PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this Glossary, you will find fascinating stories. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.
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ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE
380 CE - In 380 CE a vicious mob of Christians attempted to lynch the hierophants Nestorius and Priskus. Then aged 95, Nestorius terminated the Ælefsinian (Eleusinian) Mysteries announcing "the predominance of mental darkness over the human race."
529 CE - In 529 CE, the Emperor Justinian I closed the Akathimeia (Academy; Gr. Ἀκαδήμεια) of Platohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), although the closing is questioned as there is evidence that the Akathimeia existed in diminished form for some years after. Nonetheless, some scholars mark this as the end-date of antiquity.
Abæus - See Avaios.
Abnoba - Keltic Goddesses identified with Diana/Artemis. She was worshiped on the edge of the Black Forest and a sandstone depiction of her "shows the Goddess in standing position, dressed in a short chiton. She is accompanied by a dog which has just caught a hare." (Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture by Bernhard Maier, 2000, p. 1)
Acastus - See Akastos.
Acersecomes - See Akærsækomis.
Acesius - See Akæsios.
Achelous - See Akhælohos.
Acheron - See Akhærohn.Achilles - Please visit this page: ACHILLES - AKHILLEFS - ΑΧΙΛΛΕΎΣ.
Acræphnius - See Akraiphnios.
Acritas - See Akritas.
Actius - See Aktios.
Acropolis - See Akropolis.
Actaeon - See Aktaiohn.
Admetus - See Athmitos.
Adonis - Please visit this page: ATHOHNIA - ἈΔΏΝΙA: Athonis and the Athonia.
Adyton - (Gr. Άδυτον, ΆΔΥΤΟΝ) The Adyton is a sacred room found in a temple to which access is limited to priests at certain times. The Adyton would often house the cult-image of the God to whom the temple was dedicated.
Aegis - See Aigis.Æ and æ - This symbol, Æ and æ, is the grapheme or letter called the Ash. On this website, the Ash equals the Greek letter æpsilon (epsilon; Gr. έψιλον, ΈΨΙΛΟΝ: Ε, ε): Æ, æ = Ε, ε. The Ash simply represents æpsilon. The Ash is always pronounced like the a in say, stay, or pay. There are two exceptions regarding the pronunciation of æpsilon discussed below.
The diphthong ει (æpsilon-iota) incorporates an æpsilon but the pronunciation is different: this diphthong sounds like the ee in beet or seem. We are spelling this ei.
The diphthong ευ (æpsilon-ypsilon) incorporates an æpsilon but again the pronunciation is different: this diphthong when found before a consonant, sounds like the ef in Jeff or left; when found before a vowel, then like the ev in every. We are spelling these ef and ev respectively.
Ægletes - See Aiglitis.
Ægyptius - See Aigyptios.
Ækhithna - (Echidna; Gr. Ἔχιδνα, ἜΧΙΔΝΑ) 1) According to Isiothos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος), Ækhithna is the daughter of Kitoh (Ceto; Gr. Κητώ) and Phorkys (Gr. Φόρκυς), Ækhithna was the Drakaina (Gr. Δράκαινα = she-dragon) consort of Typhohefs (Typhoeus; Gr. Τυφωεύς) who produced many terrible monsters which were a plague to mankind. She presides over illness, the rot of the earth, fetid waters, slime and such. 2) Ækhithna is the daughter of Peiras (Gr. Πείρας), son of King Argos (Gr. Ἄργος) and the nymph of the river Styx (Gr. Στύξ,). Ækhithna, half woman and half serpent (Drakaina), murdered travelers in Argos (Gr. Ἄργος,) and Arkathia (Arcadia; Gr. Αρκαδία) and was murdered herself by the 100-eyed giant, Argos Panoptis (Gr. Ἄργος Πανόπτης). 3) Ækhithna is the daughter of Tartaros (Gr. Τάρταρος) and Gaia (Gr. Γαῖα, ΓΑΙΑ).
It is difficult to determine if all three of the above refer to the same Ækhithna, or separate beings.
ækklisia or ekklesia - (Gr. ἐκκλησία, ἘΚΚΛΗΣΊΑ) Ækklisia is an assembly duly summoned. (L&S p. 509, left column) In later times the term was applied to Christian churches.
ÆKTHÆOSIS or EKTHEOSIS - Please visit this page: Deification of the Soul: Sources.
Ælælefs (Eleleus; Gr. Ἐλελεύς, ἘΛΕΛΕΎΣ. Ety. from ἐλελεῦ, a war cry or religious cry used in Vakhic rituals such as the Oskhophoria [Gr. Ὠσχοφόρια] in ancient Athens [Plutarch: Thisefs.22])
- Ælælefs is a surname of Apollohn (Apollo), as uttering a war cry. (CM p. 21)
- Ælælefs is a surname of Dionysos. (Ovid Metamorphosis 4.15)
ælængkhos - (Gr. ἔλεγχος, ἜΛΕΓΧΟΣ; spelled variously: élenchos, élengkhos, or elegkhos; Latin: élenchus; English: elenctic method)
In the context of Greek philosophy, ælængkhos is the method of inquiry used in Socratic dialogue, a type of cross-examination of an individual who makes a premise, whereby the premise is usually shown to be faulty. This method of argument may appear aggressive, but its aim is to expand awareness and ultimately develop greater wisdom in the participants, not to simply defeat opposing positions. Typically, a proposition is stated, followed by a series of questions which lead to a realization by the interlocutor who confessed to believe the proposition, that the original proposition now appears inconsistent with his beliefs, as unraveled in the discussion. This then often results in a reevaluation or refining of the proposition and yet more questioning. Rarely do we find ælængkhos yielding a perfect or final answer; rather, the result is typically aporeia (Gr. ἀπορɛία), i.e. an impasse. Ælængkhos demonstrates the evolutionary discovery of wisdom, as a living process, in stark contrast to religious systems which require personal adoption of creedal exclusivistic beliefs, without placing them under the scrutiny of logic.
Lexicon entry for elenchos: ἔλεγχος, argument of disproof or refutation. II. generally, cross-examining, testing, scrutiny, esp. for purposes of refutation. III. Ἔλεγχος personified. b. applied to Conscience. (L&S p. 531, left column)
Litha, who was the wife of king Tyntharæos (Tyndareus; Gr. Τυνδάρεως) of Sparta (Gr. Σπάρτα), saw a swan being pursued by an eagle. She gave the swan refuge. Litha and the swan became affectionate and coupled. The swan was a transformation of Zefs. That same evening, she also coupled with her husband. These unions produced two eggs from which all the children - Ælæni, Kastohr and Polythefkis, and Klytaimnistra - were born. It is usually said that Ælæni and Polythefkis are the progeny of Zefs, and thus immortal. There are divergent accounts concerning the details of this story, who was born from which egg, stories not mentioning eggs, and who was immortal.
Ælæni of Ilion (Troy; Gr. Ἴλιον or Τροία) is vilified in many sources, but this is an incorrect view. The name Ælæni is derived from a word meaning 'basket.' Ælæni is the Great Basket of the Mysteries and within this basket are the mighty symbols of Dionysos, the Toys. Paris (Gr. Πάρις), prince of Ilion, abducts Ælæni. Thus, Ilion has stolen the Holy Basket of the Mysteries.
Ælæniphori - (Elenifori, Helenifori) Ælæniphori are girls bearing baskets such as at the Ælæniphoria (Eleniphoria; Gr. Ἑλενηφόρια), a festival of Artæmis of Vrafrohn (Brauron; Gr. Βραυρών), ἑλένη being a wicker-basket. [Source: Pollux Grammaticus 10:191]
Ælefsinia Mystiria - Please visit this page: ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES - ἘΛΕΥΣΊΝΙΑ ΜΥΣΤΉΡΙΑ.
Ælefthærnai Tablet (Eleuthernae tablet; Gr. Ελεύθερναι) - The Ælefthærnai Tablet is one of the golden tablets which was found in Crete and reads as follows:
'I am parched with thirst and I perish. Nay, drink of Me,
The Well-spring flowing for ever on the Right, where the Cypress is.
Who art thou?
Whence art thou? I am son of Earth and of Starry Heaven (ed. Ouranos).'
(Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion by Jane Ellen Harrison, 1903; found here in the 1991 Princeton Univ. Press edition on p.574)
ælianthes - See ilianthæs.
Ælios - Please visit this page: ILIOS - ἭΛΙΟΣ.
Æliostasio - See Iliostasio.
Æliougænna - Please visit this page: ILIOUGÆNNA.
Aellopos - (Gr. Ἀέλλοπος, ἈΈΛΛΟΠΟΣ) Aellopos is an epithet of Iris meaning swift-footed like the wind of a storm.
Æmpæthoklis or Empedocles - Visit this page: ÆMPÆTHOKLIS - ἘΜΠΕΔΟΚΛΗΣ.
Æmpyrios Khitohn - (Empyrios Chiton; Gr. Ἐμπύριος Χιτών) - The Æmpyrion is the outer Khitohn (Chiton = tunic or garment; Gr. Χιτών) of fire which envelopes the soul. This Khitohn is the only one which remains after deification. See also Æmpyrios Aithir.
Æmpyrios Aithir - (Empyrios Ether; Gr. Ἐμπύριος Αἰθήρ, ἘΜΠΎΡΙΟΣ ΑἸΘΉΡ) - Æmpyrios means "positioned in the highest regions of the heavens;" therefore, the Æmpyrios Aithir is the Fire-Aithir, the Aithir of the Gods. Pyr (Gr. πυρ) means fire.
Lexicon entry: ἐμπῠριος [ῠ], ον, belonging to the Empyrean, θεός (opp. αἰθέριος, ὑλαῖος) Procl.Theol. Plat.4.39, cf. Iamb.Myst.7.2, Lyd.Mens.4.22. (L&S)
Æöhsphoros - (Eosphoros or Eosforos; Gr. Εωσφόρος, ΕΩΣΦΟΡΟΣ. Etymology: ἕως [dawn] + φῶρος [detector, discoverer]) The Æöhsphoros is the Herald of the Dawn, the Herald of the Light. 2. Æöhsphoros is one of the "Wandering Stars," the planet Venus.
Æn - (Hen or The One; Gr. Ἕν or Τὸ Ἕν ["The One"], neuter form of εἷς, meaning singular or one) Æn is the primordial or first principle known as "The One." Æn = The Monad = The One. The terms Æn (Hen) or Monad refer to what Orphefs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς) calls Arritos Arkhi (Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή), the Unutterable Principle, the primordial state of the Kosmos which is incapable of being defined. See Mystic Materialism.
Æntoni Ænærgitikotita - (Entoni Energitikotita; Gr. Έντονη Ενεργητικότητα, ΈΝΤΟΝΗ ΕΝΕΡΓΗΤΙΚΌΤΗΤΑ) Great Energizing, manifesting influence particularly in Libra (Zygos), Capricorn (Aigokærohs), Aries (Krios), and Cancer (Karkinos) in the zodiacal cycle of Mystery months.
Æphivolipsia - (Epheboleipsia [not ephebophilia]; Gr. Εφηβοληφια, ΕΦΗΒΟΛΗΨΙΑ; from ἔφηβος) Æphivolipsia is the experience of Ærohs (Eros; Gr. Ἔρως) from the Gods when encountered by a female. This is not the same as erotic love between humans. Cf. Nympholipsia.
Gr. ἔφηβος, ἜΦΗΒΟΣ.
- Lexicon entry: ἐπικούρ-ιος, ον, succouring, epith. of deities, Paus.8.41.7. (L&S p. 640; left column, within the entries beginning with ἐπικουρ-έω) (ed. a succour is someone who gives help, who gives aid)
Lexicon entry: ἐπιστήμη, ἡ, (ἐπίσταμαι) acquaintance with a matter, understanding, skill, as in archery. 2. professional skill: hence, profession. II. generally, knowledge, pl., kinds of knowledge. 2. scientific knowledge, science; pl., the sciences, freq. in Pl. (R.522c,al.), etc.
Æpivatirios - (Epibaterius; Gr. Ἐπιβατήριος, ΕΠΙΒΑΤΗΡΙΟΣ) a surname of Apollohn. Agamemnon, or Diomed, having
escaped a dangerous tempest in returning from Troy, dedicated a temple at
Trœzene to Apollon, under this name. (CM p. 21)
- Æpivatirios is an epithet of Apollo at Korinthos (Corinth; Gr. Κόρινθος) meaning Seafaring: "Within this enclosure is a temple of Apollo Seafaring, an offering of Diomedes for having weathered the storm that came upon the Greeks as they were returning from Troy." (Paus. 2.32.2, trans. W.H.S. Jones in Paus. Vol. I, p. 423)
- See also: Æpivatiria.
Ærastis - (Erastes; Gr. Ἐραστής, ΕΡΑΣΤΗΣ) The Ærastis is the lover in a romantic relationship. The Ærastis is the lover of the Ærohmænos (Eromenos; Gr. Ἐρώμενος), the Beloved. Cf. Ærohmænos.
Æratoh or Erato - (Erato; Gr. Ἐρατώ, ἘΡΑΤΏ) According to Isiothos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) Thæogonia 75, Æratoh is one of the nine Mousai (Muses; Gr. Μοῦσαι), the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Mnimosyni (Mnemosyne; Gr. Mνημοσύνη). According to Isyllos (Isyllus; Gr. Ἴσυλλος) the Spartan, from an oracle he received at Dælphi (Delphi; Gr. Δελφοί), Æratoh is the mother of Klæophima (Cleophema; Gr. Κλεοφήμα) by Malos (Gr. Μάλος) (The genealogy of Klæophima as discovered in a stone inscription found at Æpithafros (Epidaurus; Gr. Επίδαυρος) by Isyllos. Ref.: Asclepius: Testimonies by Emma and Ludwig Edelstein, 1945 and 1998; Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Baltimore and London] p. 330-331).
Æratoh is the Muse of Erotic Poetry, lyric love poetry. Æratoh has been represented as a beautiful draped Goddess holding a kithara (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), as in the picture to the left.
Ἀφροδίτη) In the Hellenic tradition, deity is presented as male and female, Gods and Goddesses, but in reality they are Ærmaphrothitos, i.e., they are of both sexes or having no sex. The mythology tells of
Ærmaphrothitos, a deity who is the result of the union of Aphrothiti (Aphrodite; Gr. Ἀφροδίτη) and Aris (Ares; Gr. Άρης). This is symbolic of the Olympian pairs (see Divine Consorts in the Hellenic Tradition). In other words, each Olympian pair is an
Ærohtæs - (Erotes; Gr. Ἔρωτες, ἜΡΩΤΕΣ. ) The Ærohtæs can be seen as emanations of the primal Æros (attraction) and are depicted in iconography as winged children or handsome youths. The names of the Ærohtæs are Æros (Eros = Attraction; Gr. Ἔρως), Antærohs (Anteros = Requited Love; Gr. Ἀντέρως), Imæros (Himeros = Desire; Gr. Ἵμερος), and Pothos (Passion; Gr. Πόθος).
Ærohmænos - (Eromenos; Gr. Ἐρώμενος, ΕΡΩΜΕΝΟΣ. Etymology: from ἐράω, love) The Ærohmænos is the Beloved, he/she who is loved by oneself, one's lover. The Ærohmænos is the object of the devotion of the Ærastis (Erastes; Gr. Ἐραστής). Cf. Ærastis.
Aethalides - See Aithalithis.
Æther, Aether, Aither, or Ether - See Aithir.
ævai - (ævi, evai, evoi, or evi; Gr. εὐαἴ, also εὐοἴ) Ævai is the cry in honor of Dionysos (Bacchus or Vakkhos). (L&S, p. 705)
Ævthomagænis - (Ebdomagenes, or Ebdomagenaes; Gr. Ἑβδομᾱγενής, ἙΒΔΟΜᾹΓΕΝΉΣ. Etymology: ἑβδομάς = seven.) Ævthomagænis means born on the seventh day [of the month], an epithet of Apollohn, (Plutarch 2.717e) ( L&S p. 466, right column)
Ævthomaion - (Ebdomaion; Gr. Ἑβδομἁῖον, ἙΒΔΟΜἉΙΟΝ. Etymology: ἑβδομάς = seven.) The Ævthomaion is a monthly festival of Apollohn. ( L&S p. 466, right column, as a sub-heading under Ἑβδομᾱγέτης)
Ævthomeios - (Ebdomeios; Gr. Ἑβδόμἑιος, ἙΒΔΌΜἙΙΟΣ. Etymology: ἑβδομάς = seven.) Ævthomeios is an epithet of Apollohn, meaning worshipped on the seventh day. (L&S p. 466, right column, as a sub-heading under ἑβδομᾰτικός)
Af or af - The English letters af are being used on this website to represent the Greek diphthong ALPHA-UPSILON (Gr. ΑΥ, αυ) when the diphthong is found before a consonant. This sounds like the af in after. When the Greek diphthong ALPHA-UPSILON is found before a vowel, it sounds like the av in avocado (and we are spelling it av). These are all short a, using the American pronunciation.
aftothysia - (Gr. αυτοθυσία, ΑΥΤΟΘΥΣΊΑ) Aftothysia is self-sacrifice. Iro-iki Aftothysia (Gr. Ηρωική Αυτοθυσία) is heroic self-sacrifice.
agalma - Please visit this page:
Agamæmnohn - (Agamemnon; Gr. Ἀγαμέμνων, ἈΓΑΜΈΜΝΩΝ) [Etruscan: Achmemrun] Agamæmnohn, as noted in Ilias (The Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς), was the leader of the Greek forces in the famous war against Tria (Troy or Ilium; Gr. Τροία).
Agathon - (Gr. Ἀγαθόν, ἈΓΑΘΌΝ) Agathon is something which is good. The Good as an ultimate principle (Plato's Republic 504E-509E). According to Plato, The Good is the principle and primordial ithos (eidos; Gr. εἶδος), i.e. form, an idea rejected by Aristotle who saw good as a goal to be sought by aligning one's actions in accord with excellence or virtue (ἀρετή).Lexicon entry: ἀγᾰθός — good: I. of persons, 1. well-born, gentle. 2. brave, valiant, since courage was attributed to Chiefs and Nobles. 3.good, capable. 4. good, in moral sense. 5. ὦ ἀγαθέ, my good friend, as a term of gentle remonstrance. II. of things 1. good, serviceable. 2. of outward circumstances. 3. morally good. 4. ἀγαθόν, τό, good, blessing, benefit, of persons or things. (L&S p.4, right column)
Agathos Daemon - (Gr. Ἀγαθὸς Δαίμων, ἈΓΑΘὈΣ ΔΑΊΜΩΝ, literally good spirit) personal tutelary deity or spirit. The dogs of Artemis, seen in many pieces of art, are the Agathos Daemon of the noble souls which she seeks. This term is similar to the Roman genius. The Agathos Daemon works for benefit in contrast to the kakodaemon which harms the individual.
Aglaophemos - a name of Orpheus meaning "he with bright words"
agnosticism – the belief that definitive knowledge of the existence of Gods is likely unknowable.
Agon - (Gr. ἀγών, ἈΓΏΝ) Agones means "contests" or "games." Here we are speaking of games not as an entertainment, but as a religious offering, as in the familiar pan-Hellenic Olympian (for Zeus) or Pythian (for Apollon) Games. These were games conducted as a gift to the God, for which one competed for a prize called an athlon (Greek: αθλον) in an agon (Greek: ἀγών), contest. They were conducted at all major shrines for deities. The contests were athletic, but could also be musical or poetic. Agon, which also means a "struggle," is the etymological root for the English word agony.
Agreus - ("hunter") 1) appellation of Apollo 2) appellation of Pan 3) one of the Pans, creatures descended from Pan, with human bodies but the heads of goats 4) a son of Apollo and Euboea, lord of Diphys 5) surname of Aristaios, son of Apollon and Kyrene
Agyieus or Agyleus - (Gr., literally meaning "street") a surname of Apollon. Sacrifices were made to the God on the public streets of Athens. Apollo was known as a guardian of these streets. (CM p.20)
AI and ai - The English digraph (i.e., two successive letters representing one sound) AI is being used on this website to represent the Greek digraph ALPHA-IOTA (Gr. ΑΙ, αι). This digraph always sounds like the a in say, stay, or day.
It should be noted that the digraph ALPHA-IOTA has the identical sound to EPSILON. We are representing EPSILON with the grapheme called the Ash (Æ and æ) but are using the English letters AI for ALPHA-IOTA because AI is typically pronounced as desired, like the a in say, stay, or pay...without confusion. We are using various different spellings to enable the student to more easily reconstruct the ancient Greek words from which these letters were derived, as is practical, while still allowing for an easy pronunciation by non-scholars.
Aides - (Gr. Ἅιδης, ἍΙΔΗΣ) Hades, also called Aidoneus and Ploutōn. See Ploutōn.
Aidoneus - See Aithonefs.
Aigis or Aegis - (Gr. Αιγίς, ΑΙΓΊΣ) The Aigis is the golden breast-plate of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς, ΖΕΎΣ), said to be made of the skin of the goat Amaltheia (Ἀμάλθεια, ἈΜΆΛΘΕΙΑ). The Aigis was given by Zefs to Athina (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ, ἈΘΗΝΑ) and it is with her that it is most associated. Other accounts say that the Aigis is the creation of Iphaistos (Hephaestos; Gr. Ἥφαιστος, ἭΦΑΙΣΤΟΣ). Yet another tradition claims that the Aigis was made from the skin of the giant Pallas (Gr. Παλλάς, ΠΑΛΛΆΣ) when Athina had killed and flayed him.
Aiglitis - (Ægletes; Gr. Αἰγλήτης, ΑἸΓΛΉΤΗΣ) expressive of lightning; a name used to worship Apollohn (Apollo) at Anaphi (Anaphe; Gr. Ανάφη. Modern-day Anafi) in memory of his averting a storm suffered by the Argonaftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται). (CM p.20)
- the radiant one, epith. of Apollo, A.R. 4.1716, IG12(3).259 (Anaphe), 412 (Thera). (L&S p. 35, right column)
Aigokærohs - (Gr. Αἰγοκέρως, ΑΙΓΟΚΈΡΩΣ) Aigokærohs is the fourth month of the Mystery year, beginning December 21. Aigokærohs is ruled by Mighty Iphaistos (Hephaestos; Ἥφαιστος, ἭΦΑΙΣΤΟΣ). Aigokærohs is the Greek equivalent of the zodiacal sign Capricorn or Brumalis. It is a month of Great Energizing (Æntoni Ænærgitikotita; Gr. Έντονη Ενεργητικότητα).
Aigokærohs is described in Liddell & Scott as goat-horned, Capricorn. (L&S p.35, right column; within the entries beginning αἰγο-βάτης)
Aigyptios - (Ægyptius; Gr. Αἰγύπτιος, ΑἸΓΎΠΤΙΟΣ) 1) Aigyptios is the Egyptian God Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, who some equate with Apollohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). 2) Aigyptios was the father of the last victim of the Kyklohps (Cyclops; Gr. Κύκλωψ) in the Othysseia (Odyssey; Gr. Ὀδύσσεια) of Omiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος) (CM p.20)
The only trilogy of plays to survive antiquity is his Oræsteia (Oresteia; Gr. Ὀρέστεια, ὈΡΈΣΤΕΙΑ). The Oræsteia consists of 1) Agamæmnohn (Agamemnon; Gr. Ἀγαμέμνων, ἈΓΑΜΈΜΝΩΝ) 2) Khoiphori (Choēphoroi or The Libation Bearers; Gr. Χοηφόροι, ΧΟΗΦΌΡΟΙ) and 3) Efmænithæs (Eumenides; Gr. Εὐμενίδες, ΕΥΜΕΝΊΔΈΣ).
Of the estimated 92 plays of Aiskhylos, in addition to the Oræsteia, only four more survive: Pærsai (The Persians; Gr. Πέρσαι, ΠΈΡΣΑΙ), Æpta æpi Thivas (Seven Against Thebes; Gr. Ἑπτὰ ἐπὶ Θήβας, ἙΠΤᾺ ἘΠῚ ΘΉΒΑΣ), Ikætithæs (Hiketides or The Suppliants; Gr. Ἱκέτιδες, ἹΚΈΤΙΔΕΣ), and Promithefs Dæsmohtis (Promētheus Desmōtēs or Prometheus Bound; Gr. Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης, ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕῪΣ ΔΕΣΜΏΤΗΣ).
Aithærikæs Kataskevæs - (Gr. Αιθερικές Κατασκευές, ΑΙΘΕΡΙΚΈΣ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΈΣ) = Skæptomorphæs = Aithirial Constructions. See Skæptomorphæs.
Aithalithis or Aethalides - (Gr. Αἰθαλίδης, ΑἸΘΑΛΊΔΗΣ) Aithalithis was the son of Ærmis (Hermes; Gr. Ἑρμῆς, ἙΡΜΗΣ) and Efpolæmeia (Eupolemeia; Gr. Ευπολέμεια, ΕΥΠΟΛΈΜΕΙΑ), the daughter of Myrmithohn (Myrmidon; Gr. Μυρμηδών, ΜΥΡΜΗΔΏΝ). He came from Alopi (Alope; Gr. Ἀλόπη, ἈΛΌΠΗ) in Thæssalia (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΊΑ). One of the fifty-two Argonaftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται, ἈΡΓΟΝΑΥΤΑΙ) listed in the Orphæohs Argonaftika (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά, ὈΡΦΈΩΣ ἈΡΓΟΝΑΥΤΙΚΆ), Aithalithis was their herald. He had the gift of perfect memory, which he retained even after death in the land of Aithohnefs (Aidoneus, Hades, or Pluto; Gr. Ἀϊδωνεύς, ἈΙΔΩΝΕΎΣ), which allowed him to reside in both worlds. Aithalithis continued being reborn and eventually evolved to become the great philosopher Pythagoras (Gr. Πυθαγόρας, ΡΥΘΑΓΌΡΑΣ), still retaining his memory of all the lives in between.
Aithir, Æther, Aether, Aither, or Ether - (Gr. Αἰθήρ, ΑἸΘΉΡ)
1) The Synækhis Substance is called Aithir, Hydor, or Water, one of the two basic material cosmogonic substances. Synækhis is a God, male and formative, represented by Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς). Zefs is the personalized, natural evolution of Aithir. The other cosmogonic substance is the Mæristi Substance, Earth, a Goddess, female, represented by Ira (Hera; Gr. Ήρα). Aithir is active. Earth is receptive. Earth is divisible. Aithir is continuous. Plato calls these two substances the One (Monad) and the Other. The Aithir is inseparable or continuous: it is the Divine Energy, above all the Gods: Aithir is Zefs. To create souls, the Aithir enters into the Mæristi Substance. The Aithir is spinning, filling all the space, and by spinning it draws the particles of Earth into its center and unites with them, creating Form.
2) In the Orphic theogony, Aithir is the child of Khronos (Chronus; Gr. Χρόνος) [and Ananke (Necessity)]. He is the higher, purer air.
"To mortal men, and to the initiants (of) the Great Mysteries;First the implacable necessity of age old Chaos I disclosed,Then Time who in his endless laps bare Ether..."
(Orpheus' Argonautica 12-14, translated by S.P. Petrides, 2005, p.41)
3) In Hesiod, Aithir is the son of Erebos (Darkness) and Night (Nyx) [Hesiod Theogonia 124].
4) Aithir is the pure air breathed by the Gods.5) Aristotle calls Aithir the "fifth element" (quinta essentia): Earth, Water, Air, Fire, and Aithir.
Aithonefs or Aidoneus - (Greek: Ἀїδωνεύς, ἈΙΔΩΝΕΎΣ) Aidoneus is a name of Hades or Ploutōn. See PLOUTŌN.
Akærsækomis - (Acersecomes; Gr. Ἀκερσεκόμης, ἈΚΕΡΣΕΚΌΜΗΣ) an appellation of Apollohn meaning "unshorn," referring, perhaps, to his sheep . (CM p.20)
- Lexicon entry: ἀκερσεκόμης (ἀκερσι- in Nonn. Il. cc. infr.), ου, ὁ, (Dor. voc. -κόμα Pi.Pae.9.45: dat. pl. -κόμοισιν Nonn.D.14.232), (κείρω, κόμη) with unshorn hair, i.e. ever-young (for Greek youths wore long hair till they reached manhood), of Phoebus, Il.20.39, h.Ap.134, etc. 2. long-haired, Nonn.D.10.29, al.; cf. ἀκειρεκόμης. (L&S)
Akæsios - (Acesius; Gr. Ἀκέσιος, ἈΚΈΣΙΟΣ) appellation of Apollon meaning "healing," God of medicine. (Source: CM* p.20)
- "The name of the place is Petra, and it is said that Petra was a township in ancient times. The most notable things that the Eleans have in the open part of the market-place are a temple and image of Apollo Healer (ed. Ἀπόλλωνος Ἀκεσίου). The meaning of the name would appear to be exactly the same as that of Averter of Evil (ed. Ἀλεξίκακος), the name current among the Athenians." (Pafsanias VI.xxiv.6; Paus. III pp. 150-151.)
Akastos - (Acastus; Gr. Ἄκαστος) One of the fifty-two Argonaftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται) found in the Orphæohs Argonaftika (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά), Akastos was the son of Pælias (Pelias; Gr. Πελίας) and Anaxivia (Anaxibia; Gr. Ἀναξίβια) or by some accounts Philomakhi (Phylomache; Gr. Φιλομαχη), Pælias being the king of Iohlkos (Iolkos; Gr. Ιωλκός) in ancient Thæssalia (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία). Akastos was a cousin of Iasohn (Jason; Gr. Ἰάσων). Due to a trick of Mitheia (Medea; Gr. Μήδεια), Pælias was unwittingly killed by his own daughters who thought they could make him young again by cutting him to pieces and placing the pieces in a magic cauldron. This death of his father caused Akastos to inherit the throne.
Akhæloh-os - (Achelous; Gr. Ἀχελῷος, ἈΧΕΛΩΟΣ; pronounced ah-khay-LOH-ohs) [Etruscan: Achlae] The Akhæloh-os is a river in western Greece, the name also applying to the deity of the river, who, according to Isiothos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος, ΉΣΊΟΔΟΣ) in Thæogonia (337-340), was the son of Tithys (Tethys; Gr. Τηθύς, ΤΗΘΎΣ) and Okæanos (Oceanus; Gr. Ὠκεανός, ὨΚΕΑΝΌΣ).
Akhærohn or Acheron - (Gr. Αχέρων, ΑΧΈΡΩΝ) [Etruscan: Achrum, Acharum] The Akhærohn is the river or lake over which the dead must pass by means of the ferryman Kharohn (Charon; Gr. Χάρων, ΧΆΡΩΝ).
"The father of Heaven (Uranus), as was said already, is called Acmon (ed. Akmohn) because heavenly motion is untiring (ἀκάματος); and the sons of Uranus are Acmonidae: the ancients make these two points clear. Alcman, they say, tells that the heaven belongs to Acmon." (Alkman Fragment 61 Evstathios (ed. Eustathius; Gr. Εὐστάθιος) on Iliad 18.476, trans. D. A. Campbell, 1987 [? no copyright date is given in the text]. This translation of the fragment can be found in Greek Lyric II, published by Harvard University Press [Cambridge MA USA] and William Heinemann [London England], Loeb Classical Library LCL 143, p. 437.)
Akraiphnios (Acræphnius; Gr. Ἀκραίφνιος, ἈΚΡΑΊΦΝΙΟΣ) Akraiphnios is an appellation of Apollohn (Apollo) referring to Akraiphnia, a town in Boeotia where, in ancient times, was a sanctuary with an oracle of the God. (CM p. 20) The ruins of Akraiphnia are about a mile from the modern city of Akraifnio.
Akritas Apollohn - (Acritas; Gr. Ἀκρίτας, ἈΚΡΊΤΑΣ) name of Apollohn in Sparta, in a temple there dedicated to Apollo on an eminence. The word is expressive of height. (CM p.20)
- "The Lacedaemonians have an altar of Apollo Acritas, and a sanctuary, surnamed Gasepton, of Earth." (Pafsanias III.xii.8; Paus. II p. 75)
Akritas, Digænis or Digenes - See Digænis Akritas.
Ἀκρόπολις, ἈΚΡΌΠΟΛΙΣ) - citadel, usually found on top of a hill. It comes from two Hellenic words: akros, akron - edge, extremity, or high, and polis - city; therefore "high city." The most famous acropolis of all is the Athenian Acropolis which had several temples, most notably the Parthenon of Athena.
Aristaios and Autonoe. He was a student of the centaur Kheiron. One day Actaeon was hunting in the woods with his hounds and he beheld the Goddess Artemis in a state of nudity. The Goddess gave him a choice: if he should speak, he would be transformed into a stag for having offended her virginity. Actaeon heard the sounds of his hunting party and called out to his hounds. He was immediately turned into a stag and the dogs devoured him. After the animals realized their master was dead, they became so distraught that Kheiron made a statue of him that was so lifelike that the hounds became consoled by it.son of Aristaios and Autonoë (daughter of Kadmos).
Aktios - (Actius; Gr. Ἄκτιος, ἌΚΤΙΟΣ) Aktios is a surname of Apollohn from the town of Actium. (CM p. 20)
- "Next, piling up shingle near the sea, they raised there an altar on the shore to Apollo, under the name of Actius and Embasius (ed. Ἐμβασίοιό), and quickly spread above it logs of dried olive-wood." (Apollohnios Rothios Argonaftika I.402; AR pp. 30-31.)
- of the sea-shore, of Pan as God of the coast, Theoc.5.14. (L&S p. 59 left column)
alathanos or aladanos - See LABDANUM - ΑΛΆΔΑΝΟΣ.a long, narrow vase with very small handles for ointment or perfume.
Albion - (Gr. Ἀλβίων, ἈΛΒΊΩΝ) See Alvion.
Aleia - See Illiia.
alethes - truth. Etymology: a - "not," lethe - "the river of forgetfulness." In other words, truth is not taught but remembered. The girl's name "Alethea," or Hellenic origin, means "verity" or "truth."
Alexandros - another name for Paris, the son of Priam of Troy.
Alæxikakus - (Alexicacus; Gr. Ἀλεξίκακος, ἈΛΕΞΊΚΑΚΟΣ) surname of Apollo meaning "he who diverts calamity" having delivered Athens of plague during the Peloponnesian war. (Source: CM*p.20)
- "Apollo received his name (ed. Ἐπικούριος) from the help he gave in time of plague, just as the Athenians gave him the name of Averter of Evil (ed. Ἀλεξίκακος) for turning th plague away from them." (Pafsanias VIII.xli.8; Paus. IV pp. 108-109)
- keeping off ill or mischief, epith. of Heracles; of Hermes; of Zeus. (L&S p. 62, right column within the entries beginning with ἀλεξιάρη, edited for clarity)
Alexicacus - See Alæxikakus.
Algaea - one of three Graces (Splendor) who is also known as Kharis (Grace) as well as Kale (Beauty). Aglaea is the Goddess of beauty, splendor, and adornment. She is the wife of Hephaistos.
alliation - See alliosis.
Allilæpithrasi - (Allilepidrasi; Gr. Ἁλληλεπίδραση, ΑΛΛΗΛΕΠΙΔΡΑΣΗ. Etymology: αλληλο [inter] + επίδρασις [effect]) Allilæpithrasi is the seventh Natural Law ruled by the Goddess Athina (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ). Allilæpithrasi is Co-Influence or Interaction.
alliosis or alliation - (Gr. αλλοιωσις, ΑΛΛΟΙΩΣΙΣ) Alliosis is a change in quality. (TTS XV p. 9)
Altar - See Vohmos.
alter-motive, the - The alter-motive is that which is moved by another thing, and not by itself: See ætærokiniton, to. (TTS XV p. 10)
Alvion - (Gr. Ἀλβίων, ἈΛΒΊΩΝ) Alvion was, originally, the ancient name of Britain as a whole. In later times, the name became Alba, which is the Gaelic name of Scotland still in use today.
Amarcolitanus - Keltic God identified with Apollon. His name is thought to mean "he of the distant gaze". (source: Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture by Bernhard Maier, 2000, p. 13)
amartia - (Greek: ἁμαρτία) transgression against a God.
Lexicon entry: ἁμαρ-τία, a failure, fault; error of judgment, 2. in Philosophy and Religion, guilt, sin. (L&S p.77, right column, as a sub-heading under ἁμαρτ-ημα)
Amazonius - surname of Apollo in Sparta (CM p.20)
amber - see elektron
ambrosia - (Greek: ἀμβροσία, ἈΜΒΡΟΣΊΑ) - According to Seyffert: 1) ambrosia is the food of the Gods, nectar is their drink, that doves bring to Zeus from the west, 2) the anointing oil of the Gods which will even preserve dead men from decay (as Patroclus' corpse in The Iliad), and 3) the food of the Gods' horses
Ambrosia, The - (Ἀμβροσία, ἈΜΒΡΟΣΊΑ) The Ambrosia is a festival of Vakkhos. (Etymologicum Magnum 564.13)
ammoniac - a resin incense used primarily for the worship of Zeus or Zeus-Ammon: Gum Ammoniac
amphora (pl. amphorae) - two-handled jar used for storing liquids
Amphidamas - (Greek: Αμφιδάμαντας) Several personages in Hellenic mythology bear this name.
1) One of the fifty-two Argonauts listed in the Orphic Argonautica, Amphidamas was the son of Aleus, king of Tegea in Arcadia, and Cleobule. He was the brother of Lycurgus, Cepheus, and Auge. All this according to Pausanias and Apollonius Rhodius, mentioned because there are conflicting accounts. Siegfried Pyrrhus Petrides, in his book Orpheus' Argonautica 2005, agrees also.
2) King of Chalcis in Euboea. After Amphidamas died, funeral games were conducted by his sons in which Hesiod won a golden tripod in a poetry contest.
3) Amphidamas, the father of Clysonymus, who was killed in an argument over a game of dice by the adolescent Patroclus.
4) Amphidamas, the father of Nausidame, who bore Helios (or Eleios) the son Augeas. Augeas was himself an Argonaut and the owner of the stables cleaned in a labor of Herakles.
5) Amphidamas, an Achaean who was hidden in the wooden horse in the battle of Troy
6) ....others too
Amphryssius - appellation of Apollon; from Amphrysus, a river in Thessaly where, banished by Zeus, Apollon tended the flocks of Admetus, King of Pherae. (CM p.20)
Amyclæus - appellation of Apollo; from Amycla, a city of Laconia (CM p.20)
Amyclaeus - surname of Apollo derived from Amyclae, a city of Laconia where was a famous sanctuary. This temple had a colossal statue of the God forty-five feet tall (30 cubits).
Anagogikon or The Anagogic - (Gr. Αναγωγικον, ΑΝΑΓΩΓΙΚΟΝ) Anagogikon is that which elevates the soul from sensibles to intelligibles. (TTS XV p. 9)
Anaktoron - (Gr. Ανάκτορον, ΑΝΆΚΤΟΡΟΝ) The word anaktoron literally means palace. The Anaktoron was a structure used for initiations almost at the center of the Telesterion at Elefsis (Eleusis). This word is also used for other initiatory areas such as are found at the sanctuaries of Samothrace and for the Karneia at Kyrene.
anamnisis or anámnēsis - (Ancient Gr. ἀνάμνησις, ἈΝΆΜΝΗΣΙΣ) Anámnisis is defined as the recollection of that which has been forgotten: remembrance. This is a word associated with Platonic philosophy and implies agreement to the Pythagorean (Orphic) concept of palingenesía (metempsychōsis), i.e., the transmigration of the soul. It is the means by which an individual can arrive at knowledge independent of untrustworthy sensory perceptions. In Meno 80e-86c, Socrates demonstrates remembrance by questioning a slave boy with no schooling in mathematics. Through dialogue, the boy is shown to understand a basic problem in geometry. Socrates states (Meno 81d) that learning is recollection. And in Meno 86b (translated by B. Jowett, 1892): "And if the truth of all things always existed in the soul, then the soul is immortal. Wherefore be of good cheer, and try to recollect what you do not know, or rather what you do not remember." In the Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy, 2007, p.45, Anthony Preus ends his entry for anámnisis by stating that: "Such 'recovered memories' may enable us to gain some provisional understanding of sensory experiences, but the objective is to recover as much as possible of the original experience of reality." Plato expands the idea of anámnisis in Phaedo 72e-77a and discusses its relationship to the Theory of Forms.
Anangki, Anangke, or Ananke - (Gr. Ἀνάγκη, ἈΝΆΓΚΗ) Anangki is the force of necessity or need. Anangki is defined as the excess of inertia.
Ananke - See Anangki.
Anaphaeus - surname of Apollo from an island in the Cretan sea, Anaphe, where Apollo was worshiped. (CM p.20)
Anax - (Greek: ἄναξ)
1) Anax is an epithet of Zeus meaning "the Great King". According to Orphic cosmogony, Apollon is the ambassador of the Olympian Gods of the Solar System. As such, he is on the level of Zeus and also holds the title of Anax.
2) Anax was the son of Ouranos and Gaia of the race of Giants. Anax was the father of Asterios. He was the king of Anactoria, later called Miletus after having been conquered by Miletus the Cretan. (Paus. 1. 35. 6)
3) The title anax can also apply to an earthly king such as Agamemnon. In this context, anax is similar or identical to the word basileus.
Anextlomarus - Keltic God equated with Apollo. His name means something like "Great Protector". (source: Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture by Bernhard Maier, 2000, p. 16)
anger - See thymos.
animal products - Some of the food products that are becoming available incorporate changes in animal husbandry that may make a huge difference to the quality of life of the animals from which these products come. We are fortunate to have available milk, eggs, and in some cases meat, that was obtained from animals who were allowed some freedom in their lives to wander and graze naturally. You can observe this on the packaging of some types of eggs: obtained from free-range chickens. You can also buy milk gathered from cows who have been allowed to graze at least part of the year. Unfortunately, the price of these products is sometimes twice or even three times that of conventional eggs, milk, etc.
If you do research, you will discover that many farm animals live alarmingly restricted lives. On many dairy farms, cows never left their pens, except to clean the barns. Chickens are often kept in confinement so restrictive that their feet must be severed to remove them from their cages. These are just a couple examples of contemporary farming practices.
According to Orpheus, Pythagoras, and other teachers, animals have souls and, like us, reincarnate and evolve. If you do not have the inspiration or the will-power to become vegetarian, at least consider reducing your meat-intake and switching to these above-mentioned products, despite the added cost. Perhaps this is a good way to put our tradition into action and exercise some compassion for creatures who have no control over their lives.
Some organizations that are concerned with the welfare of farm animals:
The Humane Farming Association (http://www.hfa.org/about/index.html)
Farm Sanctuary (http://farmsanctuary.org/)
United Poultry Concerns (http://www.upc-online.org/)
Humane Farm Animal Care (http://www.certifiedhumane.org/)
animism – Animism is the belief that everything, animate and inanimate, has a soul.
Annual Feasts, the God of - in the Orphic Hymns, refers to chthonic (terrestrial) Dionysos, who arouses the fruitfulness of nature.
Antafgis or Antauges - (Gr. Ἀνταυγής, ἈΝΤΑΥΓΉΣ) Antafgis is a epithet of Phanis meaning He who reflects light, sparkling. Antafgis is also an epithet of Ælios, the Sun.Lexicon entry: ἀνταυγ-ής, ές, reflecting light, sparkling, κάλλος Sannyr.1D.; κόραι Ar.Th.902; χιών D.S.17.82: pr. n. Ἀνταύγης, of the sun, Orph.Fr.237. (L&S p.150 right column, within the entries beginning ἀνταυγ-άζω)
Antaia, Mother - in the Orphic Hymns, Antaia means 'besought with prayers' and refers to the Goddess Demeter as she visits Hades and ends her fast in Eleusis.
Antauges - See Antafgis.
Anthæstiria or Anthesteria - Please visit this page: ANTHÆSTIRIA - ἈΝΘΕΣΤΉΡΙΑ.Anthemius - (Procopius Anthemius Augustus) Born 420 CE; Assassinated 472 CE. Anthemius was emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 467 to 472.
It is generally believed that Julian the Philosopher, who ruled the Roman empire from 355 to 363 CE, was the last pagan emperor of Rome, but this may not be correct. It is quite possible that Anthemius holds this honor. Anthemius studied at the Neoplatonic school of Proklos and was in the company, thereby, of many prominent pagans:
high-ranking Athenian official (Marinus, Vit. Procl. 23); Severianus, who, seeking a political career, became a provincial
governor, but showed excessive judicial severity and inflexibility as regards his superiors, turning to teaching and
refusing the emperor Zeno's offer of an important post; Pamprepius, who went to Constantinople in 476, impressed
Zeno's magister officiorum Illus with a lecture on the soul, became a prominent pagan leader in Illus' revolt, and was
executed for treason in 484; Marcellinus, who became magister militum, patrician, and ruler of Dalmatia; Anthemius, consul in 455 and emperor in the West (467–72); 70 Flavius Illustrius Pusaeus, praetorian prefect of the East (465) and consul (467); Flavius Messius Phoebus Severus, consul in 470, prefect of Rome and patrician." Source:Platonopolis by Dominic J. O'Meara, 2003, Clarendon Press/Oxford, p. 21.
Anthesteria - Please visit this page: ANTHÆSTIRIA - ἈΝΘΕΣΤΉΡΙΑ.
aoristos - (Gr. ἀόριστος, ΑΟΡΙΣΤΟΣ) Aoristos is that which is limitless and having no boundaries. Lexicon entry (edited for clarity): ἀόριστ-ος, ον, without boundaries, debatable. 2. limitless. II. indeterminate. (L&S p. 173, left column, within the entries beginning with the word ἀοριστ-αίνω)
apate - Deceit
Apeikasma - (Gr. Ἀπείκασμα, ἈΠΕΊΚΑΣΜΑ) Apeikasma is the appearance, usually in dreams, of a deity.
Apeiron - (Gr. Ἄπειρον, ἌΠΕΙΡΟΝ) Apeiron is a term associated with Pythagoras meaning the Infinite (Gr. Τὁ Ἄπειρον, ΤὉ ἌΠΕΙΡΟΝ), meaning the infinite number of undivided material atoms, the cosmogonic substance Earth. Its etymology is as follows: a - "not" + peirar - "form," therefore, lack of form.
"He (ed. Anaximander) used to assert that the principle and primary element of all things was the Infinity (ed. apeiron), giving no exact definition as to whether he meant air or water, or anything else. And he said that the parts were susceptible of change, but that the whole was unchangeable..." (DLLOP Book II., Life of Anaximander.II, p.57)
Apella of the Equals - The Apella of the Equals was the official title of the popular assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, corresponding to the ekklesia in most other Greek states. Every Spartan male who was a full citizen and who had reached his thirtieth year was entitled to attend the meetings, which, according to Lycurgus' ordinance, must be held at the time of each full moon within the boundaries of Sparta. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apella
Aphetor - (Gr) surname of Apollo meaning "giver of oracles" or "arrow-shooter." (CM p.20)
Aplu or Apulu - Apulu and Aplu are Etruscan names for Apollohn.
Apollo - See Apollohn.
Apollohn, A Prayer to - The Tripli Karthia, a prayer in English and ancient Greek: THE TRIPLE HEART - ΤΡΙΠΛΉ ΚΑΡΔΊΑ
apologia (English: apology) - (Greek: απολογία) - a speech in defense. This word has nothing to do with the contemporary English word apology, "to express contrition". Perhaps the most famous apologia is the great Apology of Plato, being the speech of Socrates whereby he defends himself at trial, resulting in a death sentence.
apokatastasis or apocatastasis - (Gr. αποκαταστασις, ΑΠΟΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΙΣ) Apokatastasis means restitution to a pristine form, or condition of being. (TTS XV p. 9)
aporeia or aporia - (Gr. ἀπορɛία, ἈΠΟΡΕΊΑ) Etymology: α (absence) + πόρος (passage, or means of passage).
Aporeia is an impasse, a puzzlement for which a solution cannot, seemingly, be found. The term is typically associated with the ælængkhos (elenchus; Gr. ἔλεγχος, ἜΛΕΓΧΟΣ) of the early Socratic Dialogues.
aporia - See aporeia.
a posteriori - see a priori / a posteriori.
Apotropæus - (Gr) surname of Apollo meaning "one who averts evils." (CM p.20)
apotropaic epithet - the names given to a deity with the effect of averting evil. Examples would be Apollo Smintheus or Apollo Parnopius, as an averter of plague and infestations of rats or locusts.
apple - The apple is one of the prizes at the Pythian games at Delphi and is sometimes used in the iconography of Apollo:
"sometimes he (ed. Apollon, in iconography) holds an apple, the prize at the Pythian games." (CM p.19)
"At their first institution (ed. the Pythian games), they were only celebrated once in nine Years, but afterwards every fifth Year, according to the number of Parnassian Nymphs, that came to congratulate Apollo, and brought him presents after his victory (ed. over the Python).
"The rewards were certain Apples consecrated to Apollo, according to Ister, and the fore-sighted Epigram of Archias, in which he thus enumerates the Prizes in this, and the other three Sacred Games,
Αθλα δε των κότινο, μήλα, σελινα , πίτυς
(translation: "the prizes were olive branches, apples, celery, haulm (the stems or remainder of the wheat-ear)" - all plants with sacred symbolism)
"Where Brodeus will have μήλα to signify the Delphian Lawrel, which, he tells us, brought forth berries streak'd with red and green, and almost as large as Apples; but this interpretation is by no means genuine or natural since the word μήλα is never used in that sense: However that be, 'tis certain the Victors were rewarded with garlands of Lawrel, as appears from the express words of Pindar, who tells us that Aristomenes was crowned with ποία Παρνασίας, or Lawrel that flourished upon mount Parnassus: whence some imagine that the Reward was double, consisting both of the Sacred Apples, and Garlands of Lawrel." (Archæologiæ Græcæ: or the Antiquities of Greece, by John Potter, 1770, Ch.23 On the Pythian Games, found in the second edition on p.450)
The Apple is also one of the Seven Toys of Dionysos, called in Greek Mila.
a priori / a posteriori - (L.) These two phrases are used in philosophy to make distinction in kinds of knowledge, arguments, concepts, etc. A priori refers to the use of reason, independent of experience, to come to a conclusion. A posteriori (in contrast to a priori) uses experience or the senses to draw conclusions. Some knowledge is most easily known a posteriori, through observation, such as the conclusion that the sun is in the sky. Some knowledge is more easily known through reason, such as the descriptions given by geometrical formulas.
Apulu or Aplu - Apulu and Aplu are Etruscan names for Apollohn.
Aquarius - see Ydrochoos.
aræti or arete - (Gr. ἀρετή, ἈΡΕΤΉ) Aræti is defined as virtue. Some scholars define aræti as excellence, usually applied to personal achievements such as virtue, honor, glory, achieving one's greatest potential. This author, upon consulting his teachers in Greece concerning the correct definition of this word was told without hesitation: aræti is virtue.
There are various species of virtue that are the concern of the genuine Hellenismos, noble qualities such as the cardinal virtues (Wisdom, Justice, Courage, Temperance) discussed in Plato (Protagoras 330), virtues which can be considered in their idealized forms (eithos or eidos; Gr. εἶδος, ΕΊΔΟΣ). The concern of genuine virtue, aræti, is the progress of the soul through transcendent action. This progress of the soul involves all the individual virtues; it is comprehensive. Aræti is sometimes associated with the idea of obtaining glory for one's self, but this is not what we are speaking of; the aræti of the progress of the soul is an achievement that surpasses the narrow confines of egoistic maneuvering. It is this comprehensive aræti of the progress of the soul which is meant when the term is found on this website. And this aræti is more than a private achievement; it must take the soul beyond one's personal boundary to make a genuine difference in the world for the better.
Lexicon entry for aræti: ἀρετή [ᾰ], ἡ, goodness, excellence, of any kind, in Hom. esp. of manly qualities; so of the Gods; also of women, for valour, displayed brave deeds. b. later, of the Gods, chiefly in pl., glorious deeds, wonders, miracles. 2. generally, excellence; esp. moral virtue; good nature, kindness. 3. prosperity, Od.13.45. II. active merit, good service done him. III. reward of excellence, distinction, fame. IV. Ἀρετή personified (ed. the feminine personification of Virtue). (L&S p.238)
Arcagetus - (Gr) surname of Apollo as tutelary God of Naxos (CM p.20)
Archaicon Midiama (also meidiama) - the Archaic Smile or the Divine Smile. This is the facial expression associated with statues of kouros. It is a mystical expression of the experience of deification of the soul. See also Kouros.
archetypal polytheism – belief in Gods as symbols representing psychological archetypes
Arcitenens - (L) Roman surname for Apollo. Etymology: arcus- "bow," teneo - "I hold." Bearing the bow, with which, as soon as he was born, he destroyed the Python. (CM p.20)
Arduinna - Keltic Goddess equated with Diana/Artemis. She was associated with the mountains. (source: Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture by Bernhard Maier, 2000, p. 19)
Areion (sometimes also spelled Arion) - Born from the abduction of Queen Demetra by Poseidon, Areion is a fantastic immortal horse. There exists other variant stories giving the parentage as Poseidon and a harpy, or Zephyros and a harpy, or Gaia.
Pausanias: While engaged in her search for her daughter Persephone, Demetra was pursued by Poseidon. In an attempt to escape him, Demetra transformed herself into a mare, but Poseidon then became himself a stallion. Demetra gave birth to Areion, and also a daughter whose name is unknown to those who have not been initiated into her Mysteries. Pausaunias goes on to say that the horse was first in the care of Copreus, then Oncus, and Herakles who gave Areion to Adrastus
Ares (Roman: Mars) - [Greek: Άρης] Visit this page: Ares
arete - See aræti.
Argeiphontes - title of Lord Hermes meaning the "Slayer of Argos."
Argos - 1) The son of Zeus and Niobe. The city of Argos was named after him, and he was its third king. 2) Argos 'Panoptes' ('All-seeing') was a monster with multiple eyes, even one on the back of his head. He was killed by Hermes. 3) Argos the Argonaut, who built their ship, the Argo. 4) Argos, the dog of Odysseus.
Argous - (Gr) surname of Apollo at his temple in Coronea. It was there that stood a bronze statue of the God and from this shrine he was renowned to heal many. (CM p.20)
Argurotoxus - (Gr) surname of Apollo meaning he who has the silver bow. (CM p.20)
Argyropoulos, Ioannis (John) - (Gr. Ιωάννης Αργυρόπουλος, ΙΩΆΝΝΗΣ ΑΡΓΥΡΌΠΟΥΛΟΣ) (1415-1487 CE) Ioannis Argyropoulos is thought to be the most important of a later generation of men who were influenced by Gæorgios Gæmistos Plithon (Plethon), later in his (Plithon's) life. He attended the Council of Florence/Ferrara (the council for union between Catholic and Orthodox churches, beginning in 1431) when he was a young man. Argyropoulos was an Aristotelian (rather than a Platonist) scholar who assisted in the promotion Hellenic texts and teachings in Italy during his lifetime. (source: George Gemistos Plethon: The Last of the Hellenes by C.M. Woodhouse, 1986, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 40)
Aries - see Krios.Ἀρίων, ἈΡΊΩΝ) Dionysian poet who is attributed with the creation of the dithyramvos (dithyramb; Gr. διθύραμβος), particular hymns in honor of Dionysos. Aristotle believed that these hymns were the origin of Hellenic theatre.
Irothotos (Herodotus; Gr. Ἡρόδοτος) tells the famous story of Ariohn and of his hymn to Apollohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). Ariohn had won a musical contest in Sicily. While traveling home, pirates seized him and his valuable prizes. They gave him two choices: to take his own life and be given a proper burial on land, or to be cast into the sea and perish.
Ariohn asked if he could perform one last song before leaping to the sea. He played his kithara (a type of lyre; Gr. κιθάρα) and sang a beautiful song to Lord Apollohn. The song was so enchanting that many dolphins, sacred to the God, gathered around the boat. Ariohn leaped into the sea and was carried to safety by a dolphin to the sanctuary of Poseithohn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) at Cape Tainaron (Gr. Ταίναρον).
Ariohn then continued on land to Korinthos (Corinth; Gr. Κόρινθος), arriving before the pirates. The king of Korinthos could not believe this fantastic story of his, but when the pirates landed and, being certain that Ariohn had perished at sea, they lied to the king and claimed that the great poet had decided to stay in Sicily, but their deception became obvious when Ariohn presented himself.
Aristaios - Please visit this page: Aristaios
Aristotælis, Vattos I - (Battus Aristotle; Gr. Βάττος Ἀριστοτέλης) Vattos I, Aristotælis, was the founder of the city of Kyrini (Cyrene; Gr. Κυρήνη) as described in the Hymn to Apollohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) by the Alexandrian poet Kallimakhos (Callimachus; Gr. Καλλίμαχος).
Arritos Arkhi - (Ἄρρητος Ἀρχή) The Arritos Arkhi is the primordial state of the Kosmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος), which, as is said by Orphefs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς), is unable to be defined, hence it is called the Unutterable Beginning or Principle. Arritos means "that which cannot be expressed" + arkhi, "beginning." Visit this page: Mystic Materialism.
Arsænomorphæ - (Arsenomorphe; Gr. Ἀρσενόμορφε, ἈΡΣΕΝΌΜΟΡΦΕ) Arsænomorphæ means the appearance with a male face, as, for instance, with the Goddess Artæmis. (Orphefs Hymn 36 To Artæmis, line 7)
Artemis (Roman: Diana)- [Greek: Ἄρτεμις] Visit this page: Artæmis.
Asbystae (hence Asbystian) were a people in the Cyrenaica.
Asklipiastai or Asklepiastai - (Gr. Ἀσκληπιασταί, ἈΣΚΛΗΠΙΑΣΤΑΊ) The Asklipastai is a guild of worshipers of Asklipios. (L&S p.258, left column, within the entries beginning with Ἀσκληπιός)
Asklipiathis (singular), Asklipiathae (plural) - alternate spellings: Asklepiades (sing.) and Asklepiadae (plur.) (Gr. Ἀσκληπιάδης, ἈΣΚΛΗΠΙΆΔΗΣ) Asklipiathis means son of Asklipios, hence it is name for a physician/priest of Asklipios, also Asklipithis (Asklepides; Gr. Ἀσκληπίδης, ἈΣΚΛΗΠΊΔΗΣ). (L&S p.258, left column, within the entries beginning with Ἀσκληπιός)The Asklepian is the staff of Asklipios, the God of Healing. It is a long staff which he holds at his side and it is entwined with a serpent. It is not to be confused with the kerykeion (Caduceus). This staff, a representation of great antiquity, is still in use as a symbol of the medical profession. The iconography of the Asklipian is usually explained thus: the snake sheds its skin, therefore it is a symbol of rejuvenation. A staff was a common accoutrement of the itinerant
physician in antiquity.
Asklipiion or Asklepion - (Gr. Ἀσκληπιεῖον, ἈΣΚΛΗΠΙΕΙΟΝ) An Asklipiion is a temple of Asklipios, the God of Healing. They were both sanctuaries of worship and also hospitals. The most famous Asklipiion was the temple of Asklipios at Epidaurus. (L&S p.258, left column, within the entries beginning with Ἀσκληπιός)
Asklipios, Asclepius, or Asklepios - Visit this page: ASKLEPIOS - ἈΣΚΛΗΠΙΌΣ
Æsoptrona (Esoptrona; Gr. Ἔσοπτρονα, ἜΣΟΠΤΡΟΝΑ) The Æsoptrona is the small Mirror, one of the Seven Toys of Dionysos.
Asterie (Asteria) - Asteria ("of the stars") is the Titan daughter of Koios (Coeus) and Phoibe (Phoebe). She was pursued by Zeus and avoided him by transforming herself into a quail, falling into the sea and becoming the island Asteria, later called Ortygia, and finally Delos ("famous"), the birthplace of Apollon by her sister Leto. She is the Goddess of oracles.
Asterusius - the name by which Apollon was worshiped on Mount Asterusius on the island of Crete. (CM p.20)
Astragalos - (Gr. Ἀστράγαλος, ἈΣΤΡΆΓΑΛΟΣ) The Astragalos is the Knuckle-Bone, one of the Toys of Dionysos.
ataraxia - (Greek: ἀτᾰραξἰα) impassiveness, calmness (L&S p.268, found within the definitions starting: ἀτᾰρ-ακτἐω, keep calm)
Ataraxia is a philosophical term meaning composure, tranquility, equilibrium. The term is associated with the Skeptics (Pyrrho of Elis), the Epicureans (Epicurus himself), and also the Stoics. (source: Ancient Greek Philosophy by Anthony Preus, 2007, p.62. Not a direct quotation.)
Atepomarus - Keltic God equated with Apollo. (source: Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture by Bernhard Maier, 2000, p. 26)
atheist - (Greek: ἂθεος) 1) without God, denying the Gods, esp. those recognized by the state, 2) generally, godless, ungodly, 3) abandoned of the Gods, 4) not derived from the name of a God (L&S p.31) See atheism.
atheism – the belief that no Gods exist. In antiquity, the early Christians were considered atheists because they denied the existence of all Gods but their own. Atheism stands in contrast to agnosticism where agnosticism is an unresolved state, atheism is a conviction. See atheist.
Athena (Roman: Minerva) - [Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ] Visit this page: Athena
athlon - (Greek: ἆθλον) prize of contest, as in games played in honor of a God. Athlon is the etymological root of the English word athlete.
Athmitos - (Admetos or Admetus; Gr. Άδμητος, ἉΔΜΗΤΟΣ)
1) Athmitos was the son of Phæris (Pheres; Gr. Φέρης), the founder of Phærai (Pherae; Gr. Φέραι) in Thæssalia (Thessaly; Gr. Θεσσαλία). His mother was Pæriklymæni (Periclymene; Gr. Περικλυμένη). Athmitos was one of the fifty-two Argonaftai (Argonauts; Gr. Ἀργοναῦται) listed in the Orphæohs Argonaftika (Orphic Argonautica; Gr. Ὀρφέως Ἀργοναυτικά) and he also took part in the Calcydonian Boar hunt.
Athmitos is known particularly for the stories concerning his involvement with Apollohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). Apollohn had killed the Kyklops (Cyclops; Gr. Κύκλωψ) for making the thunderbolts which Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) used to kill Apollohn's son Asklipios (Asclepius; Gr. Ἀσκληπιός). For this act, Apollohn was sentenced to labor as a shepherd for Athmitos, who was now king of Phærai. In gratitude for the kindness with which Athmitos treated him, Apollohn helped the king in many ways.
Athmitos desired to marry Alkistis (Alcestis; Gr. Ἄλκηστις), the daughter of Pælias (Pelias; Gr. Πελίας), who promised her hand in marriage under the condition that Athmitos should come to Alkistis in a chariot driven by lions and boars. Apollohn supplied this to Athmitos who thereafter won the hand of of his beloved. But on the day of the marriage, Athmitos neglected to sacrifice to Artæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις). This angered the Goddess and she placed snakes in Athmitos and Alkistis' bridal chamber. Apollohn appeased his sister and reconciled her to Athmitos. In addition, Apollohn obtained an extension of Athmitos' life from the Mirai (the Fates or Moirai; Gr. Μοῖραι) in exchange for the willing self-sacrifice of the life of his wife. Iraklis (Herakles; Gr. Ἡρακλῆς), who owed a debt of gratitude to Athmitos, wrestled Thanatos (death; Gr. Θάνατος) and rescued Alkistis back to the world of the living.
2) There is another personage named Athmitos, a Trojan who was killed by Philoktitis (Philoctetes; Gr. Φιλοκτήτης).
Athonia - (Adonia; Gr. Ἀδώνια, ἈΔΏΝΙΑ) Please visit this page: ATHOHNIA - ἈΔΏΝΙA: Athonis and the Athonia.
Athonis - (Adonis; Gr. Ἄδωνις, ἌΔΩΝΙΣ) Please visit this page: ATHOHNIA - ἈΔΏΝΙA: Athonis and the Athonia.
Atlas - (Gr. Ἄτλας) Son of Japetus and Klymene, Atlas is from the second-generation of Titan Gods. He led the Titans in their war against Zeus, thereby being condemned to carry the heavens on his shoulders.
Atropos (she who cannot be turned) - One of the Fates who cuts the thread of life.
Aurora - Roman word for Dawn.
Autumn Equinox or Fthinoporini Isimæria - See Phthinopohrini Isimæria.
Av or av - The English letters av are being used on this website to represent the Greek diphthong ALPHA-UPSILON (Gr. ΑΥ, αυ) when the diphthong is found before a vowel. This sounds like the av in gravity. When the Greek diphthong ALPHA-UPSILON is found before a consonant, it sounds like the af in after (and we are spelling it af); when found before a vowel, it sounds like the av in gravity. These are all short a, using the American pronunciation.
Avaios - (Abæus, Abaeus, or Abaios; Gr. Ἀβαῖος, ἈΒΑΊΟΣ) - Avaios is a toponymic surname of Apollohn after the temple and oracle of Avai (Abae; Gr. Ἄβα) in Phokis (Phocis; Gr. Φωκίς). (Herodotos viii.33, Pafsanias x. 35. § 1)
Averruncus - (L) surname of Apollo meaning he who averts evils. This name is also used to invoke the God when asking his assistance in interpreting dreams. (CM p.20)
Azilis (Aziris) - where the Theraeans dwelt with Battus for six years before they went to Cyrene.
ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE
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