ATHINA - ΑΘΗΝΑ
7. Athina - (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ, ΑΘΗΝΑ. Pronunciation: ah-thee-NAH', the accent falling on the first and also the final syllable, or not accenting any syllable.) [Roman: Minerva. Etruscan: Menerva, Menrva]
Hellenismos and one of the Twelve Olympian Gods, Athina is the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Mitis (Metis; Gr. Μῆτις), but, according to Isiothos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) in Thæogonia (Theogonia; Gr. Θεογονία), Zefs swallowed Mitis while she was pregnant with Athina for fear that Mitis would give birth to a son who would overthrow him. Iphaistos (Hephaistos; Gr. Ἥφαιστος) split the head of Zefs with an ax, giving birth to Athina in full battle-gear. There are other, conflicting versions of Athina's parentage.
Athina is the Goddess of war and the companion of heroes such as Othyssefs (Odysseus; Gr. Ὀδυσσεύς) and Pærsefs (Perseus; Gr. Περσεύς). She is a great Goddess of Wisdom and giver of wise counsel. Athina Ærgani (Ergane; Gr. Ἐργάνη) is epithet of the Goddess in her role as the patroness of invention, weaving, various crafts, and martial metalwork and martial craft. Like Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις) and Æstia (Hestia Gr. Ἑστία), Athina is a virgin Goddess (referring to a type of purity and having nothing to do with sex), hence she is known as Athina Parthænos (virgin; Parthenos; Gr. Παρθένος).
Athina is known as Pallas (Gr. Παλλάς) Athina. The surname Pallas has been explained in several ways: 1) she who killed and flayed the giant Pallas, 2) from palein meaning "brandish" - she who brandishes the Aigis (Aegis; Gr. Αἰγίς), or 3) from pallax (Gr. πάλλαξ) meaning "virgin". There is mythology that says Athina's father was someone named Pallas, who tried to violate her and whom she then kills. Other stories say that Pallas was a companion or sister to Athina, who she killed by accident.
Γοργόνειον). She is often accompanied by an owl. Her eyes are described as gray-blue.
Originally housed in the Parthænohn (Parthenon; Gr. Παρθενών) at the Akropolis (Acropolis; Gr. Ακρόπολις) of Athinai (Athens; Gr. Ἀθῆναι), the famous 38' statue of Athina Parthænos (as demonstrated in many copies; the original has perished) by Pheithias (Phidias; Gr. Φειδίας) shows her wearing a helmet adorned with a sphinx flanked by two winged horses or griffins. In her right hand, Athina Parthænos holds a statue of Niki (Nike; Gr. Νίκη), the Goddess of Victory. Her left hand rests on the Gorgohn-shield and a spear is at her side. At the foot of the shield is the Ærikhthonios (Erichthonius; Gr. Ἐριχθόνιος) serpent. She wears the golden Aigis (Aegis = shield; Gr. Αιγίς) of Zefs, said to be made of the skin of the goat Amaltheia (Gr. Ἀμάλθεια).
Epithets of Athina: (under construction)
Kleithoukhos - (Kleidouchos; Gr. Κλείδουχος, ΚΛΕΙΔΟΥΧΟΣ) Kleithoukhos is an epithet meaning she who holds the keys, of Aphrothiti (Aphrodite), of Athina (Athena), of Ækati.
- κλείδουχ-ος, Att. κληδ-, ον, (ἔχω) holding the keys: hence, having charge or custody of a place, Ἔρωτα τᾶς Ἀφροδίτας θαλάμων κλῃδοῦχον E.Hipp.540 (lyr.); Ἰώ, κ. Ἥρας her priestess, A.Supp.291, cf. Phoronis 4,E.IT131 (lyr.), IG22.974.23,3.172.7; κ. Διός E.Hyps.Fr.3(1)iv 28; of Pallas, tutelary Goddess, Ar.Th.1142 (lyr.); τῶν συνδέσμων ἑκάστου κ. Μοῖρα protectress of . . , Plu.2.591b; of Aeacus,IG14.1746; κ. νεκύων πύλαι AP7.391 (Bass.); of Hecate, Orph.Fr.316. II. of the numbers 4 and 10, believed by the Pythag. to be the keys of the order of nature, Theol.Ar.22,60: wrongly called κλαδοῦχοι (fr. κλάδος), through misunderstanding of Dor. κλᾱδ-, Lyd.Mens.1.15 (v.l. κλειδ-), EM253.50. (L&S)
Philopolæmikos - (Gr. Φιλοπολεμικος, ΦΙΛΟΠΟΛΕΜΙΚΟΣ) Philopolæmikos, or rendered into English Philopolemic, is "An epithet of Minerva (ed. Athina), signifying that she is a lover of war; just as she is also called philosophic, as being a lover of wisdom." (TTS XV p. 10)
Orphic Hymn to Athina, she is called the Slayer of Gorgoh (Gorgo = the Gorgohn; Gr. Γοργώ or Γοργών)
. This refers to the assistance Athina gave toPærsefs (Perseus; Gr. Περσεύς)
when he slew the Gorgohn Mæthousa
. In the poem Athina is said to be male and female. One way of understanding this is that Athina, in mythology, often disguises herself as male personages; for instance, in the Odysseia (The Odyssey; Gr.Ὀδύσσεια)
, she appears as Næstohr
. Athina is called "driver of horses" in the hymn; Athina, like Poseithohn (Poseidon;Gr. Ποσειδῶν
), has association with the horse. She invented the bridle. It is said that she inspired theDouratæos Ippos ("Wooden Horse;" Gr. Δουράτεος Ἵππος. Odyssey Book VIII.493), the Trojan Horse
. Also in the hymn,Athina is called the Destroyer of the Phlegraian Giants. This refers to the region of Phlegra in Macedonia where Athina assisted in overthrowing the Gigantæs (Gigantes; Gr. Γίγαντες) in the great battle of the Giants. The poem calls the Goddess: Tritogæneia (Tritogeneia; Gr. Τριτογένεια). This is an epithet of the Goddess. The meaning of Tritogæneia is not certain. By some accounts, Athina was born near Lake Triton (Tritonis) in Libya, or the stream named Triton in Boeotia. Other suggestions are "Triton-born", or "Third-born", or from the Athamanian dialect tritô meaning "head," thus, born from the head of Zefs.
Athina rules the seventh Orphic House, the month of Aries (Krios; Gr. Κριός) from March 21 through April 20, and her dominion is the Natural Law of Co-Influence. The Divine Consort of the Goddess Athina is Ærmis (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς). They are called the youngest of the Olympians. Both Athina and Ærmis are the great cultivators of the soul. Metaphorically, Ærmis is the plow which Athina is guiding. The Orphic Hymns suggest the offering of aromatic herbs to Athina.
A beautiful embroidery of Athina, very old, in the possession of our community: Athina, Queen of Athens
Again, theologists especially celebrate two powers of our sovereign mistress Minerva  (ed. Athina = Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ), the defensive, and the perfective; the former preserving the order of wholes undefiled, and unvanquished by matter, and the latter filling all things with intellectual light, and converting them to their cause. And on this account, Plato (ed. Platohn; Gr. Πλάτων) also in the Timæus (ed. Timaios; Gr. Τίμαιος), analogously celebrates Minerva (ed. Athina) asphilopolemic and philosophic. But three orders of this Goddess are delivered by theologists; the one fontal and intellectual, according to which she establishes herself in her father Jupiter (ed Zefs = Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς), and subsists in unproceeding union with him; but the second ranks among the supermundane Gods, according to which she is present with Core (ed. Kori; Gr. Κορη), and bounds and converts all the progression of that Goddess to herself. And the third is liberated, according to which she perfects and guards the whole world, and circularly invests it with her powers, as with a veil; binding together all the mundane summits, and giving subsistence to all the allotments in the heavens, and to those which proceed into the sublunary region. Now therefore Socrates (ed. Sohkratis; Gr. Σωκράτης) celebrates herguardian power, through the name of Pallas (ed. Παλλάς); but her perfective power through that of Minerva (ed. Ἀθηνᾶ). She is the cause therefore of orderly and measured motion, which she first imparts to the Curetic order, and afterwards to the other Gods. For Minerva according to this power is the leader of the Curetes (ed. Kouritæs; Gr. Κουρῆτες), as Orpheus (ed. Orphefs; Gr. Ὀρφεύς) says, whence also, as well as those divinities she is adorned with empyrean arms, through which she represses all disorder, preserves the demiurgic series immoveable, and unfolds dancing through rhythmical motion. She also guards reason as it proceeds from intellect; through this power vanquishing matter. For the visible region, says Timæus (ed. Timaios), is mingled from intellect and necessity, the latter being obedient to the former, and all material causes being in subjection to the will of the father. It is this Goddess therefore, who arranges necessity under the productions of intellect, raises the universe to the participation of Jupiter (ed. Zefs), excites and establishes it in the port of its father, and eternally guards and defends it. Hence, if the universe is said to be indissoluble, it is this Goddess who supplies its permanency; and if it moves in measured motion, through the whole of time, according to one reason and order, she is the source of this supply. She watchfully surveys therefore all the fabrication of her father, and connects and converts it to him; and vanquishes all material indefiniteness. Hence she is called Victory and Health; the former because she causes intellect to rule over necessity, and form over matter; and the latter, because she preserves the universe perpetually whole, perfect, exempt from age, and free from disease. It is the property therefore of this Goddess to elevate and distribute, and through an intellectual dance as it were, to connect, establish, and defend inferior natures in such as are more divine.
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MANUSCRIPT SCOLIA of Proklos on the KRATYLOS of Plato
 Extract from the Manuscript Scolia of Proclus On the Cratylus of Plato, found in The Theology of Plato/Proclus, trans. Thomas Taylor, Prometheus Trust, Vol. VIII of The Thomas Taylor Series, p.692-693.
 Thomas Taylor, who lived from 1758 to 1835, wrote according to the scholastic convention of his time: he used the Latin names for the deities rather than the Greek.
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