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GLOSSARY OF INCENSE IN ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION

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Æpithymíama - (epithymiama; Gr. ἐπιθυμίαμα, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΜΑ. Noun.) offering of incenseCf. Æpithymíasis.

Æpithymiáoh - (epithymiao; Gr. ἐπιθυμιάω, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΩ. Verb.) to offer incense.

Æpithymíasis - (epithymiasis; Gr. ἐπιθυμίασις, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΣΙΣ. Noun.) an offering of incense. Cf. Æpithymíama.

Æpithymiatrós - (epithymiatros; Gr. ἐπιθυμιατρός, ΕΠΙΘΥΜΙΑΤΡΟΣ. Noun.) he/she who burns incense.

Ammohniakón - (ammoniacom; Gr. ἀμμωνιακόν, ΑΜΜΩΝΙΑΚΟΝ. Noun.) gum ammoniac, incense-resin from the perennial herb Dorema ammoniacum found near the oracular shrine of Ζεύς-Ἄμμων in Egypt.

Ammoniac, Gum – See Ammohniakón.

Aróhmata - (aromata; Gr. ἀρώματα, ΑΡΩΜΑΤΑ, plural of ἄρωμα. Noun.) aromatic herbs and spices.

Aromatic Herbs – See Aróhmata.

Bay Laurel – See Dáphni.

Bdǽllion - (guggul or bdellium; Gr. βδέλλιον, ΒΔΕΛΛΙΟΝ. Noun) Bdǽllion is guggul, the oleo-gum resin collected from Commiphora wightii, also known by the name Balsamodendrum mukul, the Indian bdellium-tree. Bdǽllion is thought of as an offering to Áris (Ares or Mars; Gr. Ἄρης). Bdǽllion is believed by some to be a type of myrrh, but this is incorrect as it is entirely distinct; it comes from a different plant and has a unique fragrance. Cf. Smýrna.

Bdellium - See Bdǽllion.

Benzoin - See Stýrax.

Boat – See Navicula.

Censer – See Thymiatírion.

Copal - (Etym. from the Nahuatl [Aztec] word copalli, "incense.") Copal is a resin incense obtained from a variety of trees in Central America used ubiquitously in Mexican churches and elsewhere, as well as in Native American religious rituals from these regions. Since the copals come from various different trees, there is considerable variety in fragrance between variant types. There are resins marketed as copal which originate in East Africa as well.

Dalós - (firebrand; Gr. δαλός, ΔΑΛΟΣ. Noun.)  a firebrand, likely meaning burning aromatic wood for incense.

Dáphni - (bay laurel; Gr. δάφνη, ΔΑΦΝΗ. Noun.) Laurus nobilis, the common culinary bay-leaf, used as an incense-offering.

Frankincense - See Livanohtós and Lívanos.

Galbanum - See Khalváni.

Guggul - See Bdǽllion.

Incense - See Thymía and Thymíama.

Kalkolívanos - (chalcolibanus; χαλκολίβανος, ΧΑΛΚΟΛΙΒΑΝΟΣ. Noun.) yellow frankincense, quality brass.

Khalváni - (chalbane; Gr. χαλβάνη, ΧΑΛΒΑΝΗ. Noun.) galbanum, a fragrant resin from all-healFerula galbaniflua.

Krókos (crocus; Gr. κρόκος, ΚΡΟΚΟΣ. Noun.) saffron crocusCrocus sativus, and the dried stigmas which are the culinary spice saffron.

Laurel, Bay - See Dáphni.

Ládanon - (labdanum; Gr. λάδανον, ΛΑΔΑΝΟΝ. Noun.) labdanum, a highly fragrant resin obtained from the kísthos (Gr. κίσθος, κίστος, or κισθός) shrub, rock-rose.

Livanohtós - (libanotos; Gr. λιβανωτός, ΛΙΒΑΝΩΤΟΣ. Noun.)  Livanohtós is incense or frankincense. The use of frankincense is of such great antiquity and its use was so ubiquitous that this word, which originally meant simply “incense,” came to mean frankincense. Cf. Lívanos.

Lívanos - (libanos; Gr. λίβανος, ΛΙΒΑΝΟΣ. Noun.) the frankincense tree, particularly Boswellia sacra, but all of the Boswellia genus. Cf. Livanohtós.

Mánna - (Gr. μάννα, ΜΑΝΝΑ. Noun.) The incense mánna is called for in several Orphic hymns, but it is unclear what exactly it was. Mánna may be the sweet sap of Fraxinus ornus, the Flowering Ash or Ash-Manna tree, but there is great uncertainty. It may have been simply powdered frankincense.

Mýrra - (Gr. μύρρα, ΜΥΡΡΑ = σμύρνα, both Nouns.) Aeol. for smýrnamyrrh. Cf. Smýrna.

Myrrh - See Mýrra and Smýrna.

Navicula - The navicula (Latin for small ship) or boat is a portable container which holds incense supplies, incense and a spoon for placing it on the coals, this term used in Christian churches.

Olibanum – Olibanum is an alternate name for frankincense. See Livanohtós.

Smýrna (myrrh; Gr. σμύρνα, ΣΜΥΡΝΑ = μύρρα, both Nouns.) myrrh, a gum obtained from Balsamodendron myrrha, an Arabian tree.

Staktí - (Gr. στακτή, ΣΤΑΚΤΗ. Noun.) oil of myrrh.

Storax – See Stýrax.

Stýrax - (storax; Gr. στύραξ, ΣΤΥΡΑΞ. Noun.) storax resin, the word also designates the tree from which the resin comes, Styrax officinalis.

Thurible - A thurible is a hanging thymiatírion (incense-burner) which can also be swung by hand to fumigate or purify. Cf. Thymiatírion and Thymiató.

Thurifer – (from Medieval Latin turibulum) priestpriestess or attendant (acolyte) who holds the thymiatírion (censer).

Thyíeis - (thyeis; Gr. θυήεις, ΘΥΕΙΣ. Pronounced: thee-EE-ees. Adjective) fragrant or smoking with incense.

Thymía - (Gr. θυμία, ΘΥΜΙΑ = θυμίαμα. Noun.)  incense. See Thymíama.

Thymíama - (Gr. θυμίαμα, ΘΥΜΙΑΜΑ. Plural is θυμιάματα. Noun.) incense.

Thymiatírion - (Gr. θυμιατήριον, ΘΥΜΙΑΤΗΡΙΟΝ. Noun.) censer, an incense-burner.

Thymiató - (Gr. θυμιατό, ΘΥΜΙΑΤΟ. Noun.) Thymiató is modern Greek for the hanging thymiatírion (thurible) used in Christian churches. These often very beautiful and expensive censers can be used in Ællinismόs, if you can afford one, for general use or fumigation/purification. The three chains represent for the Christians the trinity, but they could represent for us the Three Zefs (Olympian Zefs, Poseidóhn, and Ploutohn) and the single chain from the top of the thurible could represent the Kózmos. Cf. Thymiatírion and Thurible.


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.
How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.


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