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PERSEPHONE: THE EPITHETS


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EPITHETS OF PÆRSÆPHÓNI 
Abbreviations listed in the epithets can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME.

Ækáti - (Hecate or Hekati; Gr. Ἑκάτη, ΕΚΑΤΗ) her name in the infernal regions.  (CM p. 204)

Ænódios - (Enodius; Gr. νόδιος, ΕΝΟΔΙΟΣ) epith. of divinities, who had their statues by the way-side or at cross-roads, most freq. of Hecate, ενοδίας κάτης S.Fr.535.2; also of Persephoneνοδία θεός Id.Ant.1199; ενοδία θυγάτηρ ΔάματροςE.Ion 1048; δαίμων νοδία IG14.1390; and νοδία alone, Hp.Morb.Sacr. 1E.Hel.570AP6.199 (Antiphil.), IGIl.cc.;  νόδιος Paus. l. c., v.l. in Hp.l.c.; also of HermesTheoc.25.4, etc. (L&S p. 571, left column)

Agní - (hagni; Gr. ἁγνή, ΑΓΝΗ, fem. of ἁγνός.) Lexicon entry: ἁγνός, ή, όν, (cf. ἅγιος)  pure, chaste, holy: of places and things dedicated to Gods, hallowed2. of divine persons, chaste, pure, Hom., mostly of Artemis, χρυσόθρονος Ἄ. ἁ..; also ἁ. Περσεφόνεια; of Demeter; Apollo; Zeus; of the attributes of Gods. II. after Hom., of persons, undefiled, chaste2. pure from bloodguiltless3. generally, pureupright. (L&S p. 12, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Anthæsphória - (Anthesphoria; Gr. Ἀνθεσφόρια, ΑΝΘΕΣΦΟΡΙΑ) from her festival Anthesphoria in Sicily, in memory of her having been carried away while gathering flowers. (CM p. 203) The name derives from ἄνθη, which means blossoms or flowers.
- Lexicon entry: Ἀνθεσφόρια, τά, a festival in honour of Persephone, who was carried off while gathering flowersPoll.1.37.  (L&S p. 139, left column)

Azetia - (Gr.) venerable.  (CM p. 203)

Brimo - See Vrimóh.

Cabiria  - See Kaveiria.   

Carpophora - See Karpophóra.

Chthonia - See Khthónia.

Core - See Kóri.

Creirwy - her name among the British Druids.  (CM p. 203)

Dadoukhos - (Gr. δᾳδοῦχος, ΔΑΔΟΥΧΟΣ. Δᾳδοῦχος is a noun sg. masc. nom.; δᾳδοῦχε is a noun sg. masc. voc., but both forms used for Ἄρτεμις and Κόρη.) Lexicon entry: δᾴδουχος, (ἔχωtorch-bearer: but usu. of the holder of a hereditary office at the mysteries of the Eleusinian Demeterδ. Κόρης IG3.172.92. metaph., δᾳδοῦχοι τῆς σοφίας3. of the Sun. (L&S p. 364, right column, within the entries beginning with δᾳδουχέω, edited for simplicity.)

Dǽspina - (Despoina; Gr. Δέσποινα, ΔΕΣΠΟΙΝΑLexicon entry: δέσποινα, ἡ, fem. of δεσπότης, mistress, lady of the house, of Penelope, of Arete. 2. princess, queen3. coupled with the names of Goddesses, δ. ἙκάτηἌρτεμιςδ. νύμφη; esp. as a name of Persephone. 4. in Thessaly, simply, = γυνή. 5. at Rome, Empress. (L&S p. 880, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Dáeira - (Gr. Δάειρα, ΔΑΕΙΡΑ) Lexicon entry: Δάειρα [], Knowing one, epith. of Pærsæphoni at Athens: Δαῖρα: —Δαειρίτηςουher priest.  (L&S p. 365, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Dæois - (Gr. Δεοῖς, ΔΕΟΙΣ) from her mother Ceres (ed.  Dimítir ), who was called Deo (ed. Dióh; ed. Δηώ).  (CM p. 203)

Despoina - See Dǽspina.

Diæta - (Gr.) derived from the feasts celebrated on the tombs.  (CM p. 203) 

Dioíni - (Gr. Δηωΐνη, ΔΗΩΙΝΗ) Lexicon entry: Δηωΐνη, ἡ, daughter of DemeterPersephoneCall.Fr.48.  (L&S p. 388, right column, within the entries beginning with Δηώ.)

Enodios - See Ænódios.

Hell's Queen -  Homer Odyssey XI. 257.

Juno Inferna - (Roman) queen of the infernal regions, as Juno (ed. Ira or Hera) was of the celestial.  (CM p. 204)
- Juno Inferna or Infera, i.e. Proserpine.  (LD p. 1018, top left column carried over from previous page beginning with the entry for Juno [B] )

Karpophóra - (Carpophora; Gr. Καρποφόρα, ΚΑΡΠΟΦΟΡΑfruit-bearer; her name at Tegea, in Arcadia: this name was common to her and to Ceres (ed. Dimítir).  (CM p. 203) The name is derived from καρπός, which means "fruit."

Kaveiria  - (Cabiria; Gr. Καβείρια, ΚΑΒΕΙΡΙΑ) her name in Bœotia; from the Cabiri, the priest of Ceres (ed. Dimitir).  (CM p. 203)

Khthónia - (Chthonia; Gr. Χθόνια, ΧΘΟΝΙΑ) terrestrial, of the earth. The term khthonic is commonly misunderstood. Properly, it refers to the superficial, the terrestrial surface of the earthKhthonic does not refer to what is under the earth which is referred to by the term ypokhthonic (hypochthonic; Gr. ὑποχθόνιος). Consequently, when it is said that Pærsæphóni reigns with Ploutohn, she is the Queen of the Earth with all its magnificent verdure.

Kore - See Kóri.

Kóri - (Core or Kore; Gr. Κόρη, ΚΟΡΗ) Pærsæphóni is the girl or maiden; she is also the daughter...of Dimítir (Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ). Kóri means all these things. Kóri is the one who comes to help, the God who returns to earth to assist mankind and all the creation; this is the Mystical meaning of Kóri.
Lexicon entry: κόρη, orig. κόρϝα, with κόρη even in Att. Prose and Trag. dialogue; Dor. and Aeol. κόρα, and in the pr. n.: κούρα: Dor. also κώρα:—fem.of κόροςκοῦρος1. girl; with reference to virginity, maiden; of maiden-Goddesses, however old, as the Eumenides; the Fates. 2. of a brideyoung wife3. with gen. of a pr. n. added, daughterνύμφαι κοῦραι Διόςκ. Διός, of Athene; Λητῴα κόρη, of Artemis; Γῆς τε καὶ Σκότου κόραι, i.e. the Furies. B. Κόρη, Dor. Κόρα (Cret. Κώρα), Ion. Κούρη, Arc.(?) Κόρϝα (provenance unknown), :—the Daughter (of Demeter), Persephone. (L&S p. 980, bottom of right column)

Lǽptynis - (Leptynis; Gr. Λέπτῡνις, ΛΕΠΤΥΝΙΣ) Lexicon entry: Λέπτῡνις, name for Persephone, Lyc.49. (L&S p. 1040, left column.)

Leptynis - See Lǽptynis.

Libitina - (Latin) presiding over funerals.  (CM p. 204)
- Editor's note: I question that the word Libitina was used to refer to Persephone by the Romans. LD defines it thus, with no mention of ProserpineLibitina, the Goddess of corpses, in whose temple everything pertaining to burials was sold or hired out, and where the registers of deaths were keptII. Transf. A. The requisites for burial, the apparatus of funerals.  2. Esp. a bier, a funeral pile.  3. The undertaker's business, the disposal of corpsesB. Death (poet).  (LD p. 1060, middle column)

Llywy - (See Creirwy, above)  (CM p. 204).

Mægála Thæá - (Megala Thea; Gr. Μεγάλα Θεά, ΜΕΓΑΛΑ ΘΕΑ) Great Goddess; μέγᾰς (great, big) + Θεά (Goddess).
Goddess: in dual, of Demeter and Persephone. (L&S p. 786; bottom of left column within the entry beginning with θεά, edited for simplicity)

Mákaira - (Gr. Μάκαιρα, ΜΑΚΑΙΡΑ. Etym. μάκαρMákaira is an epithet of Pærsæphóni meaning blessed, happy.

Megala Thea - See Mægála Thæá

Nyktipólos - (Gr. Νυκτιπόλος, ΝΥΚΤΙΠΟΛΟΣroaming, by night, Βάκχαι E.Ion718 (lyr.); φοδοι, of Persephone, ib.1049 (lyr.) ; epith. of Zagreus, Id.Fr.472.11 (anap.); of Artemis, Corn.ND 34: as Subst., coupled with Μάγοι, Βάκχοι, Λναι, Heraclit.14. (L&S p. 1184, left column, top of the page, within the entries beginning from the previous page, starting with νυκτῐ-πᾰταιπλάγιος) It should be understood that night in ancient Greek mythology is one of the great keys; night refers to an area of which is unknown and difficult to be understood by ordinary mortals. Night, as a key, does not mean actual darkness, since all the Gods are beings of great enlightenment, but rather it refers to a hidden nature.

Obrimo - See Óvrimo.

Óvrimo - (Obrimo; Gr. Ὄβρῖμο, ΟΒΡΙΜΟ) strong, or impetuous.  (CM p. 204)

Pærsǽphassa - (Persephassa; Gr. Περσέφασσα, ΠΕΡΣΕΦΑΣΣΑPærsæphóni.

Pærsæphóni - (Persephone; Gr. Περσεφόνη, ΠΕΡΣΕΦΟΝΗ. Pronounced: payr-say-FOH'-nee) her general appellation among the Greeks.  (CM p. 204)

Pærsæphónia - (Persephonia; Gr. Περσεφόνεια, ΠΕΡΣΕΦΟΝΕΙΑ) Pærsæphóni.

Pamvasíleia - (pambasileia; Gr. παμβασίλεια, ΠΑΜΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ) Lexicon entry: παμβᾰσῐλειᾰqueen of allall-powerful queen; of Persephone. (L&S p. 1294, left column, within the entries beginning with παμβασιλεία [accent on the penultimate syllable and an entirely different word], edited for simplicity.)

Persephassa - See Pærsǽphassa.

Persephone - See Pærsæphóni.

Persephonia - See Pærsæphónia

Phærrǽphatta - (Pherrephatta or Pherephata; Gr. Φερρέφαττα, ΦΕΡΡΕΦΑΤΤΑ. Pronounced: fayr-RAY'-fah-tah.Pærsæphóni.
fruit-bearing; her name at Cyzicum.  (CM p. 204)
- "With respect to the names Φερρεϕαττα (ed. Phærræphatta), or Proserpine, and Apollo, many are terrified at them, through unskilfulness as it appears in the rectitude of names.  And indeed, changing the first of these names, they consider Φερσεϕονη (ed. Phærsæphoni); and this appears to them as something terrible and dire.  But the other name, Φερρεϕαττα, signifies that this Goddess is wise: for that which is able to touch upon, handle, and pursue things which are borne along, will be wisdom.  This Goddess therefore may, with great propriety, be named Φερεπαϕα (ed. Phæræpapha), or something of this kind, on account of her wisdom, and contact of that which is borne along: and hence the wise Αιδης (Aithis = Hades), Pluto, associates with her, because of these characteristics of her nature.  But men of the present times neglect this name, valuing good pronunciation more than truth; and on this account they call her Φερρεϕαττα."  (Plato Kratylus 404c-d; trans. Thomas Taylor 1804; found here in the 1996 Prometheus Trust edition of The Works of Plato, vol. V, Published in England by Antony Rowe, Chippenham, Wiltshire; TTS XIII, p. 485)

Phærsǽphassa - (Phersephassa; Gr. Φερσέφασσα, ΦΕΡΣΕΦΑΣΣΑ) Pærsæphóni.

Phærsǽphatta - (Phersephatta; Gr. Φερσέφαττα, ΦΕΡΣΕΦΑΤΤΑ) Pærsæphóni.

Phærsæphóni - (Pheresephone; Gr. Φερσεφόνη, ΦΕΡΣΕΦΟΝΗ) Pærsæphóni.

Pherephata - See Phærrǽphatta.

Pheresephone - See Phærsæphóni.

Pherrephatta - See Phærrǽphatta.

Phersephassa - See Phærsǽphassa.

Phersephatta - See Phærsǽphatta.

Phersipnai - Etruscan name for Pærsæphóni.

Phersipnei - Etruscan name for Pærsæphóni.

Phlea - (Gr.) abounding in fruits; her name among the Lacedæmonians.  (CM p. 204)

Pótnia - (Gr. πότνια, ΠΟΤΝΙΑ. Noun.) Lexicon entry: πότνια, poet. title of honour, used chiefly in addressing females, whether Goddesses or women: as Subst., = δέσποιναmistressqueen (v. sub fin.), πότνια θηρῶν (nom.) queen of wild beasts, of Artemis; τὰν ἐρώτων πότνιαν, of Aphrodite. 2. in pl. of the Eumenides, ὦ πότνιαι δεινῶπες; of Demeter and Kore. 3. as Adj., reveredaugust, in Hom. of Hebe, Enyo, Calypso, Circe; most freq. of Hera; in Hes. of Hera, Tethys, and Peitho; Νίκη; esp. in invocation; μᾶτερ π., addressed to Earth. (L&S p. 1455, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Praxidíki - (Praxidice; Gr. Πραξῐδίκη, ΠΡΑΞΙΔΙΚΗ) Lexicon entry: Πραξῐδίκη [δῐ], she who exacts penalties, a Goddess, represented with a bare head, to whom the heads of victims were offered, Orph. A.31Paus.3.22.2II. = ΠερσεφόνηOrph.H.29.5.  (L&S p. 1459, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Profunda Juno - (see Juno Inferna, above)  (CM p. 204)

Prohtogóni - (Protogone; Gr. Πρωτογόνη, ΠΡΩΤΟΓΟΝΗ. Adjective.) Lexicon entry: (Πρωτογόνη is the feminine of:) πρωτόγονοςον, also ηον:—first-bornfirstling3. epith. of Gods, Dam.Pr.123 bis; so Πρωτογόνη, name of Persephone, Paus. l.c. (L&S p. 1545, left column, within the entries beginning with πρωτόᾰλος from the previous page, edited for simplicity.)

Proserpina [Lat.] or Proserpine [Anglicized] - (Roman) Latinized form of Pærsæphóni (Persephone). 
Proserpina, ae, f. = Περσεφόνη. Proserpine, daughter of Ceres (ed. Dimitir, Demeter) and Jupiter (ed. Zef, Zeus), and wife of Pluto, who seized her as she was gathering flowers in Sicily, and carried her away to the infernal regionsII. Poet, for the Lower World. (LD p. 1475, right column)

Proserpine - See Proserpina.

Proserpnai - Etruscan name for Pærsæphóni.

Protogone - See Prohtogóni.

Pyrphóros - (Gr. Πυρφόρος, ΠΥΡΦΟΡΟΣ) epith. of several divinities, as of Zeus in reference to his lightnings, of Demeter, prob. in reference to the torches used by her worshippers; similarly of Demeter and Persephone; of Eros. 2.  bearer of sacred fire in the worship of Asclepius; of the Syrian Goddess. (L&S, edited for simplicity)

Sóhteira - (Soteira; Gr. σώτειρα, ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ) Lexicon entry: σώτειρα, fem. of σωτήρ2. freq. as epith. of protecting Goddesses, of Τύχα; of Θέμις; of Εὐνομία; of Athena; of Artemis; of Hecate; of Rhea, of Demeter; of Kore. (L&S p. 1751, left column, edited for simplicity.)
- Lexicon entry: σώτειρα, fem. of σωτήρῆρος, voc. σῶτερ: poet. σᾰωτήρ:— saviourdeliverer(L&S p. 1751, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Stygian Jove, Queen of - Virgil Aeneid VI. 207.
- likely from Stygialis, e, v. Styx.  (LD p. 1770, middle column)

Tergemina - (Lat.) three-formed; under these appellations Proserpine is often confounded with Diana. (See Hor. Ode 22. b. iii.)  (CM p, 204)
tergeminus, a, um, v. trigeminus. (LD p. 1858, center column)  trigeminusthree born at a birthII. threefold, triple, tri-form.  (LD p. 1899, center column)

Thæogamía - (Theogamia; Gr.Θεογαμία, ΘΕΟΓΑΜΙΑ.  Pronounced: thay-oh-gah-MEE'-ah.
- in allusion to her marriage to the God Pluto.  (CM p. 204)
- Lexicon entry: θεο-γᾰμία, ἡ, marriage of Gods.  (L&S p. 789; right column, within the entries beginning with θεό-βουλος)

Theogamia - See Thæogamía.

Triformis - (Lat.) three-formed; under these appellations Proserpine is often confounded with Diana.  (See Hor. Ode 22. b. iii.)  (CM p, 204)
having three forms, shapes, or natures; threefold, triple, triform (poet.): Chimaera, Hor. C. 1, 27, 23: canis, i.e. Cerberus, Sen. Herc. Oet. 1202: Geryon, id. Agam. 841: diva, i.e. Diana, who was also Luna and Hecate, Hor. C. 3, 22, 4; called also triformis dea, Ov. M. 7, 94: mundus, because composed of air, earth, and water, id. ib. 15, 859.  (LD p. 1899, bottom of first column)

Vrimóh - (Brimo; Gr. Βριμώ, ΒΡΙΜΩVrimóh is an epithet of Ækáti (Hecate; Gr. Ἑκάτη) [Ἀπολλώνιος ῬόδιοςἈργοναυτικά 3.861] or Pærsæphoni (Persephone; Gr. Περσεφόνη) [Orphic frag. 31] and Dimítir (Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ) [Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς Προτρεπτικὸς πρὸς Ἕλληνας 2.13]. The epithet is usually interpreted as meaning something like the terrible one or the angry one, but perhaps it is actually derived from βριμάζωroaring like a lion.
- Lexicon entry: βρῑμώοῦς, epith. of Hecate and Persephone, the Terrible one, A.R.3.861, Orph.Fr.31, Luc.Nec.20. ( L&S p. 330, right column; within the entries beginning with βρῑμάζω.)


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς).



PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

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