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CRONUS - KRÓNOS - ΚΡΟΝΟΣ

Who Strikes the Mind - 
Κρούων τον Νοῦν

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Krónos (Cronus; Gr. Κρόνος, ΚΡΟΝΟΣ. Pronunciation: KROH'-nohs)  [Roman: Saturnus or Saturn {Anglicized}.  Etruscan: Satre] 

Krónos is the youngest of the Titánæs (Titans; Gr. Τιτᾶνες), the son of Ouranós (Uranus; Gr. Οὐρανόςand Yaia (Gaia; Gr. Γαῖα; [also called Yi  or Ge; Gr. Γῆ]). He is married to Rǽa (Rhea; Gr. Ῥέα), by whom he became the father of Æstía (Hestia)Dimítir (Demeter), Íra (Hera), Ploutohn (Pluto), Poseidóhn (Poseidon), and Zefs (Zeus), who are known collectively as the Kronídai (Cronidae; Gr. Κρονίδαι).

Krónos should not be confused with Khrónos (Chronos; Gr. Χρόνος), "Time," although it must be admitted that even in antiquity the two deities were sometimes equated with each other; indeed, in the Orphic hymn to Krónos, he is called the "father of vast eternity." (Taylor translation, see below)


Etymology  

The etymology of the name Krónos is krouoh ("I hit, I beat;" Gr. κρούω) + nous (mind; Gr. νοῦς), hence, "I beat the Mind" or "He who beats the Mind," i.e., "He who awakens the Mind." Consequently, Krónos is the force that propels the Mind to progress.

"But he who suddenly hears that this God (ed. Jupiter or Zefs) is the son of Saturn (ed. Krónos), may perhaps think it a reproachful assertion: for it is rational to believe that Jupiter is the offspring of a certain great dianoëtic (ed. reasoning) power; for, when Saturn is called κορος, it does not signify a boy, but the purity and incorruptible nature of his intellect." [1] 


The Mythology of Krónos

Ouranós confined his first children, the Kýklohpæs (Cyclopes; Gr. Κύκλωπες) and Ækatónkheiræs (Hekatonkheires = "hundred-handed-ones;" Gr. Ἑκατόνχειρες), within the recesses of Yaia (Earth), for he was revolted by them [2]. Yaia, greatly distressed by this, gave birth to the mighty Titánæs in secret [3]Krónos is one of the Titánæs. He was cherished and reared by Nyx (Gr. Νύξ) [4]. But Yaia was determined to retrieve the children whom Ouranós imprisoned in Tártaros (Tartarus; Gr. Τάρταρος) and she conceived a plot against him. She implored the Titánæs to defeat Ouranós. Krónos came forward and agreed to the plot with his brothers as conspirators, only Okeanos (Ohkæanós; Gr. Ὠκεανός) would not agree [5]. When Ouranós came to the bed of Yaia to lie with her, the Titans seized and bound him while Krónos castrated Ouranós with the Adámos Dræpáni (Ἀδάμας Δρεπάνη), an adamantine sickle given to him by his mother. His genitals were thrown into the sea from which a great foam arose and Aphrodíti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη) was born from this foam. Krónos now held the generative power and ruled supreme. [6]

As Phánis (Phanes; Gr. Φάνης) ruled a great Golden Age, Krónos and Rǽa reigned over the Silver Age in which men lived very long lives [7].

Krónos and Rǽa now gave birth to glorious children: Æstía (Hestia; Gr. Ἑστία), Dimítir (Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ), Íra (Hera; Gr. 
Ἥρᾱ), Ploutohn (Pluto; Gr. Πλούτων) and Poseidóhn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) [8]. But Krónos was warned that one of his own offspring would overthrow him as he had overcome his own father. To prevent this, he swallowed each of his children in turn as they were born [9], but this greatly distressed Rǽa and she conceived a plot. When Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), the next child, was born, Rǽa wrapped a stone in baby's clothing and fed it to Krónos, who swallowed it thinking that it was the newborn infant [10] . This caused him to disgorge the other children. Zefs was rushed to the Cave (Ἄντρον) of Nyx (Night; Gr. Νύξ) and placed under the care of Adrásteia (Gr. Ἀδράστεια), who played the tambourine to distract Krónos, and her sister Ídi (Ide or Ida; Ἴδῃ) [11] . When he grew in strength, Zefs consulted Nyx as to how to proceed. The great Goddess told him to intoxicate his father with honey and that this will give him his opportunity [12]. Zefs related this information to his mother who then held a great banquet for Krónos and served him honey [13]Krónos became drunk and wandered into an oaken wood where he collapsed [14] and was bound by Zefs and his confidants. Zefs then castrated his father as Krónos had done to Ouranós [15]; Zefs thereby attained the kingship and for all time Zefs... he is Ýpatos (Gr. Ὕπατος), the highest, the supreme deity.

The above mythology of the demise of Krónos is told according to the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony. In the theogony of Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος), the story is somewhat different. [16]



Krónos is the Fourth Vasilefs

Krónos is the antecedent of Zefs, as Ouranós is the antecedent to Krónos. Therefore, the mythology of Zefs' defeat of Krónos is symbolic. Krónos is a constituent of the evolutionary progression of Aithír (Ether; Gr. Αἰθήρ) known as the dynasty of the Six Vasileis (Basileis = Kings; Gr. Βασιλεῖς [Βασιλεύς is singular]): Phánis, Nyx, Ouranós, Krónos, Zefs (Zeus), and Diónysos. As such, Krónos is one of the most important deities in Ællinismόs (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. [17] Please visit this page for the mythology of the Six Kings: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.

Krónos is, therefore, a pre-form of Zefs, which can be illustrated in the Orphic hymn to Krónos in which he is called the Father of Gods and men:

Ἀιθαλής, μακάρων τε θεῶν πάτερ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν (line 1)

...the like being said of his consort, in the hymn to Rǽa:

μήτηρ μέν τε θεῶν ἠδὲ θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων· (line 9)

...these attributions usually being applied to Íra and Zefs.


The Orphic Hymn to Krónos

The Orphic Hymn To Krónos equates the primeval Krónos, who issues from Water and Earth, with Krónos the husband of Rǽa

"As Chronos (ed. here referring to Krónos), he is indeed father of Gods and men (ed. as stated in the hymn), since he sired the primeval elements, Chaos, Erebos, and Aither. Within Aither he placed the primeval egg out of which Phanes, the Creator, came." [18] 

Apostolos Athanassakis, the translator and author of this commentary on the hymn, further quotes the gold plate of Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία)

"When the dead man reaches the spring flowing from the Lake of Memory, he must tell its guardians 'I am child of Earth and of Starry Sky,' " [18]

...for the hymn calls Krónos the "Blossom of earth and of the starry skies."  (from the below translation by Taylor) 

The hymn suggests an offering of storax (use benzoin) to Krónos.


13. Krónos [Cronus; Gr. Κρόνος]
[19] 

The Fumigation from Storax.

Etherial father, mighty Titan, hear,
Great fire of Gods and men, whom all revere:
Endu'd with various council, pure and strong,
To whom perfection and decrease belong.
Consum'd by thee all forms that hourly die,
By thee restor'd, their former place supply;
The world immense in everlasting chains,
Strong and ineffable thy pow'r contains;
Father of vast eternity, divine,
O mighty Saturn, various speech is thine:
Blossom of earth and of the starry skies,
Husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wise.
Obstetric Nature, venerable root,
From which the various forms of being shoot;
No parts peculiar can thy pow'r enclose,
Diffus'd thro' all, from which the world arose,
O, best of beings, of a subtle mind,
Propitious hear to holy pray'rs inclin'd;
The sacred rites benevolent attend,
And grant a blameless life, a blessed end.


13. Κρόνου, θυμίαμα στύρακα.

Ἀιθαλής, μακάρων τε θεῶν πάτερ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν,
ποικιλόβουλ', ἀμίαντε, μεγασθενές, ἄλκιμε Τιτάν·
ὃς δαπανᾶις μὲν ἅπαντα καὶ αὔξεις ἔμπαλιν αὐτός·
δεσμοὺς ἀρρήκτους ὃς ἔχεις κατ' ἀπείρονα κόσμον·,
αἰῶνος Κρόνε παγγενέτωρ, Κρόνε ποικιλόμυθε·
Γαίης τε βλάστημα καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
γέννα, φυή, μείωσι, Ῥέας πόσι, σεμνὲ Προμηθεῦ,
ὃς ναίεις κατὰ πάντα μέρη κόσμοιο, γενάρχα,
ἀγκυλομῆτα, φέριστε· κλύων ἱκετηρίδα φωνὴν,
πέμποις εὔολβον βιότου τέλος αἰὲν ἄμεμπτον.


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.



EPITHETS OF KR
ÓNOS
(Under Construction)

Kronodaimohn - (Cronodaemon; Gr. Κρονοδαίμων, ΚΡΟΝΟΔΑΙΜΩΝ) Lexicon entry: Κρονοδαίμων, ονος, ὁ, = Κρόνος. (L&S p. 998, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Krouown ton Noun - (Gr. Κρούων τον Νοῦν) Krouown ton Noun (pronounced noon) is Krónos, he who strikes the mind.

Pikilómythos - (poicilomythus; Gr. ποικιλόμυθος, ΠΟΙΚΙΛΟΜΥΘΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ποικῐλόμῡθοςονof various discourse; epith. of Cronus, Orph.H.13.5; of Hermes, Orph.H.28.8. (L&S p. 1430, left column, within the entries beginning with ποικιλόβοτρυς.)


NOTES:

[1] Ρλάτων Κρατύλος 396b-c, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1804; TTS XIII p. 476. And below is Taylor's note concerning this line of the text (found Ibid. Taylor p. 528):

"Saturn (ed. Krónos), therefore, according to Plato, is pure intellect, viz. the first intellectual intellect: for the intellects of all the Gods are pure in the most transcendent degree; and therefore purity here must be characteristic of supremacy. Hence Saturn subsists at the summit of the intellectual order of Gods, from whence he is received into all the subsequent divine orders, and into every part of the world. But from this definition of Saturn we may see the extreme beauty of that divine fable, in which he is said to devour his children: for this signifies nothing more than the nature of an intellectual God, since every intellect returns into itself: and consequently its offspring, which are intellectual conceptions, are, as it were, absorbed in itself."

[2] Orphic frag. 121. (97) Πρόκλος Commentary on the Τίμαιος 40e (III 185, 20 Diehl):
μᾶλλον δὲ πάντον οὐρανίων γενῶν τὰ μὲν μένει μόνον ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς, ὥσπερ αἱ δύο πρῶται τριάδες --- ὡς γὰρ ἐνόησε, φησίν [sc. ὁ θεολόγος], αὐτοὺς ὁ Οὐρανὸς 
                             ἀμείλχον ἦτορ ἔχοντας
καὶ φύσιν ἐκνομίην ᵕᵕ-ᵕᵕ-ᵕᵕ-ᵕ 
ῥῖψε βαθὺν γαιης Τάρταρον.

"For (says Orpheus) as soon as Heaven understood that they had an implacable heart, and a lawless nature, he hurled them into Tartarus, the profundity of Earth." (Trans. Thomas Taylor, 1824 in The Mystical Hymns of Orpheus, Second Edition, Chiswick (England), in note 113 for hymn 83 to Ocean, p. 152.) 


[3] Orphic frag. 114. (95) Πρόκλος Commentary on the Τίμαιος 40e (III 184, 1 Diehl):

δὀξειε γὰρ ἂν (sc. ὁ Πλάτων) τοῦτο λέγειν οὐχ ἑπομένως ταῖς (Ὀρφικαῖς) ἀρκαῖς· ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἀδελφοί λέγοται τούτων, ἀλλ' οὐ γεννήτορες· τίκτει γὰρ ἡ Γῆ λαθοῦσα τὸν Οὐρανόν, ὥς φυσιν ὁ θεολόγος· 

ἑπτὰ μὲν εὐειδεῖς κούρας (ἑλικώπιδας, ἁγνάς,) 
ἑπτὰ δὲ παῖδας ἄνακτας (ἐγείνατο λαχνήεντας)·
θυγατέρας μὲν (τίκτε?) Θέμιν καὶ ἐΰφρονα Τηθὺν
Μνημοσύνην τε βαθυπλόκαμον Θείαν τε μάκαιραν,
ἠδὲ Διώνην τίκτεν ἀριπρεπὲς εἶδος ἔχουσαν
Φοίβην τε Ῥείην τε, Διὸς γενέτειραν ἄνακτος·

παῖδας δὲ ἄλλους τοσούτους·

Κοῖόν τε Κρῖόν τε μέγαν Φόρκυν τε κραταιὸν
καὶ Κρόνον Ὠκεανόν θ' Ὑπερίονά τ' Ἰαπετόν τε.

τούτων οὖν παρά τῶι θεολόγωι προαναγεγραμμένων πῶς ὁ Τίμαιος ἐξ Ὠκεανοῦ καὶ Τηθύος (de Tethye v. etiam in Tim. 40e [III 179, 8 Diehl]) παράγει Κρόνον τε καὶ Ρέαν;

“(Earth bore) seven fair daughters…and seven kingly sons…daughters…Themis and kindly Tethys and deep-haired Mnemosyne and happy Theia, and Dione she bore of exceeding beauty and Phoebe and Rhea, the mother of Zeus the king. (Her sons were of the same number), Koios and Krios and mighty Phorkys and Kronos and Okeanos and Hyperion and Iapetos.” (Partial translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton, NJ USA] on p. 138.)  

Comparing the two major theogonies, in the Orphic theogony the Titánæs were born in secret from Krónos; in Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία the Titánæs are not born in secret but are the children of both Yaia and Krónos. The members of each list also vary somewhat, but, for the most part, the two lists of Titánæs are the same:

The parentage according to Isíodos:

"And Earth (ed. Yaia; Gr. Γαῖα) first bare starry Heaven (ed. Ouranós), equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed Gods. And she brought forth long Hills, graceful haunts of the Goddess-Nymphs who dwell amongst the glens of the hills. She bare also the fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontus (ed. Póntos; Gr. Πόντος), without sweet union of love. But afterwards she lay with Heaven and bare deep-swirling Oceanus (ed. Ohkæanós; Gr. Ὠκεανός), Coeus (ed. Kíos; Gr. Κοῖος) and Crius (ed. Kreios; Gr. Κρεῖος) and Hyperion (ed. Ypæríohn; Gr. Ὑπερίων) and Iapetus (ed. Iapætós; Gr. Ἰαπετός), Theia (ed. Theia Evrypháæssa; Gr. Θεία Εὐρυφάεσσα) and Rhea (ed. Rǽa; Gr. Ῥέα), Themis (ed. Thǽmis; Gr. Θέμις) and Mnemosyne (ed. Mnimosýni; Gr. Μνημοσύνη) and gold-crowned Phoebe (ed. Phívi; Gr. Φοίβη) and lovely Tethys (ed. Tithýs; Gr. Τηθύς). After them was born Cronos (ed. Krónos) the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire." (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 126-139, trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914; found here in the 1936 Harvard [Cambridge, MA USA]-Heinemann [London, England] Loeb edition on pp. 87-89)

[4] Orphic frag. 129. (99) Πρόκλος Commentary on Ρλάτων Κρατύλος 396b. c p. 62, 3 Pasqu.:

ἐκ ράντων δὲ Κρόνον Νὺξ ἔτρεφεν ἠδ' ἀτίταλλεν.

"But above all others it was Kronos whom Night (ed. Nyx) reared and cherished." (Translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton] on p. 139.) 

[5] Orphic frag. 135. (100) Πρόκλος Commentary on the Τίμαιος 40e (III 185, 28 Diehl): 

ἔνθ' αὖτ' Ὠκεανὸς μὲν ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν ἔμιμνεν
ὁρμαίνων, ποτέρωσε νόον τράποι, ἢ πατέρα ὃν |
γυ(ι)ώσηι τε βίης καὶ ἀτάςθαλα λωβήσαιτο
σὺν Κρόνωι ἤδ' ἄλλοισιν ἀδελφοῖς, οἳ πεπίθοντο
μητρὶ φίληι, ἢ τούς γε λιπὼν μένοι ἔνδον ἕκηλος.
πολλά δὲ πορφύρων μένεν ἥμενος ἐν μεγάροισι,
σκυζόμενος ἧι μητρί, κασιγνήτοισι δὲ μᾶλλον.

“At this time Okeanos kept within his halls, debating with himself to which side his intent should lean, whether he should maim his father’s might and do him wanton injury, conspiring with Kronos and his other brethren who had hearkened to their mother’s behests, or whether he should leave them and remain within at peace. Long did he ponder, then remained he sitting in his halls, for he was wroth with his mother, and yet more with his brethren." (Translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton] on p. 139.)


[6] Orphic frag. 127. (101) Πρόκλος Commentary on the Κρατύλος 406c, (p. 110, 15 Pasqu.):

μήδεα δ᾿ ἐς πέλαγος πέσεν ὑψόθεν, ἀμφὶ δὲ τοῖσι λευκὸς ἐπιπλώουσιν ἑλίσσετο πάντοθεν ἀφρός· ἐν δὲ περιπλομέναις ὥραις Ἐνιαυτὸς ἔτικτεν παρθένον αἰδοίην, ἥν δὶ παλάμαις ὑπέδεκτο γεινομένην τὸ πρῶτον ὁμοῦ Ζῆλός τ' Ἀπάτη τε.

“The genitals (of Ouranos) fell down into the sea, and round about them as they floated swirled the white foam. Then in the circling season the Year brought forth a tender maiden, and the spirits of Rivalry (Ζῆλος) and Beguilement (Ἀπάτη) together took her up in their arms, so soon as she was born.” (Translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton] on p. 139.)



The story is told somewhat differently in Isíodos:

"But afterwards she (ed. Yaia or Gaia; Gr. Γαῖα) lay with Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός) and bare...(ed. many children). And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Earth so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Heaven rejoiced in his evil doing. But vast Earth groaned within, being straitened, and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. And she spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her dear heart: 

“My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your father; for he first thought of doing shameful things.”

So she said; but fear seized them all, and none of them uttered a word. But great Cronos (ed. Krónos) the wily took courage and answered his dear mother: 

“Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I reverence not our father of evil name, for he first thought of doing shameful things.”

So he said: and vast Earth rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot.

And Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανόςcame, bringing on night and longing for love, and he lay about Earth spreading himself full upon her. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him."  
(Ibid. Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 133-183 Evelyn-White; pp. 89-93)

According to Porphýrios (Porphyry; Gr. Πορφύριος), Zefs (ed. Zefs; Gr. Ζεύς) also castrated Krónos similarly. Here, in translation by Thomas Taylor (Porphýrios The Cave of the Nymphs trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823, Thomas Rodd Publishing [London, England] p. 183):

"...and Saturn (ed. Krónos) being bound, is castrated in the same manner as Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός); the theologist (ed. Orphéfs [=Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς]) obscurely signifying by this, that divine natures become through pleasure bound, and drawn down into the realms of generation; and also that, when dissolved in pleasure, they emit certain seminal powers. Hence Saturn castrates Heaven, when descending to earth, through a desire of coition."

Taylor comments on this quotation in a note to this translation:

"Porphyry, though he excelled in philosophical, was deficient in theological knowledge; of which what he now says of the castrations of Saturn (ed. Krónos) and Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός) is a remarkable instance. For ancient theologists, by things preternatural (ed. of an exceptional nature), adumbrated (ed. outlined) the transcendent nature of the Gods; by such as are irrational, a power more divine than all reason; and by things apparently base, incorporeal beauty. Hence in the fabulous narrations to which Porphyry now alludes, the genital parts must be considered as symbols of prolific power; and the castration of these parts as signifying the progression of this power into a subject order. So that the fable means that the prolific powers of Saturn are called forth into progression by Jupiter, and those of Heaven by Saturn; Jupiter being inferior to Saturn, and Saturn to Heaven.—See the "Apology for the Fables of Homer" in Vol. I. of my (ed. Taylor) translation of Plato."

[7
] Orphic frag. 140. Πρόκλος Commentary on Rempubl. II 74, 26 Kr.

ὁ μὲν θεολόγος Ὀ. τρία γένη παραδέδωκεν ἀνθρώπων· πρώτιστον τὸ χρυσούν, ὅπερ ὑποστῆσαι τὸν Φάνητά φησιν· δεύτερον τὸ ἀργυροῦν, οὗ φησιν ἄρχαι τὸν μέγιστον Κρόνον· τρίτον τὸ Τιτανικόν, ὅ φησιν ἐκ τῶν Τιτανικών μελῶν τὸν Δία συστήσασθαι

"Whereas the Theologian Orphéfs conveys that there are three generations of men: the very first a Golden age said to be of Phánis; the second Silver brought forth by mighty Krónos; the third is the Titanic age formed of the Titanic limbs of Zefs." (trans. author)

Unlike this Orphic idea, Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) and others describe the ages of man differently. Plátohn calls the reign of Krónos and Rǽa a golden age as can be found in Πολιτικός 268e-272c. 
For the complete excerpt, please visit this page: 
The Age of Krónos and the Reversal of Time Cf. Ἡσίοδος Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι 109-201.

[8] According to Isíodos:

 "But Rhea (ed. Rǽa; Gr. Ῥέα) was subject in love to Cronos (ed. Krónos) and bare splendid children, Hestia (ed. Æstía; Gr. 

Ἑστία

) Demeter (ed. Dimítir; Gr. Δημήτηρ), and gold-shod Hera (ed. Íra; Gr. Ήρα) and strong Hades (ed. Aidis; Gr. Ἅιδης), pitiless in heart, who dwells under the earth, and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker (ed. Poseidóhn; Gr. Ποσειδν), and wise Zeus (ed. Zefs; Gr. Ζεύς), father of Gods and men, by whose thunder the wide earth is shaken."  
(Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 453-458 Evelyn-White trans.; p. 113)


[9] Orphic frag. 56b. Rufin. Recognit. X 18 (Ed. Basil. 156, Migne PG 1, 1429) (partial only):

"sed de illis sex maribus unus, qui dicitur Saturnus, in coniugium accepit Rheam, et cum responso quodam commonitus esset, quod qui ex ea naseratur for | tior ipso futurus esset regnoque eum depelleret, omnes qui ei nascerentur filios deuorare instituit."

"But of these six (ed. Titanic) males, the one who is called Saturn (ed. Krónos) received in marriage Rhea, and having been warned by a certain oracle that he who should be born of her should be more powerful than himself, and should drive him from his kingdom, he determined to devour all the sons that should be born to him." (trans. Thomas Smith, 1886.)

[10] Orphic frag. 147. (108) Schol. Lycophr. 399 p.149, 11 Sch.:

δίσκον δὲ τὸν Δία λέγει διὰ τὸν λίθον τὸν ἀντὶ Διὸς ὑπὸ Ῥέας σπαργανωθέντα, ὥς φησιν Ἡσίοδος ἐν τῆι Θεογονίαι (vs. 485) [τὴν Ὀρφέως ὑποκλέψας καὶ παραφθείρας Θεογονίαν].


[11] Orphic frag. 105. (109. 110) 
Ἑρμείας Commentary on Πλάτων Φαῖδρος 248c p. 161, 15 Couvr.:

Ἴδη τ' εὐειδής καὶ ὁμόσπορος Ἀδήστεια

“Fair Ide and her sister Adrasteia.” 
(translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton] on p. 138.)

...and later from the same passage:

παλάμηισι δὲ χάλκεα ῥόπτρα δῶκεν Ἀδρηστείαι

"He gave to Adrásteia a brazen tambourine in her hand." (trans. author)

Orphic frag.162. (110) Πρόκλος Commentary on the Τίμαιος 41e (III 274, 17 Diehl):

καὶ γὰρ ὁ δημιουγός, ὡς ὁ Ὀ. φησι, τρέφεται μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀδραστείας (frag. 105), σύνεστι δὲ τῆι Ἀνάγκηι (cf. fr. 54. 126 p. 132), γεννᾶι δὲ τὴν Εἱμαρμένην.

“And indeed the Demiourgós, as Orphéfs asserts, was reared in truth by Adrásteia, but having intercourse with Necessity, gives birth to Destiny.” (trans. author)

[12] Orphic frag. 154. (114) Πορφύριος De antro nymphar. 16 p. 67, 21 Nauck

εὖτ' ἂν δή μιν ἴδηαι ὑπὸ δρυσὶν ὑψικόμοισιν ἔργοισιν μεθύοντα μελισσάων ἐριβόμβων, δῆσον

"When stretch'd beneath the lofty oaks you view
Saturn, with honey by the bees produc'd
Sunk in ebriety, fast bind the God." (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823)

[13] Orphic frag. 189. (107) Πρόκλος Commentary on the Κρατύλος 404 b, (p. 92, 14 Pasqu.):

μήσατο γὰρ προπόλούς (τε) καὶ ἀμφιπόλους καὶ ὀπαδούς,
μήσατο δ' ἀμβροςίην καὶ ἐρυθροῦ νέταρος ἀρδμόν,
μήσατο δ' ἀγαὰ ἔργα μελισσάων ἐριβόμβων.

“She (Demetra) devised servants, and attendants, and followers;
she devised ambrosia and the fragrance (? ἀρδμόν), of red nectar;
she devised the splendid works of the loud-murmuring bees.” 
(translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton] on p. 140.)

[14] Orphic frag. 148. Πρόκλος Commentary on Rempubl. I 138, 23 Kr.

ἔνθα Κρόνος μὲν ἔπειτα φαγὼν δολόεσσαν ἐδωδὴν κεῖτο μέγα ῥέγχων.

“Then Kronos afterwards, when he had eaten the food given him in deceit, lay and snored mightily.” 
(translation as found in Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton] on p. 139.)

Orphic frag. 149. (45) Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς Στρώματα VI 2. 26, 2 (II 2, 442, 12 Staeh.):

ἔν τε τῆι Θεογονίαι ἐπὶ τοῦ Κρόνου Ὀρφεῖ πεποίηται·

κεῖτ' ἀποδοχμώσας παχὺν αὐχένα, κὰδ δὲ μιν ὕπνος ἥιρει παδαμάτωρ,

ταῦτα δὲ Ὄμηρος ἐπί τού Κύκλωπος μετέθηκεν


“And in the Theogony, it is said by Orpheus of Kronos:

‘He lay, his thick neck bent aside; and him All-conquering Sleep had seized.’

These Homer transferred to the Cyclops.” (trans. Rev. William Wilson, 1869)

[15] Orphic frag. 154. (114) Πορφύριος De antro nymphar. 16 p. 67, 21 Nauck:

ὃ καὶ πάσχει ὁ Κρόνος καὶ δεθεὶς ἐκτέμνεται ὡς ὁ Οὐρανός

"This therefore, takes place, and Saturn being bound is emasculated in the same manner as Heaven" (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823)

[16] The story in Hesiod (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 457-506) is as follows: Krónos swallows his children one by one and when Zefs is born, Krónos is given the stone. He swallows it, but this does not cause him to disgorge the children as in the Orphic theogony. Zefs was rushed to safety and when he had grown in strength, an emetic was administered to Krónos which caused him to vomit the stone. Zefs took possession of the stone and installed it at Dælphí (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί), the center of the world. Still under the influence of the emetic, Krónos expelled his other children. Zefs and all the siblings then defeated Krónos in a ten year war (Ἡσίοδος Θεογονία 617-712) known as the Titanomakhía (Titanomachy or the Battle of the Titans; Gr. Τιτανομαχία), Zefs assumed the generative power and ascended to become the king of Gods and men for all time, never to be defeated.

[17] For Night (ed. Nyx; Gr. Νύξ) receives the sceptre from Phanes (ed. Phánis; Gr. Φάνης); Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός) derives from Night, the dominion over wholes; and Bacchus (ed. Diónysos; Gr. Διόνυσος) who is the last king of the Gods receives the kingdom from Jupiter (ed. Zefs or Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). For the father (Jupiter; ed. Zefs) establishes him in the royal throne, puts into his hand the sceptre, and makes him the king of all the mundane Gods. "Hear me ye Gods, I place over you a king." κλῦτε θεοί τόν δ' ὔμμιν βασιλέα τίθημι (ed. klýtæ thæí ton d'ímmin vasilǽa títhimi)' " (Extract from the Manuscript Scolia of Proclus On the Kratylus of Plato, published in The Theology of Plato: Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1816; Prometheus Trust [Somerset, UK], 1999 edition, p. 673.)


 "...from Proclus, in Tim. p. 291. as follows. 'Orpheus (ed. Orphéfs; Gr. Ὀρφεύς) delivers the kings of the Gods, who preside over the universe according to a perfect number; Phanes (ed. Phánis; Gr. Φάνης), Night (ed. Nyx; Gr. Νύξ), Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός), Saturn (ed. Krónos), Jupiter (ed. Zefs or Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), Bacchus (ed. Diónysos; Gr. Διόνυσος). For Phanes is first adorned with a scepter, is the first king, and the celebrated Ericapæus (ed. Irikæpaios; Gr. Ἠρικεπαῖος). But the second king is Night (ed. Nyx; Gr. Νύξ), who receives the sceptre from the father Phanes. The third is Heaven (ed. Ouranós; Gr. Οὐρανός), invested with government from Night. The fourth Saturn (ed. Krónos), the oppressor as they say of his father. The fifth is Jupiter (ed. Zefs), the ruler of his father. And the sixth of these is Bacchus (ed. Diónysos; Gr. Διόνυσος)." (The Hymns of Orpheus trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792 [London, printed for the Author]; found in a footnote to hymn V. To Protogonus, on p. 119.  There were several editions of Taylor's translation.  This note is from the first edition of the book; it is not found in the 2003 Prometheus Trust edition TTS Vol. V.)


[18] Orphic Hymn to Krónos as trans. in The Orphic Hymns by Apostolos N. Athanassakis, Scholars Press for The Society of Biblical Literature (Atlanta, GA), 1977, p.117.

[19] trans. by Thomas Taylor, 1792; we are using a facsimile of the original edition, London, England (printed for the author), where this quotation may be found on pp. 136-137.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The 
Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς). 



PLEASE NOTE:  Throughout the pages of this Glossary, you will find fascinating stories.  These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes.  While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result.  The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code.  To understand them requires a key.  For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level.  Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation

.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

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