CRONUS - KRÓNOS - ΚΡΟΝΟΣ

Who Strikes the Mind - 
Κρούων τον Νοῦν

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Krónos (Cronus; Gr. Κρόνος, ΚΡΟΝΟΣ. Pronunciation: KROH-nohs) 

Krónos is the youngest of the Titánæs (Titans, Τιτᾶνες), the son of Ouranós (Uranus, Οὐρανόςand Yaia (Gaia, Γαῖα). He is married to Rǽa (Rhea, Ῥέα)by whom he became the father of Æstía (Hestia, Ἑστία), Dimítir (Demeter, Δημήτηρ), Íra (Hera, Ἥρα), Ploutohn (Pluto, Πλούτων), Poseidóhn (Poseidon, Ποσειδῶν), and Zefs (Zeus, Ζεὺς), who are known collectively as the Kronídai (Cronidae, Κρονίδαι).

Krónos should not be confused with Khrónos (Chronus, Χρόνος), "Time," although it must be admitted that in antiquity the two deities were often equated with each other; indeed, in the Orphic hymn to Krónos we find:

αἰῶνος Κρόνε παγγενέτωρ (Orphic Hymn 13.5)

"Oh Krónos, all-father of aióhn" (aeon, αἰών) (trans. by the author)

Athanassakis translates αἰών with the word "time." Taylor translates it as "eternity." In truth, the word αἰών can be used in various ways, which is why this author prefers not to translate it. Another possibility would be to think of Krónos as Time, rather than aióhn:

"Oh Time, all-father of aióhn" (trans. by the author)

Aióhn is sometimes identified as Protógonos (Protogonus, Πρωτόγονος). It is interesting to compare this to a line from a play of Evripídis (Euripides, Εὐριπίδης):

Αἰών τε Χρόνου παῖς (Ἡρακλεῖδαι Εὐριπίδου, line 898)

"Aióhn the son of Time (Χρόνος)" (trans. by the author) 


Etymology  

The etymology of the name Krónos is κρούω "I hit, I beat" + νοῦς "mind," hence, "I beat the Mind" or "He who beats the Mind," i.e., "He who awakens the Mind." Krónos is the force that propels the Mind to progress. Plátohn (Plato, Πλάτων) analysis the name in Κρατύλος, this being a tiny excerpt:

"But he who suddenly hears that this God (Ζεὺς) is the son of Saturn (Κρόνος), may perhaps think it a reproachful assertion: for it is rational to believe that Jupiter (Ζεὺς) is the offspring of a certain great dianoëtic (reasoning) power; for, when Saturn is called κόρος, it does not signify a boy, but the purity and incorruptible nature of his intellect." [1] 


The Mythology of Krónos

Ouranós (Uranus, Οὐρανός) confined his first children, the Kýklohpæs (Cyclopes, Κύκλωπες) and Ækatónkheiræs (Hekatonkheires = "hundred-handed-ones;" Ἑκατόνχειρες), deep within the recesses of Yaia (Earth, Γαῖα), for he was revolted by them [2]. Yaia, in hopes of saving her children, gave birth to the mighty Titánæs (Titans, Τιτᾶνες) [3]Krónos is one of the Titánæs. He was cherished and reared by Nyx (Νύξ) [4]Yaia implored the Titánæs to defeat Ouranós, and Krónos, their leader, came forward. His brothers agreed to the conspiracy, with the exception of Ohkæanós (Oceanus, Ὠκεανός) [5]. When Ouranós came to the bed of Yaia, the Titans seized and bound him. Krónos then castrated Ouranós with the Adámos Dræpáni (Ἀδάμας Δρεπάνη), the adamantine sickle given to him by his mother. When the genitals of Ouranós were cast into the sea a great foam arose out of which Aphrodíti (Aphrodite, Ἀφροδίτη) was born. Krónos now held the generative power and ruled supreme. [6] As Phánis (Phanes, Φάνης) ruled a great Golden Age, Krónos and Rǽa reigned over the Silver Age in which men lived very long lives [7].

Krónos and Rǽa now gave birth to glorious children: Æstía (Hestia, Ἑστία), Dimítir (Demeter, Δημήτηρ), Íra
(Hera, Ἥρα), Ploutohn (Pluto, Πλούτων), and Poseidóhn (Poseidon, Ποσειδῶν) [8]. But Krónos was warned that one of his own offspring would overthrow him, just as he had overcome his own father. To prevent this, he swallowed each of his children as they were born [9]. This greatly distressed Rǽa and she conceived a plot. When Zefs (Ζεύς), the next child, was born, Rǽa wrapped a stone in baby's clothing and fed it to Krónos, who swallowed it [10]. This caused him to disgorge the other children. Zefs was rushed to the Cave (Ἄντρον) of Nyx (Night, Νύξand placed under the care of Ídi (Ide or Ida, Ἴδῃ) and her sister Adrásteia (Ἀδράστεια), who played the tambourine to distract Krónos [11] . When he grew in strength, Zefs consulted Nyx as to how to proceed. The Goddess instructed him to intoxicate his father with honey, explaining that this would give him the opportunity he desired [12]. Zefs related this information to his mother who responded by holding a great banquet for Krónos where she served him honey [13]Krónos became drunk and wandered into an oaken wood where he collapsed [14]. The conspirators bound him and Zefs castrated his father as Krónos had castrated Ouranós [15]. By this act, Zefs attained the kingship of the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμοςfor all time.

The above mythology is told according to the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony. In the theogony of Isíodos (Hesiod, Ἡσίοδος), the story is somewhat different. [16]


Krónos is the Fourth Vasiléfs

Krónos is the antecedent of Zefs, as Ouranós is the antecedent to Krónos. Therefore, the mythology of Zefs' defeat of Krónos is symbolic. Krónos is a constituent of the evolutionary progression of Aithír (Aether, Αἰθήρ) known as the dynasty of the Six Vasileis (Basileis or Kings, Βασιλεῖς [Βασιλεύς is singular]): Phánis, Nyx, Ouranós, Krónos, Zefs (Ζεὺς), and Diónysos [17]  As such, Krónos is one of the most important deities in Ællinismόs (Hellenismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. Please visit this page for the mythology of the Six Kings: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.

Krónos is, therefore, a pre-form of Zefs, which can be illustrated in the Orphic hymn to Krónos in which he is called the Father of Gods and men:

Ἀιθαλής, μακάρων τε θεῶν πάτερ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν (line 1)

"Amaranthine father of Gods and men" (trans. by the author)

...the like being said of his consort, in the hymn to Rǽa:

μήτηρ μέν τε θεῶν ἠδὲ θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων· (line 9)

"Indeed, mother of Gods and mortal men" (trans. by the author)

...these attributions traditionally applied to Íra and Zefs.


The hymn suggests an offering of storax (use benzoin) to Krónos.


13. Krónos [Cronus, Κρόνος]
[18] 

The Fumigation from Storax.

Etherial father, mighty Titan, hear,
Great sire
[19] of Gods and men, whom all revere:
Endu'd with various council, pure and strong,
To whom perfection and decrease belong.
Consum'd by thee all forms that hourly die,
By thee restor'd, their former place supply;
The world immense in everlasting chains,
Strong and ineffable thy pow'r contains;
Father of vast eternity, divine,
O mighty Saturn, various speech is thine:
Blossom of earth and of the starry skies,
Husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wise.
Obstetric Nature, venerable root,
From which the various forms of being shoot;
No parts peculiar can thy pow'r enclose,
Diffus'd thro' all, from which the world arose,
O, best of beings, of a subtle mind,
Propitious hear to holy pray'rs inclin'd;
The sacred rites benevolent attend,
And grant a blameless life, a blessed end.


13. Κρόνου, θυμίαμα στύρακα.

Ἀιθαλής, μακάρων τε θεῶν πάτερ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν,
ποικιλόβουλ', ἀμίαντε, μεγασθενές, ἄλκιμε Τιτάν·
ὃς δαπανᾶις μὲν ἅπαντα καὶ αὔξεις ἔμπαλιν αὐτός·
δεσμοὺς ἀρρήκτους ὃς ἔχεις κατ' ἀπείρονα κόσμον·,
αἰῶνος Κρόνε παγγενέτωρ, Κρόνε ποικιλόμυθε·
Γαίης τε βλάστημα καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
γέννα, φυή, μείωσι, Ῥέας πόσι, σεμνὲ Προμηθεῦ,
ὃς ναίεις κατὰ πάντα μέρη κόσμοιο, γενάρχα,
ἀγκυλομῆτα, φέριστε· κλύων ἱκετηρίδα φωνὴν,
πέμποις εὔολβον βιότου τέλος αἰὲν ἄμεμπτον.


EPITHETS OF KR
ÓNOS

Kronodaimohn - (Cronodaemon; Gr. Κρονοδαίμων, ΚΡΟΝΟΔΑΙΜΩΝ) = Κρόνος.

Krouown ton Noun - (Gr. Κρούων τον Νοῦν) he who strikes the mind.

Pikilómythos - (poicilomythus; Gr. ποικιλόμυθος, ΠΟΙΚΙΛΟΜΥΘΟΣ) of various discourse.


NOTES:

[1] Κρατύλος Πλάτωνος 396b-c, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1804. And below is Taylor's note concerning this line of the text:

"Saturn (Κρόνος), therefore, according to Plato, is pure intellect, viz. the first intellectual intellect: for the intellects of all the Gods are pure in the most transcendent degree; and therefore purity here must be characteristic of supremacy. Hence Saturn subsists at the summit of the intellectual order of Gods, from whence he is received into all the subsequent divine orders, and into every part of the world. But from this definition of Saturn we may see the extreme beauty of that divine fable, in which he is said to devour his children: for this signifies nothing more than the nature of an intellectual God, since every intellect returns into itself: and consequently its offspring, which are intellectual conceptions, are, as it were, absorbed in itself."

[2] Orphic frag. 121. (97) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 40e (III 185, 20 Diehl):

μᾶλλον δὲ πάντον οὐρανίων γενῶν τὰ μὲν μένει μόνον ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς, ὥσπερ αἱ δύο πρῶται τριάδες --- ὡς γὰρ ἐνόησε, φησίν [sc. ὁ θεολόγος], αὐτοὺς ὁ Οὐρανὸς 
                             ἀμείλχον ἦτορ ἔχοντας
καὶ φύσιν ἐκνομίην ᵕᵕ-ᵕᵕ-ᵕᵕ-ᵕ 
ῥῖψε βαθὺν γαιης Τάρταρον.

"For (says Orpheus) as soon as Heaven understood that they had an implacable heart, and a lawless nature, he hurled them into Tartarus, the profundity of Earth." (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1824.) 


[3] Orphic frag. 114. (95) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 40e (III 184, 1 Diehl):

δὀξειε γὰρ ἂν (sc. ὁ Πλάτων) τοῦτο λέγειν οὐχ ἑπομένως ταῖς (Ὀρφικαῖς) ἀρκαῖς· ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἀδελφοί λέγοται τούτων, ἀλλ' οὐ γεννήτορες· τίκτει γὰρ ἡ Γῆ λαθοῦσα τὸν Οὐρανόν, ὥς φυσιν ὁ θεολόγος· 

ἑπτὰ μὲν εὐειδεῖς κούρας (ἑλικώπιδας, ἁγνάς,) 
ἑπτὰ δὲ παῖδας ἄνακτας (ἐγείνατο λαχνήεντας)·
θυγατέρας μὲν (τίκτε?) Θέμιν καὶ ἐΰφρονα Τηθὺν
Μνημοσύνην τε βαθυπλόκαμον Θείαν τε μάκαιραν,
ἠδὲ Διώνην τίκτεν ἀριπρεπὲς εἶδος ἔχουσαν
Φοίβην τε Ῥείην τε, Διὸς γενέτειραν ἄνακτος·

παῖδας δὲ ἄλλους τοσούτους·

Κοῖόν τε Κρῖόν τε μέγαν Φόρκυν τε κραταιὸν
καὶ Κρόνον Ὠκεανόν θ' Ὑπερίονά τ' Ἰαπετόν τε.

(Yaia begot:) “Indeed seven comely daughters (with rolling eyes, holy)
Daughters indeed (begotten) Thǽmis (θέμις) and cheerful Tithýs (Τηθύς)
Both thick-haired Mnimosýni (Μνημοσύνη) and happy Theia (Φεία),
And she begot Dióhni (Διώνη) possessed of splendid form,
And Phívi (Φοίβη) and Rhǽa (Ῥέα), the mother of Zefs (Ζεὺς) the king.

Now the other children were as many,

Kíos (Κοῖος) and Kreios (Κρεῖος) and mighty Phórkys (Φόρκυς
And Krónos (Κρόνος), Okæanós (Ὠκεανός), both Ypæríohn (Ὑπερίων
and Iapætós (Ἰαπετός).” (trans. by the author)

[4] Orphic frag. 129. (99) ἀπορίαι καὶ λύσεις περὶ τῶν πρώτων ἀρχῶν Δαμασκίου 67 (I 146, 17 Rue.):

ἐκ ράντων δὲ Κρόνον Νὺξ ἔτρεφεν ἠδ' ἀτίταλλεν.

"But of them all, Nyx nursed and cared for Krónos." (trans. by the author) 

[5] Orphic frag. 135. (100) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 40e (III 185, 28 Diehl): 

ἔνθ' αὖτ' Ὠκεανὸς μὲν ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν ἔμιμνεν
ὁρμαίνων, ποτέρωσε νόον τράποι, ἢ πατέρα ὃν |
γυ(ι)ώσηι τε βίης καὶ ἀτάςθαλα λωβήσαιτο
σὺν Κρόνωι ἤδ' ἄλλοισιν ἀδελφοῖς, οἳ πεπίθοντο
μητρὶ φίληι, ἢ τούς γε λιπὼν μένοι ἔνδον ἕκηλος.
πολλά δὲ πορφύρων μένεν ἥμενος ἐν μεγάροισι,
σκυζόμενος ἧι μητρί, κασιγνήτοισι δὲ μᾶλλον.

“Accordingly Ohkæanós (Ὠκεανὸς) remained in his palace, 
Deliberating, to which course his mind should incline, to be with his father,
Or should he wound his father’s might in wicked dishonor, 
With Krónos and his other brothers, who being persuaded
By their beloved mother, or should he quit them and stay where he is at peace. 
Then he brooded long and remained idle in his palace, 
For he was angry with his mother, yet more with his brothers." 
(trans. by the author)


[6] Orphic frag. 127. (101) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 406c, (p. 110, 15 Pasqu.):

μήδεα δ᾿ ἐς πέλαγος πέσεν ὑψόθεν, ἀμφὶ δὲ τοῖσι λευκὸς ἐπιπλώουσιν ἑλίσσετο πάντοθεν ἀφρός· ἐν δὲ περιπλομέναις ὥραις Ἐνιαυτὸς ἔτικτεν παρθένον αἰδοίην, ἥν δὶ παλάμαις ὑπέδεκτο γεινομένην τὸ πρῶτον ὁμοῦ Ζῆλός τ' Ἀπάτη τε.

“The genitals fell down from high into the sea, swirling round about from every side in the bright foam; Then in the circling season the Year begot a venerable maiden; so soon as she was born Zílos (Ζῆλος) and Apáti (Ἀπάτη) together received her into their hands.” (trans. by the author)


According to Porphýrios (Porphyry, Πορφύριος), Zefs (Ζεύς) also castrated Krónos similarly.:

"Saturn (Κρόνος), therefore, intoxicated with honey, is bound by Jupiter (Ζεὺς), and castrated in the same manner as Caelum (Οὐρανός). But the theological poet (Ὀρφεύς) intimates by this fable that the divine essences are, as it were, bound, and drawn down by delight into the fluctuating empire of generation; and that when resolved in pleasure, they produce certain powers by their seminal virtue. Thus Saturn castrates Caelum, who, by his desire of coition descends to earth. But the intoxication of honey signifies among theologists nothing more than the desire of coition; by the ensnaring power of which Saturn is castrated." (Περί του εν Ὀδυσσεία τῶν νυμφών ἄντρου Πορφυρίουtrans. Thomas Taylor, 1823.)


[7
] Orphic frag. 140. σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Πολιτείας Πλάτωνος II 74, 26 Kr.

ὁ μὲν θεολόγος Ὀ. τρία γένη παραδέδωκεν ἀνθρώπων· πρώτιστον τὸ χρυσούν, ὅπερ ὑποστῆσαι τὸν Φάνητά φησιν· δεύτερον τὸ ἀργυροῦν, οὗ φησιν ἄρχαι τὸν μέγιστον Κρόνον· τρίτον τὸ Τιτανικόν, ὅ φησιν ἐκ τῶν Τιτανικών μελῶν τὸν Δία συστήσασθαι

"Whereas the Theologian Orphéfs conveys that there are three generations of men: the very first a Golden age said to be of Phánis; the second Silver brought forth by mighty Krónos; the third is the Titanic age formed of the Titanic limbs of Zefs." (trans. by the author)

Unlike this Orphic idea, Plátohn (Plato, Πλάτων) and others describe the ages of man differently. Plátohn calls the reign of Krónos and Rǽa a golden age as can be found in Πολιτικός Πλάτωνος 268e-272c. 
For the complete excerpt, please visit this page: 
The Age of Krónos and the Reversal of Time Cf. Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι Ἡσιόδου 109-201.

[8] This according to Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 453-458. The Orphic list of children is fragmentary.

[9] Orphic frag. 56b. Tyrannius Rufinus’ trans. of Recognitiones (pseudo-Clement) X 18 (Ed. Basil. 156, Migne PG 1, 1429) (partial only):

"sed de illis sex maribus unus, qui dicitur Saturnus, in coniugium accepit Rheam, et cum responso quodam commonitus esset, quod qui ex ea naseratur for | tior ipso futurus esset regnoque eum depelleret, omnes qui ei nascerentur filios deuorare instituit."

"But of these six (Titanic) males, the one who is called Saturn (Κρόνος) received in marriage Rhea, and having been warned by a certain oracle that he who should be born of her should be more powerful than himself, and should drive him from his kingdom, he determined to devour all the sons that should be born to him." (trans. Thomas Smith, 1886.)

[10] Orphic frag. 147. (108) Schol. Lycophr. 399 p.149, 11 Sch.:

δίσκον δὲ τὸν Δία λέγει διὰ τὸν λίθον τὸν ἀντὶ Διὸς ὑπὸ Ῥέας σπαργανωθέντα, ὥς φησιν Ἡσίοδος ἐν τῆι Θεογονίαι (υς. 485) [τὴν Ὀρφέως ὑποκλέψας καὶ παραφθείρας Θεογονίαν].

But she lay the stone in place of heavenly Zefs, the stone from Rhea in swaddling cloth, this said in the theogony of Isíodos (Hesiod, Ἡσίοδος) [ stolen as from the destroyed theogony of Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς)] (trans. by the author)

[11] Orphic frag. 105. (109. 110) 
σχόλιον Ἑρμείου επί Φαίδρου Πλάτωνος 248c p. 161, 15 Couvr.:

Ἴδη τ' εὐειδής καὶ ὁμόσπορος Ἀδήστεια

“Fair Íde and kindred Adrasteia.” (trans. by the author)

...and later from the same passage:

παλάμηισι δὲ χάλκεα ῥόπτρα δῶκεν Ἀδρηστείαι

"He gave to Adrásteia a brazen tambourine in her hand." (trans. by the author)

Orphic frag.162. (110) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 41e (III 274, 17 Diehl):

καὶ γὰρ ὁ δημιουγός, ὡς ὁ Ὀ. φησι, τρέφεται μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀδραστείας (frag. 105), σύνεστι δὲ τῆι Ἀνάγκηι (cf. fr. 54. 126 p. 132), γεννᾶι δὲ τὴν Εἱμαρμένην.

“And indeed the Dimiourgós, as Orphéfs (Ὀρφεύς) asserts, was reared in truth by Adrásteia, but having intercourse with Necessity, gives birth to Destiny.” (trans. by the author)

[12] Orphic frag. 154. (114) Περί του εν Ὀδυσσεία τῶν νυμφών ἄντρου Πορφυρίου 16 p. 67, 21 Nauck:

εὖτ' ἂν δή μιν ἴδηαι ὑπὸ δρυσὶν ὑψικόμοισιν ἔργοισιν μεθύοντα μελισσάων ἐριβόμβων, δῆσον

"When stretch'd beneath the lofty oaks you view
Saturn, with honey by the bees produc'd
Sunk in ebriety, fast bind the God." (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823)

[13] Orphic frag. 189. (107) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 404 b, (p. 92, 14 Pasqu.):

μήσατο γὰρ προπόλούς (τε) καὶ ἀμφιπόλους καὶ ὀπαδούς,
μήσατο δ' ἀμβροςίην καὶ ἐρυθροῦ νέκταρος ἀρδμόν,
μήσατο δ' ἀγλαὰ ἔργα μελισσάων ἐριβόμβων.

“She (Δημήτηρ) arranged for servants and handmaids and attendants;
She laid out amvrosía (ἀμβροσία) and a draught of red nectar;
She laid out the splendid fruits of the loud-buzzing bees.” (trans. by the author)

[14] Orphic frag. 148. σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Πολιτείας Πλάτωνος I 138, 23 Kr.:

ἔνθα Κρόνος μὲν ἔπειτα φαγὼν δολόεσσαν ἐδωδὴν κεῖτο μέγα ῥέγχων.

“Then Krónos indeed thereafter, having eaten the deceitful food, lie down snoring loudly.” (trans. by the author)

Orphic frag. 149. (45) Στρώματα Κλήμεντος του Ἀλεξανδρέως VI 2. 26, 2 (II 2, 442, 12 Staeh.):

ἔν τε τῆι Θεογονίαι ἐπὶ τοῦ Κρόνου Ὀρφεῖ πεποίηται·

κεῖτ' ἀποδοχμώσας παχὺν αὐχένα, κὰδ δὲ μιν ὕπνος ἥιρει παδαμάτωρ,

ταῦτα δὲ Ὄμηρος ἐπί τού Κύκλωπος μετέθηκεν


“And in the Theogony, it is said by Orpheus of Krónos:

‘He lay, his thick neck bent aside; and him All-conquering Sleep had seized.’

These Homer transferred to the Cyclops.” (trans. Rev. William Wilson, 1869)

[15] Orphic frag. 154. (114) Περί του εν Ὀδυσσεία τῶν νυμφών ἄντρου Πορφυρίου 16 p. 67, 21 Nauck:

ὃ καὶ πάσχει ὁ Κρόνος καὶ δεθεὶς ἐκτέμνεται ὡς ὁ Οὐρανός

"This therefore, takes place, and Saturn being bound is emasculated in the same manner as Heaven" (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823)

[16] The story in Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 457-506 is told as follows: Krónos swallows his children one by one and when Zefs is born, Krónos is given the stone. He swallows it, but this does not cause him to disgorge the children as in the Orphic theogony. Zefs was rushed to safety and when he had grown in strength, an emetic was administered to Krónos which caused him to vomit the stone. Zefs took possession of the stone and installed it at Dælphí (Delphi, Δελφοί), the center of the world. Still under the influence of the emetic, Krónos expelled his other children. Zefs and all the siblings then defeated Krónos in a ten year war (Θεογονία Ἡσιόδου 617-712) known as the Titanomakhía (Titanomachy or the Battle of the Titans, Τιτανομαχία), Zefs assumed the generative power and ascended to become the king of Gods and men for all time, never to be defeated.

[17] " For Night (Νύξ) receives the sceptre from Phanes (Φάνης); Heaven (Οὐρανός) derives from Night, the dominion over wholes; and Bacchus (Βάκχος) who is the last king of the Gods receives the kingdom from Jupiter (Ζεύς). For the father (Ζεύς) establishes him in the royal throne, puts into his hand the sceptre, and makes him the king of all the mundane Gods. 'Hear me ye Gods, I place over you a king. κλῦτε θεοί τόν δ' ὔμμιν βασιλέα τίθημι' " (σχόλιον Πρόκλου περί Κρατύλος Πλάτωνος, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1816.)

"...from Proclus, in (his commentary on the) Tim. p. 291. as follows. 'Orpheus (Ὀρφεύς) delivers the kings of the Gods, who preside over the universe according to a perfect number; Phanes (Φάνης), Night (Νύξ), Heaven (Οὐρανός), Saturn (Κρόνος), Jupiter (Ζεύς), Bacchus (Βάκχος). For Phanes is first adorned with a scepter, is the first king, and the celebrated Ericapæus (Ἠρικεπαῖος). But the second king is Night (Νύξ), who receives the sceptre from the father Phanes. The third is Heaven (Οὐρανός), invested with government from Night. The fourth Saturn (Κρόνος), the oppressor as they say of his father. The fifth is Jupiter (Ζεύς), the ruler of his father. And the sixth of these is Bacchus (Βάκχος)." (trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792.)

[18] trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792.

[19] Some online versions of the Taylor have here "fire" instead of "sire," which is incorrect.


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.
How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia, Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase (Γῆς παῖς εἰμί καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος) are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara, κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς).



PLEASE NOTE:  Throughout the pages of this Glossary, you will find fascinating stories.  These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes.  While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result.  The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code.  To understand them requires a key.  For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level.  Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation

.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

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