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνέμων. 

“For not all sentient beings can cause motion; some animals are seen to be stationary in one place. And yet it is at all events a received view that this, namely, change of place, is the one form of motion which the soul imparts to the animal. Similarly with those who derive intelligence and the faculty of sense from the elements. For plants are found to live without any share in locomotion or sensation, and many animals to be destitute of thought. If we waive this point and assume intellect to be a part of the soul, and the faculty of sense likewise, even then their statements would not apply generally to all soul, nor to the whole of any one soul. The account given in the so-called Orphic poems is open to the same strictures. For the soul, it is there asserted, enters from the universe in the process of respiration, being borne upon the winds.”
(trans. R. D. Hicks, 1907)

 

Ad hunc locum σχόλιον Ἰωάννου Φιλοπόνου επὶ Περὶ Ψυχῆς Ἀριστοτέλους 186, 24 Hayd.: 

λεγομένοις εἶπεν, ἐπειδὴ μὴ δοκεῖ Ὀρφέως εἶναι τὰ ἔπη, ὡς καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν τοῖς Περὶ φιλοσοφίας (fr. 7 Rose) λέγει· αὐτοῦ μὲν γάρ εἰσι τὰ δόγματα, ταῦτα δέ φασιν Ὀνομάκριτον ἐν ἔπεσι κατατεῖναι (test. nr. 183). λέγει οὖν ἐκεῖ ὅτι ἡ ψυχὴ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνέμων ἐκ τοῦ παντὸς φερομένη ἀναπνεῖται ὑπὸ τῶν ζώιων. ὥστε καὶ οὗτος ὁ λόγος οὐ περὶ πάσης ψυχῆς λέγει· οὐ γὰρ πάντα ἀναπνεῖ τὰ ἔμψυχα· οὕκουν τὰ ἔντομα οὐδὲ τὰ φυτά. φασὶ δὲ αἰνίττεσθαι τὰ ἔπη διὰ μὲν τῆς ἀναπνοῆς τὴν ἐπιτηδειότητα τοῦ δεξομένου τὴν ψυχὴν σώματος, διότι ἡ ἀναπνοὴ (πνοὴ R) καταψύχουσα τὸ ἔμφυτον θερμὸν εἰς συμμετρίαν ἄγει, τοὺς δ' ἀνέμους φασὶ δυνάμεις τινὰς σημαίνειν δί ὧν κατάγεται ἡ ψυχὴ εἰς τὴν γένεσιν ἐκ τῆς ὁλικῆς ἐνεργείας, ἣν ἐνεργεῖ τοῦ μερικοῦ σώματος τούτου καὶ τῆς γενέσεως ἀπηλλαγμένη.

  

Cf. Ἰωάννου Φιλοπόνου επὶ Περὶ Ψυχῆς Ἀριστοτέλους 202, 1 Hayd.: 

εἰπὼν οὖν ἐν τοῖς ἐπάνω καὶ τὰ φυτὰ ἔμψυχα εἶναι, ἐν οἷς ἔλεγεν ὅτι διαιρούμενα τὴν αὐτὴν κατ’ εἶδος ἔχει ψυχήν, καὶ ἔτι ἔνθα ἐνεκάλει τοῖς Ὀρφικοῖς ἔπεσι λέγουσι τὴν ψυχὴν ἐκ τοῦ ὅλου φερομένην ἀναπνεῖν ἡμᾶς

  

et in eundem σχόλιον Θεμιστίου επὶ Περὶ Ψυχῆς Ἀριστοτέλους 35, 17 Heinze: 

τοῦτο δὲ πέπονθε καὶ ὁ λόγος ὁ λεγόμενος ἐν τοῖς καλουμένοις Ὀρφέως ἔπεσι· φησὶ γὰρ τῆς ψυχῆς μεταλαμβάνειν τὰ ζῶια παρὰ τὴν πρώτην ἀναπνοήν.

  

et σχόλιον Σιμπλικίου επὶ Περὶ Ψυχῆς Ἀριστοτέλους 72, 12 Hayd.: 

ἔοικε δὲ ὁ Ὀρφεὺς τὴν μὲν τῶν σωμάτων πρὸς ζωιὴν ἐπιτηδειότητα ἀναπνοὴν καλεῖν, τὰς δὲ ὁλικὰς κινητικὰς αἰτίας ἀνέμους, ὧν οὐκ ἄν ποτε χωρὶς αἱ μερικαὶ ψυχώσειαν τὰ ἐπιτήδεια σώματα.

  

Adde ex Iamblicho Περὶ ψυχῆς quoted in Ἐκλογαὶ φυσικαὶ καὶ ἠθικαί Ἰωάννου Στοβαῖου I c. XLIX 32 (I 366, 17 Wachsm.): 

ὥσπερ Ἀριστοτέλης μὲν (μὲν del. Meinek.) ἐν τοῖς Ὀρφικοις (Gaisf. ex Aristot.] φυσικοῖς FP) ἔπεσί φησι λέγεσθαι τὴν ψυχὴν εἰσιέναι (Canter] ὡς εἰσὶν F, ὡς εἰσὴν P, πως εἰσιέναι Meinek.) ἐκ τοῦ ὅλου ἀναπνεόντων ἡμῶν φερομένην ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνέμων· ἔοικέ γε μὴν αὐτὸς ὁ Ὀρφεὺς χωρὶς ὑπολαμβάνειν εἶναι καὶ μίαν τὴν ψυχήν, ἀφ’ ἧς πολλὰς μὲν εἶναι διαιρέσεις, πολλὰς δὲ καὶ ἀμέσους (Usen.] μέσας FP) ἐπιπνοίας καθήκειν ἐπὶ τὰς μεριστὰς ψυχὰς ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης ψυχῆς.

  

et XLIX 38 (I 376, 2 Wachsm.): 

οἱ μὲν δὴ μίαν οὐσίαν τῆς ψυχῆς ἀριθμῶι τιθέμενοι, πληθύουσαν (Wachsm.] πληθύοντες FP) δὲ αὐτήν, ὡς Ἀμέλιος οἴεται, σχέσεσι καὶ κατατάξεσιν, ἢ ὡς οἱ Ὀρφικοὶ λέγουσιν, ἐπιπνοίαις ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης, ἔπειτα ἀνασχέοντες (P1] ἀναχέοντες FP2, ἀναστοιχειοῦντες Lobeck I 756, ἄγχοντες Usen. coll. Stob. p. 304, 18, ἀναστέλλοντες vel ἀναστρέφοντες temptabat Wachsm.) ἀπὸ τοῦ πλήθους τῆς ὅλης ἐπὶ τὴν μίαν ψυχὴν ἀποθεμένην (corr. Usen.] ἀποθεμένας FP) τὰς σχέσεις καὶ τὰς εἰς ἕτερον κατατάξεις καὶ (Cant., FP) ἀναλύοντες ἀπὸ τῆς εἰς τὰ μεταλαβόντα διαιρέσεως, ἀπολυομένης τῆς τῶν μετασχόντων διαλήψεως (corr. Heer.] αποδιαλήψεως FP) τηροῦσιν αὐτὴν ὅλην πανταχοῦ τὴν αυτήν, μίαν οὐσίαν (om. P) τε αυτῆι διδόασι καθ' ἓν πεπερασμένην.


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.
Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.
How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia, Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara, κιθάρα), the the lyre of Apóllôn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς).


PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek               

 

Transliteration of Ancient Greek               

 

PHOTO COPYRIGHT INFORMATION: The many pages of this website incorporate images, some created by the author, but many obtained from outside sources. To find out more information about these images and why this website can use them, visit this link: Photo Copyright Information

DISCLAIMER: The inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) with the views of HellenicGods.org by the external sources from which they were obtained.

Further, the inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) by HellenicGods.org of the contents or views of any external sources from which they were obtained.

For more information: Inquire.hellenicgods@gmail.com

For answers to many questions: Hellenismos FAQ

© 2010 by HellenicGods.org.  All Rights Reserved.

free hit counterHOME             GLOSSARY            RESOURCE           ART          LOGOS           CONTACT
free hit counter