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ATHINÁ: THE EPITHETS
FOTO: Artist is Elihu Vedder (1836–1923). Photographed in 2007 by Carol Highsmith (1946–), who explicitly placed the photograph in the public domainFile:Minerva-Vedder-Highsmith-detail-1.jpeg - Wikimedia Commons

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EPITHETS OF ATHINÁ
(Abbreviations can be found at the bottom of this page: Glossary Home)

This list of titles of the Goddess 
Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) includes all of the epithets found in Orphic Hymn 32 and more, gathered from various sources. The transliteration method used in this list is Reuchlinian and unique to this website where the emphasis is primarily on pronunciation, but to avoid confusion there are separate entries using the more familiar Erasmian spellings found in English and American universities.



Ærgáni (Ergane; Gr. Ἐργάνη) Athiná is known as Ærgáni, the worker, in that she is the administrator and instructor of the arts of every kind.

Ageleia - See Ayæleia.

Aglaótimos - (aglaotimus; Gr. ἀγλαότιμος, ΑΓΛΑΟΤΙΜΟΣ) Athiná is aglaótimosshe who is splendidly honored. (Orphic Hymn 32.11)

Aiolómorphos - (Gr. αἰολόμορφος, ΑΙΟΛΟΜΟΡΦΟΣ) Athiná is aiolómorphoscapable of changing her form(Orphic Hymn 32.11)

Ánassa - (Gr. ἄνασσα, ΑΝΑΣΣΑ) Lexicon entry: ἄνασσα (ϝάνασσα), , fem. of ἄναξ, queen, lady, addressed to Goddesses; esp. in Att. to Athena. (L&S p. 121, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Antrodíaitos - (antrodiaetus; Gr. ἀντροδίαιτος, ΑΝΤΡΟΔΙΑΙΤΟΣ) Athiná is antrodíaitoscave-dwelling. (Orphic Hymn 32.3)

Árritos - (Gr. ἄρρητος, ΑΡΡΗΤΟΣ) In the Orphic hymn to Athiná, the Goddess is described as árritosunspoken,ineffable (in contrast to ritós, "known," "spoken of," "famous," as stated just after this in the hymn). (Orphic Hymn 32.3)

Ayæleia - (Ageleia; Gr. Ἀγελεία. Etym. ἀγέλη "herd," in Ómiros [Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος], always oxen or kine.Ayæleia is an epithet of Athiná. Ayæleia is the mystical number seven (Ἰάμβλιχος [?] θεολογούμενα αριθμητικά 42.30), which is the number of the Natural Law over which Athiná has governance. 2. Ayæleia is an epithet of Athiná meaning driver orprotector of the spoil, meaning herd of oxen or kine. (Iliás [Iliad; Gr.  λιάς] 6.269)

Basileia - See Vasíleia.

Bulaea - See Voulaia.

Destroyer of the Phlægraiohn Giants - (Φλεγραίων ὀλέτειρα Γιγάντων, ΦΛΕΓΡΑΙΩΝ ΟΛΕΤΕΙΡΑ ΓΙΓΑΝΤΩΝ) Athiná isdestroyer (ὀλέτειρα being the feminine of ὀλετήρof the Phlægraiohn (Phlegraean) Giants. (Orphic Hymn 32.12)

Día - (Gr. δῖα, ΔΙΑ) Athiná is díaheavenly. (Orphic Hymn 32.2)

Diáktoros - (diactorus; Gr. διάκτορος, ΔΙΑΚΤΟΡΟΣ) Lexicon entry: διάκτορος, epith. of Hermes in Hom., δ. Ἀργεϊφόντης Il.2.103, Od.5.43, etc.; δ. alone: variously expld. by ancient writers: apptly. taken as minister, = διάκονος (ed. servantattendant); as messenger (διάγων ἀλλελίας), by later poets, of the eagle; applied to Iris; to Athena. (L&S p. 399, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Drákaina - (Gr. δράκαινα, ΔΡΑΚΑΙΝΑ) In the Orphic hymn to Athiná, the Goddess is referred to as drákaina, a she-dragon(Orphic Hymn 32.11)

Evræsítækhnos - (euresitechnos; Gr. εὑρεσίτεχνος, ΕΥΡΕΣΙΤΕΧΝΟΣ) Athiná is the evræsítækhnos, the inventor of the arts. (Orphic Hymn 32.17)

Glafkóhpis (Glaucopis; Gr. γλαυκώπις) - Glafkóhpis is an epithet of Athiná (Athena; Gr. Ἀθηνᾶ) meaning owl-eyed.Glafs can mean owl, as the owl has large eyes like a moon, Glafkóh (Gr. Γλαυκώ) being a name of the moon. Glafkós(Gr. γλαυκός) refers to the blue-gray color of the olive and the sea. This epithet includes both meanings: her association with the owl, who travels through the Middle Sky, and also her association with the sea, the Fire-Aithír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ). (Orphic Hymn 32.17)
- Lexicon entry: γλαυκῶπις, ἡ, gen. ιδος: acc. ιδα:—in Hom., epith. of Athena, prob., with gleaming eyesII. = γλαυκός, of the olive; of the moon. (L&S p. 351, left column, within the entries beginning with γλαυκώδης, edited for simplicity.)
- Lexicon entry: Γλαυκώοῦς, name for the moon. (L&S p. 351, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- Lexicon entry: γλαυκώδηςεςof the owl kind. (L&S p. 351, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- Lexicon entry: γλαυκόςήόν, orig. without any notion of colour, gleamingII. later, of colour, bluish green or grey, of the olive. 2. freq. of the eye, light bluegrey. (L&S pp. 350-351)

Gorgophónos - (Gorgophonus; Gr. Γοργοφόνος, ΓΟΡΓΟΦΟΝΟΣ) Athiná is Gorgophónos, the slayer of the Gorgóh(Gorgon; Gr. Γοργώ). (Orphic Hymn 32.8) 

Ippæláteira - (hippelateira; Gr. ἱππελάτειρα, ΙΠΠΕΛΑΤΕΙΡΑ) Athiná is ippæláteiradriver of horses. (Orphic Hymn 32.12)

Íppios - (hippius; Gr. ἵππιος, ÍΠΠΙΟΣ) - Lexicon entry: ἵππιοςαον, (ἵππος) poet. form of ἵππειος (q. v.), of a horse or horses; epith. of Poseidon as creator of the horse; hence, of Colonos as sacred to him; also of Athena; of Hera, at Olympia; of Ares. II. of horsemen or the horse-race. (L&S, edited for simplicity.)

K
leidoukhos - (Kleidouchos; Gr. Κλείδουχος, ΚΛΕΙΔΟΥΧΟΣ) Kleidoukhos is an epithet meaning she who holds the keys, of Aphrodíti (Aphrodite), of Athiná (Athena), of Ækáti.
κλείδουχ-ος, Att. κληδ-, ον, (ἔχω) holding the keys: hence, having charge or custody of a place, her priestess; of Pallas, tutelary Goddess; of Hecate. II. of the numbers 4 and 10, believed by the Pythag. to be the keys of the order of nature. (L&S, edited for simplicity)

Kóri - (Core; Gr. Κόρη, ΚΟΡΗLexicon entry: κόρη, orig. κόρϝα, with κόρη even in Att. Prose and Trag. dialogue; Dor. and Aeol. κόρα, and in the pr. n.: κούρα: Dor. also κώρα:—fem.of κόροςκοῦρος1. girl; with reference to virginity, maiden; of maiden-Goddesses, however old, as the Eumenides; the Fates. 2. of a brideyoung wife3. with gen. of a pr. n. added, daughterνύμφαι κοῦραι Διόςκ. Διός, of Athene; Λητῴα κόρη, of Artemis; Γῆς τε καὶ Σκότου κόραι, i.e. the Furies. B. Κόρη, Dor. Κόρα (Cret. Κώρα), Ion. Κούρη, Arc.(?) Κόρϝα (provenance unknown), :—the Daughter (of Demeter), Persephone. (L&S p. 980, bottom of right column)

Kydra - See Kydrí.

Kydrí - (cydra; Gr. κυδρή, ΚΥΔΡΗ, fem. of κυδρόςKydrí is a title of Goddesses meaning gloriousillustriousnoble.
- Lexicon entry: (κυδρή is the fem. of:) κῡδρόςάόν, (κῦδος) = κυδάλιμος, in Hom. always in fem., as epith. of Hera and Leto, Διὸς κυδρὴ παράκοιτις; of Pallas; Δίκη; θεαί, of the Nymphs. (L&S p. 1005, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Lýteira kakóhn - (luteira kakon; Gr. λύτειρα κακῶν, ΛΥΤΕΙΡΑ ΚΑΚΩΝ) Athiná is the Lýteira (deliverer, fem. of λυτήρ) kakóhn (vice), the deliverer from vice and wickedness. (Orphic Hymn 32.13) 

Mákaira - (macaira; Gr. μάκαιρα, ΜΑΚΑΙΡΑ; fem. of μάκαρ.Athiná is mákairablessed. (Orphic Hymn 32.2)

Mægalóhnimos - (megalonimus; Gr. μεγαλώνυμος, ΜΕΓΑΛΩΝΥΜΟΣ) Athiná is mægalóhnimosthe mighty Goddesswith a great name, who gives glory to those whom she favors because of their virtue. (Orphic Hymn 32.3)

Menerva - Menerva is an Etruscan name for Athiná.

Menrva - Menrva is an Etruscan name for Athiná.

Minerva - Minerva is the Roman name for Athiná.

Mítær Tækhnón - (Meter Technon; Gr. μῆτερ τεχνῶν, ΜΗΤΕΡ ΤΕΧΝΩΝ) Athiná is Mítær Tækhnón, the (abundant)Mother of the Arts(Orphic Hymn 32.8)

Mounoyænís - (Mounogenes; Gr. μουνογενής, ΜΟΥΝΟΓΕΝΗΣ) Athiná is mounoyænísonly-begotten. (Orphic Hymn 32.1)

Nikíphoros Daimohn - (Nikephorus Daemon; Gr. Νικήφορος δαῖμον, ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΣ ΔΑΙΜΟΝ) Athiná is the Nikíphoros Daimohn, the Victorious Divinity. (Orphic Hymn 32.13) 

Obrimopatre - See Ovrimopátri.

Ovrimopátri - (obrimopatre; Gr. ὀβριμοπάτρη, ΟΒΡΙΜΟΠΑΤΡΗ) Lexicon entry: ὀβρῐμοπάτρη, daughter of a mighty sire, epith. of Athena, Il.5.747, al., Hes. Th.587. (L&S)

Omvrimóthymos - (ombrimothymos; Gr. ὀμβριμόθυμος, ΟΜΒΡΙΜΟΘΥΜΟΣ) Athiná is omvrimóthymosstrong of spirit. (Orphic Hymn 32.2)

Oplokharís - (oplochares; Gr. ὁπλοχαρής, ΟΠΛΟΧΑΡΗΣ) Athiná delights in armsoplokharís. (Orphic Hymn 32.6)

Oplophóros - (hoplophorus; Gr. πλοφόρος, ΟΠΛΟΦΟΡΟΣ. Adj.) Lexicon entry: ὁπλοφόροςονbearing armsarmed manwarriorsoldierII. = δορυφόρος2. a magistrate or religious official (Samothrace). III. epith. of Pallas. (L&S p. 1240, right column, within the entries beginning with ὁπλοφάγος, edited for simplicity.)

Ormásteira - (Gr. ὁρμάστειρα, ΟΡΜΑΣΤΕΙΡΑ) Athiná is ormásteirathe one who urges you forward(Orphic Hymn 32.9)

Pallás - (Gr. Παλλάς. ΠΑΛΛΑΣAthiná is known as Pallás (Orphic Hymn 32.1). In the Orphic Rhapsodic TheogonyAthiná is called Pallás from the palpitating (Gr. πάλλεσθαι from πάλεινπάλλω"shaking") heart of Zagréfs (Zagreus; Gr. Ζαγρεύς) which Athiná rescued after the Titans cut up the little God. (Orphic fragment 35). Nonetheless, the surname Pallás has been explained elsewhere in several ways: 
1) she who killed and flayed the giant Pallás
2) from πάλλω meaning "brandish" - she who brandishes the Aigís (Aegis; Gr. Αἰγίς). 
3) from πάλλαξ meaning a very young youth or a virgin. 
4) There is mythology that says the father of Athiná was someone named Pallás, who tried to violate her and whom she then killed. 
5) Other stories say that Pallás was a companion or sister to Athiná, who she killed by accident.

Pancrates - See Pangkratís.

Pangkratís - (pancrates; Gr. παγκρατής, ΠΑΓΚΡΑΤΗΣ. Adj.) Lexicon entry: παγκρᾰτήςές, (κράτοςall-powerful, epith. of Zeus; also of Μοῖρα; of Hera; of Apollo; of Athena. (L&S p. 1284, right column, within the entries beginning with παγκρατευτής, edited for simplicity.)

Philǽnthæos - (philentheos; Gr. φιλένθεος, ΦΙΛΕΝΘΕΟΣ) Athiná is philǽnthæosfilled with divine influence(Orphic Hymn 32.11)

Phygodǽmnios - (phygodemnios; Gr. φυγοδέμνιος, ΦΥΓΟΔΕΜΝΙΟΣ = 
φυγόλεκτρος.) Lexicon entry: φῠγοδέμνιοςον,shunning the marriage-bed, of Pallas, AP6.10 (Antip.). (L&S p. 1959, right column.) Cf. Phygólæktros.

Phygólæktros - (phygolectros; Gr. φυγόλεκτρος, ΦΥΓΟΛΕΚΤΡΟΣ = φυγοδέμνιος) Athiná is phygólæktros, she shuns the wedding bed, i.e. is a virgin. (Orphic Hymn 32.8) Cf. Phygodǽmnios.

Philopolæmikós - (Philopolemic; Gr. Φιλοπολεμικός, ΦΙΛΟΠΟΛΕΜΙΚΟΣ) Philopolæmikós, or rendered into English Philopolemic, is "an epithet of Minerva (ed. Athiná), signifying that she is a lover of war; just as she is also called philosophic, as being a lover of wisdom."  (TTS XV p. 10)

Polæmitókos - (polemetocus; Gr. πολεμητόκος, ΠΟΛΕΜΗΤΟΚΟΣ) Athiná is polæmitókosshe who brings forth(necessary) war(Orphic Hymn 32.10)

Polæmóklonos - (polemoclonus; Gr. πολεμόκλονος, ΠΟΛΕΜΟΚΛΟΝΟΣAthiná is polæmóklonos, she raises the clamor of war. (Orphic Hymn 32.2)

Polýllistos - (polullistos; Gr. πολύλλιστος, ΠΟΛΥΛΛΙΣΤΟΣ) Athiná is polýllistossought with many prayers. (Orphic Hymn 32.17)

Polývoulos - (Polybulus; Gr. Πολύβουλος, ΠΟΛΥΒΟΥΛΟΣ) 
- Lexicon entry: πολῠβουλοςονmuch-counsellingexceeding wiseἈθήνη Il.5.260. (L&S p. 1437, left column, within the entries beginning on the previous page with πολῦανώδῠνος, edited for simplicity.)

Ritós - (retos; Gr. ῥητός, ΡΗΤΟΣ) In the Orphic hymn to Athiná, the Goddess is described as ritósspoken ofknown,famous (in contrast to árritos, "unspoken," "ineffable," as stated just before in the hymn). (Orphic Hymn 32.3)

Sæmní - (semne; Gr. σεμνή, ΣΕΜΝΗ. σεμνός is masculine; σεμνή is feminine.Lexicon entry: σεμνόςήόν, (σέβομαιreveredaugustholyI. prop. of Gods, e.g. Demeter; Hecate; Thetis; Apollo; Poseidon; Pallas Athena; at Athens the Erinyes were specially the σεμναὶ θεαί2. of things divine. II. of human or half-human beings, reverendaugust2. of human things, auguststatelymajestic. (L&S p. 1591, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Semne - See Sæmní.

Sóhteira - (Soteira; Gr. σώτειρα, ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ) Lexicon entry: σώτειρα, fem. of σωτήρ2. freq. as epith. of protecting Goddesses, of Τύχα; of Θέμις; of Εὐνομία; of Athena; of Artemis; of Hecate; of Rhea, of Demeter; of Kore. (L&S p. 1751, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- Lexicon entry: σώτειρα, fem. of σωτήρῆρος, voc. σῶτερ: poet. σᾰωτήρ:— saviourdeliverer(L&S p. 1751, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Tritoyǽneia (Tritogeneia; Gr. Τριτογένεια). This is an epithet of the Goddess but the meaning of Tritoyǽneia is uncertain. By some accounts, Athiná was born near Lake Triton (Tritonis) in Livíï (Libya; Gr. Λιβύη), or the stream named Trítohn (Triton; Gr. Τρίτων) in Viohtía (Boeotia; Gr. Βοιωτία), hence "Triton-born." Other suggestions are "Third-born," or from the Athamanian dialect tritô meaning "head," thus, born from the head of Zefs.

Vasíleia - (Basileia; Gr. βασίλεια, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ) Athiná is a vasíleia, a queen(Orphic Hymn 32.17) 

Voulaia - (Bulaea; Gr. βουλαία, ΒΟΥΛΑΙΑ) Lexicon entry: βουλαῖος αον, (βουλή)
of the council, epith. of certain Gods as having statues in the Council Chamber τὴν Ἑστίαν ἐπώμοσε τὴν β. Aeschin.2.45; of Zeus and Athena; of Artemis; Themis. (L&S p. 324, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Xanthí - (xanthe; Gr. ξανθή, ΞΑΝΘΗ; fem. of ξανθός.) The hair of Goddess Athiná is said to be xanthíyellow or golden, like the grain.
- Lexicon entry: ξανθόςήόνyellow, of various shades, freq. with a tinge of red, brown, auburn: in Ep. mostly used offairgolden hair, of Achilles; of Odysseus; Μενέλαος; also of women, ξ. ἈγαμήδηἈριάδνη (but ξ. Δημήτηρ golden corn); so later, of Helen; of Athena and the Graces; of Harmonia. (L&S p. 1187, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Yimnásousa Kóri - (gymnasousa kore; Gr. γυμνάζουσα κόρη, ΓΥΜΝΑΖΟΥΣΑ ΚΟΡΗ) In (Orphic Hymn 32.7) Athiná is called the yimnásousa Kóri, the athletic maiden.



The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.



The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The 
Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).



PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as 

, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

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