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ÍLIOS - HELIOS - ΗΛΙΟΣ


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Ílios - (Helios, HeliusÊelios; Latin: Sol; Gr. Ἥλιος, ΗΛΙΟΣ. Pronounced EE-lee-ohs. In the epic dialect his name is IǽliosGr. Ἠέλιος, which is why sometimes you will see his name spelled Aelios or Ǽlios 

Ílios is a Titan deity, the sun itself, the God of the Sun, and as such is one of the most important deities in Ællinismόs (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion.  

According to Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) in Thæogonía (Theogonia; Gr. Θεογονία) 371, Ílios is the son of Titans; Ypæríohn (Hyperion; Gr. Ὑπερίων) is his father, for which he is sometimes called Ypærionídis (Hyperionides; Gr. Ὑπεριονίδης); his mother is Theia (Theia; Gr. Θεία). Ílios has numerous offspring both divine (such as the Όrai [Horai; Gr. Ὧραι], the Khǽritæs [Charities; Gr. Χάριτες]Pasipháï [Pasiphae; Gr. Πασιφάη], and Sælíni [Selene; Gr. Σελήνη]) and mortal (such as Aiïtis [Aeetes; Gr. Αἰήτης] and Phaǽthohn [Phaethon; Gr. Φαέθων]).

Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων) has dominion over Ílios (as Artæmis rules over Sælinithe moon), but Ílios is not Apollohn, as many people think. The confusion started in antiquity with such authors as Ovid who would depict the two deities as if they were the same. The popularity of Ovid in the Medieval world solidified this association. Indeed, there is a tie between the Gods, but they are two entirely separate beings.

In mythology, Ílios is depicted as emerging in the east every morning from his golden palace in the river Okæanόs (Oceanus; Gr. Ὠκεανός) and driving a four-horsed chariot through the sky to his destination in the west, the Æspærídæs (Hesperides, Evenings; Gr. Ἑσπερίδες). All through the night, Ílios floated in a golden vessel through the northern stream of Okæanόs where he would arrive in the east in time to begin his journey again through the sky.

Ílios is said to see everything. For example, when Pærsæphóni (Persephone; Gr. Περσεφόνη) was abducted by Ploutohn (Pluto; Gr. Πλούτων), this act, which is etiological root of the Ælefsínia Mystíria (Eleusinian Mysteries; Gr. Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια), was observed by Ílios, who then related his knowledge to Dimítir (Demeter; Gr. Δημήτηρ), Pærsæphóni's mother.

Th
e Colossus of Rhodes, one of the so-called wonders of the ancient world, was a gigantic statue of Ílios.

From Porphýrios (Porphyry; Gr. Πορφύριος):

"...they supposed a power of this kind to belong to the sun and called it Apollo, from the pulsation of his beams. There are also nine Muses singing to his lyre, which are the sublunar sphere, and seven spheres of the planets, and one of the fixed stars. And they crowned him with laurel, partly because the plant is full of fire, and therefore hated by daemons; and partly because it crackles in burning, to represent the god's prophetic art. 

"But inasmuch as the sun wards off the evils of the earth, they called him Heracles (from his clashing against the air) in passing from east to west. And they invented fables of his performing twelve labours, as the symbol of the division of the signs of the zodiac in heaven; and they arrayed him with a club and a lion's skin, the one as an indication of his uneven motion, and the other representative of his strength in "Leo" the sign of the zodiac. 

"Of the sun's healing power Asclepius is the symbol, and to him they have given the staff as a sign of the support and rest of the sick, and the serpent is wound round it, as significant of his preservation of body and soul: for the animal is most full of spirit, and shuffles off the weakness of the body. It seems also to have a great faculty for healing: for it found the remedy for giving clear sight, and is said in a legend to know a certain plant which restores life. 

"But the fiery power of his revolving and circling motion, whereby he ripens the crops, is called Dionysus, not in the same sense as the power which produces the juicy fruits, but either from the sun's rotation, or from his completing his orbit in the heaven. And whereas he revolves round the cosmical seasons and is the maker of "times and tides," the sun is on this account called Horus. 

"Of his power over agriculture, whereon depend the gifts of wealth, the symbol is Pluto. He has, however, equally the power of destroying, on which account they make Sarapis share the temple of Pluto: and the purple tunic they make the symbol of the light that has sunk beneath the earth, and the sceptre broken at the top that of his power below, and the posture of the hand the symbol of his departure into the unseen world. 

"Cerberus is represented with three heads, because the positions of the sun above the earth are three-rising, midday, and setting."  (Porphýrios On Images, Fragment 8, excerpt, translated by Edwin Hamilton Gifford)

 

"The sun they indicate sometimes by a man embarked on a ship, the ship set on a crocodile. And the ship indicates the sun's motion in a liquid element: the crocodile potable water in which the sun travels. The figure of the sun thus signified that his revolution takes place through air that is liquid and sweet."   (Porphýrios On Images, Fragment 10, excerpt, translated by Edwin Hamilton Gifford) 


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.


EPITHETS (under construction)

Æpóptis - (epoptes; Gr. ἐπόπτης, ΕΠΟΠΤΗΣ. Noun.) Lexicon entry: ἐπόπτηςου, (ἐπόψομαιoverseerwatcher, esp. of a God; title of Poseidon; of the Sun. (L&S p. 676, left column, within the entries beginning with ἐποπτεία, edited for simplicity.)

Antavyís - (Antauges; Gr. Ἀνταυγής, ΑΝΤΑΥΓΗΣAntavyís is a epithet of Phanis meaning he who reflects lightsparklingAntavyís is also an epithet of Ælios, the Sun.
- L
exicon entry: ἀνταυγής, ές, reflecting lightsparkling, κάλλος Sannyr.1D.; κόραι Ar.Th.902; χιών D.S.17.82: pr. n. Ἀνταύγης, of the sun, Orph.Fr.237.  (L&S p.150 right column, within the entries beginning ἀνταυγάζω)

Dadoukhos - (Gr. δᾳδοῦχος, ΔΑΔΟΥΧΟΣ) Lexicon entry: δᾴδουχος, (ἔχωtorch-bearer: but usu. of the holder of a hereditary office at the mysteries of the Eleusinian Demeterδ. Κόρης IG3.172.92. metaph., δᾳδοῦχοι τῆς σοφίας3. of the Sun. (L&S p. 364, right column, within the entries beginning with δᾳδουχέω, edited for simplicity.)

Epoptes - See Æpóptis.

Paián - (Paeon; Gr. Παιάν, ΠΑΙΑΝ. Pronounced pay-AHN.) Lexicon entry: Παιάνᾶνος, Ep. Παιήωνονος, Att., Ion. Παιώνῶνος (v. sub fin.), Aeol. ΠάωνονοςPaean or Paeon, the physician of the Gods. 2. title of Apollo; also of other Gods, Ἀσκληπιὸς; of Zeus at Rhodes; of Dionysus; of Helios. 3. physician, healerb. saviour, deliverer. II. choral song, addressed to Apollo or Artemis, in thanksgiving for deliverance from evil; addressed to other Gods, as to Poseidon after an earthquake. 2. song of triumph after victory. 3. any solemn song or chant, esp. on beginning an undertaking. (L&S, abbreviated for clarity)


F
estival of the birth of Ilios: ILIOUYÆNNA


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia; Gr. Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara; Gr. κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo; Gr. Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς). 



PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this website, you will find fascinating stories about our Gods. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally. A literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.


The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

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