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NOTE: A list of abbreviations can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME.

Ǽpæa - (epea; Gr. Ἔπεα, ΕΠΕΑ) Ǽpæa is Epic Poetry, the poems telling the stories of the great Íroæs (Gr. Ἥρωες), the Heroes; the word is the plural form of ἔπος. (See L&S p. 676, ἔπος def. IV.) Cf. Ǽpos and Æpopiía.

Æpopiía - (Epopoiïa; Gr. Ἐποποιία, ΕΠΟΠΟΙΙΑ) Æpopiía is Epic Poetry
- Lexicon entry: ἐποποιία, Ep. ἐποποιίηepic poetry or an epic poemII. divination by means of Homeric verses. (L&S p. 676, left column.) Cf. Ǽpæa.

Ǽpos - (epos; Gr. ἔπος, ΕΠΟΣ. Plural is ἔπεα.) Ǽpos means wordutterance, a song or hymn. The plural form, Ǽpæa (Gr. Ἔπεα), is Epic Poetry, and, of course, the epic poems were written about the Íroæs (Gr. Ἥρωες), the Heroes. (See L&S p. 676, ἔπος def. IV.) Cf. Ǽpæa. 

Agóhn - (Agon; Gr. ἀγών, ΑΓΩΝ, Plural αγώνεςAgóhn means contestgame, or competition. Here we are speaking of games not as an entertainment, but games as a religious offering, as in the familiar pan-Hellenic Olympian games (for Zefs; Gr. Ζεύς) or the Pythian games (for Apóllohn; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) Games. These were games conducted as a gift to the God, for which one competed for an áthlon (prize; Gr. ἆθλον). Agóhnæs (agones; Gr. αγώνες, plural of Agóhn) were conducted at all major shrines for deities. The contests were athletic, but could also be musical or poetic. Agóhnæs were also conducted at the funerary proceedings of Íroæs (Gr. Ἥρωες), Heroes. Agóhn, which also means a struggle, is the etymological root for the English word agony.
- Lexicon entry: ἀγών [], ῶνος:—gatheringassembly: esp. assembly met to see games2. place of contestlistscourseII. assembly of the Greeks at the national games:— hence, contest for a prize at the games. III. generally, struggle2. battleaction3. action at lawtrial4. speech delivered in court or before an assembly or ruler. b. Rhet., main argument of a speech. 5. metaph. 6. mental struggleanxietyb. of speakers, vehemencepowerIV. personified, Ἀγώνdivinity of the contest. (L&S p. 18, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Aidóhs - (aidos; Gr. αἰδώς, ΑΙΔΩΣ) Aidóhs is the sense of shame which compels us to follow our conscience.
- Lexicon entry: αἰδώςόος, contr. οῦςη (late nom. pl. αἰδοί), as a moral feeling, reverence, awe, respect for the feeling or opinion of others or for one's own conscience, and so shame, self-respectsense of honour; sobriety, moderation2. regard for others, respect, reverenceregard for friends; esp. regard for the helplesscompassionforgivenessII. that which causes shame or respect, and so, 1. shame, scandal2. = τὰ αἰδοῖα. 3. dignity, majesty.III. Αἰδώς personified, Reverence. (L&S p. 36, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Anthrohpodaimohn - (Anthropodaemon; Gr. Ἀνθρωποδαίμων, ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΔΑΙΜΩΝ) The Anthrohpodaimohn is a soul who was previously mortal, but which has been deifiedThe Íroæs (Heroes) are said to be between men (ἄνθρωπος) and daimohnæs (daemons; Gr. δαίμονες, plural), therefore, an Írohs (Hero) is about to become an Anthrohpodaimohn.
- Lexicon entry: ἀνθρωποδαίμωνονοςman-God, i.e. deified man. (L&S p. 141, right column, within the entries beginning ἀνθρωποβορέω, starting from the left column.)

Antíthæos - (antitheos; Gr. ἀντίθεος, ΑΝΤΙΘΕΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ἀντίθεοςηονequal to the Godsgodlike (cf. S.E.M.7.6): Homeric epith. of heroes, Il.5.663, etc.; of nations, ib.12.408, Od.6.241; of women, only ib.11.117; applied even to Polyphemus and the suitors, ib.1.70, 14.18; ἥρωες ἀII. contrary to God2. Subst. ἀντίθεοςhostile deity (unless Adj., disguised as a God).

rætí - (Arete; Gr. Ἀρετή, ΑΡΕΤΗArætí is Virtue. Please visit this page: Arætí.

risteia - (Gr. ἀριστεῖα, ΑΡΙΣΤΕΙΑ) Aristeia is the achievement of a great success in the life of an Írohs (Hero; Gr. Ἥρως), a manifestation of his being áristos, the best. 
- Lexicon entry: ἀριστεῖα [ᾰρ], Ion. ἀριστήϊατάthe meed (ed. deserved reward) of valour2. in sg., monument of valourmemorial. (L&S p. 240, right column, edited for simplicity.)
- Cf. Áristos.

ristos - (Gr. ἄριστος, ΑΡΙΣΤΟΣÁristos means the best.
- Lexicon entry: ἄριστος [], ηονbest in its kind, and so in all sorts of relations, serving as superlative (ed. highest degree) of ἀγαθόςI. of persons, 1. best in birth and rank, noblest: hence, like ἀριστεύς, a chief2. best in any way, bravest3. morally best4. bestmost usefulII. of animals, things, etc., best, finestIII. neut. pl. as Adv., ἄριστα best, most excellentlyἄριστά γε, in answers, well said!. (L&S p. 241, right column, edited for simplicity.) 
- Cf. Aristeia.

Athlitís - (athlete; Gr. ἀθλητής, ΑΘΛΗΤΗΣ) The Athlitís is a participant in an Áthlos, i.e., a heroic contest.
- Lexicon entry: ἀθλητής, contr. from ἀεθλητήςοῦo :— combatant, champion; esp. in games; of Christian martyrs.2. as Adj. II. c. gen. rei, practised inmaster of. (L&S p. 32, right column, within the entries beginning with ἀθλεύω, edited for simplicity.)

Áthlon - (Gr. ἆθλον, ΑΘΛΟΝ) The áthlon is the prize of a contest, as in games played in honor of a God or the death of an Írohs (Gr. Ἥρως), HeroÁthlon is the etymological root of the English word athlete.
- Lexicon entry: ἆθλοντό, Att. contr. from Ep., Ion., Lyr. ἄεθλον (which alone is used by Hom. and Hdt., mostly also by Pi.):— prize of contestII. = ἆθλος, contest, only in pl. III. in pl., place of combatIV. Astrol., = κλῆρος (ed. certain degrees in the zodiac connected with planets and important in a nativity). (L&S p. 32, right column, edited for simplicity.)
- Cf. Áthlos.

thlos - (Gr. ἆθλος, ΑΘΛΟΣ) Áthlos is a heroic contest.
- Lexicon entry: ἆθλος, contr. from Ep. and Ion. ἄεθλος, which alone is used by Hom. (except in Od.8.160), and mostly by Hdt. and Pi.:— contest either in war or sport, esp. contest for a prize; of the labours of Heracles: metaph., conflict, struggle, ordealII. = ἆθλον 1Theoc.8.11sqq.—On the proper difference of ἆθλον and ἆθλος v. ἆθλον 11. (L&S p. 32, right column at the very bottom, edited for simplicity.)
- Cf. Áthlon.

Díki - (Dike; Gr. Δίκη, ΔΙΚΗ) Díki is Justice.
- Lexicon Entry: 
δίκη [], custom, usage; normal course of nature: hence, 2. adverb. in acc. δίκην, in the way of, after the manner ofII. order, right; personified; Truth2. δίκη ἐστί, = δίκαιόν ἐστι3. Adverb. usages, δίκῃ duly, rightlyIII. judgementδίκην ἰθύντατα εἰπεῖν give judgement most righteously. IV. after Hom., of proceedings instituted to determine legal rightsV. Pythag. name for threePlu.2.381f, Theol.Ar.12; for five, ib.31. (L&S p. 430, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- See also the Glossary entry for Díki.

Dóxa - (Gr. Δόξα, ΔΟΞΑ) Dóxa is usually translated as belief or opinion, but in connection with the Íroæs, Dóxa is glory.
Lexicon entry (see definition IV): δόξexpectationII. after Hom., notion, opinion, judgement, whether well grounded or not. 2. mere opinion, conjecture3. fancy, visionIII. the opinion which others have of one, estimation, repute2. mostly, good repute, honour, glory.  (L&S p. 444, right column, edited for simplicity.)
- for a more complete understanding of this word, find the Glossary entry for Dóxa.

Efkleia - (Eucleia; Gr. Εὐκλεία, ΕΥΚΛΕΙΑ) Lexicon entry: εὔκλειᾰεὐκλείᾱ metrigr.:— good repute, glory. (L&S p. 718, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Epea - See Ǽpæa.

Epic Poetry - See Ǽpæa.

Epos - See Ǽpos.

Eris - See Ǽris.

Hemitheos - See Imíthæos.

Hero - See Írohs.

Heroa - See Iróa.

Heroine - See Iroíni.

Iroíni (HeroineἩρωίνη, ΗΡΩΙΝΗ) Lexicon entry: ἡρωίνη [], , fem. of ἥρωςheroine. (L&S p. 778, right column, within the entries beginning ἡρωίαμβος from the previous column, edited for simplicity.)

Heroïsmos - See Iroïsmós.

Heroölogia - See Iroöloyía.

Heroön - See Iróön.

Heroös - See Iróös.

Imíthæos - (Hemitheos; Gr. Ἡμίθεος, ΗΜΙΘΕΟΣ) Imíthæos is a DemigodII. Pythagorean name for five. (L&S p. 772, left column, within the entries beginning ἡμιαμϕόριον from the previous page, edited for simplicity.)

Imíthnitos - (emithnetus; Gr. ἡμίθνητος, ΗΜΙΘΝΗΤΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ἡμίθνητοςονhalf-mortal, of the Dioscuri. 2. half-dead. (L&S p. 772, almost at the end of the left column all of which are words beginning with ημι-, edited for simplicity.)

Iróa - (Heroa; Gr. Ἡρῷα, ΗΡΩΑ) An Iróa is a festival of a hero. See Iróön.

Írohs - (Hero; Gr. Ἥρως, ΗΡΩΣ; usually Ἥρῳ, poet. dat. sg. of ρωςρω, gen. and acc. of same. The plural is Ἥρωες
- Lexicon entry: ἥρωςὁ (also  in signf. 111), gen. ἥρωος (ἥρως codd. in Od.6.303, fort. leg. ἥρω?~Xος); also:—hero2. the Fourth Age of men, between δαίμονες and ἄνθρωποι3. heroes, as objects of worship; esp. of local deities, founders of cities, patrons of tribes; of historical persons to whom divine honours were paid, as Brasidas at Amphipolis. II. later,= μακαρίτηςdeceased(L&S p. 778, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Iroïsmós - (Heroïsmos; Gr. Ἡρωισμός, ΗΡΩΙΣΜΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ἡρωισμός, ὁ, worship of heroes. (L&S p. 778, right column at the very top of the page, within the entries beginning ἡρωίαμβος from the previous column, edited for simplicity.)

Iroöloyía - (HeroölogiaἩρωολογία, ΗΡΩΟΛΟΓΙΑ) Lexicon entry: ἡρωολογία, ἡ, tale of heroes, title of work by Anaximander. (L&S p. 778, right column.)

Iróön (Heroön; Gr. Ἡρῷον, ΗΡΩΟΝ) The Iróön is a shrine of an Írohs (Hero; Gr. Ἥρως), a demi-God.
- Lexicon entry: ἡρῷον, Ion. ἡρώϊοντό1. (sc. ἱερόν or ἕδοςshrine of a hero2. tomb:—in form ἡρώειον3. (sc. μέτρονhexameterPlu.Num.4, etc. 4. ἡρῷα (sc. ἱερά), τάfestival of a hero. (L&S p. 778, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Iróös - (heroös; Gr. ἡρῷος, ΗΡΩΟΣ) Lexicon entry: ἡρῷοςαον, contr. for ἡρώϊος (q.v.);  . (sc. ῥυθμός) the heroic measure, hexameter. (L&S p. 778, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Isóthæos - (Gr. σόθεος, ΙΣΟΘΕΟΣ) Isóthæos means equal to the Godsgodlike, of heroes. (L&S p. 837, right column at the very bottom of the page, within the entries beginning ἰσοθάνατος.)

Klǽos - (Gr. κλέος, ΚΛΕΟΣKlǽos is associated with the fame acquired by the Íroæs, especially as promulgated by the pitǽs (poets; Gr. ποιητές) in æpopiía (epic poetry; Gr. ἐποποιία) and mythoyía (mythology; Gr. μυθολογία).
- Lexicon entry: κλέοςτό, Dor. Κλέϝος.  rumour, report.  II. Good report, fame.  2. rarely in bad sense. (L&S p. 958, left column.) Cf. Dóxa and Timí.

Mægalítohr - (megaletor; Gr. μεγαλήτωρ, ΜΕΓΑΛΗΤΩΡμεγαλήτωρ (ἦτορ): great-heartedproud. (Autenrieth)

Thæoeikælos - (theoeicelus; Gr. θεοείκελος, ΘΕΟΕΙΚΕΛΟΣ. Adjective.) Thæoeikælos is an adjective applied to the heroes meaning godlike.
- Lexicon entry: θεοείκελοςονgodlike, of Achilles, Il.1.131; of Telemachus, Od.3.416; of Hector and Andromache. (L&S p. 790, left column, within the entries beginning with θεοδέγμων, edited for simplicity.)  

Thæógonos - (Theogonos; Gr. θεόγονος, ΘΕΟΓΟΝΟΣ) Lexicon entry: θεόγονος, ον, born of Goddivine. (L&S p. 790, left column, within the entries beginning with Θεογονία, edited for simplicity.)

Thǽortos - (theortus; Gr. θέορτος, ΘΕΟΡΤΟΣ. Adjective.) Lexicon entry: θέορτοςον, (ὄρνυμαι) sprung from the Gods. (L&S p. 791, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Timí - (timë; Gr. τιμή, ΤΙΜΗTimí is honor accorded to Gods and Heroes.
- Lexicon entry: τῑμή, (τίω, v. ad fin.) worship, esteem, honour, and in pl. honours, such as are accorded to Gods or to superiors, or bestowed (whether by Gods or men) as a reward for services. 2. honour, dignity, lordship, as the attribute of Gods or kings. (L&S p. 1793, right column, within the entries beginning τιμέω, edited for simplicity.)

The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).

PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as


, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek          


Transliteration of Ancient Greek          


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Further, the inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) by of the contents or views of any external sources from which they were obtained.

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