NYX - ΝΥΞ

The Mystical Darkness

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Nyx (Gr. Νύξ, ΝΥΞ.  Pronounced: neeks)

Generalities concerning Nyx

Nyx is one of the greatest deities of mystical Orphism and Ællînismόs (Hellênismos, Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion. Nyx is a field of reality, a field in the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος), which cannot be understood. Therefore in mythology, Nyx is called Night. The "darkness" of Night has nothing to do with anything sinister, but, rather, refers to her character as being unknown or hidden. It is generally said of the divine that "there is nothing dark" in the Gods...they are beings of great light...so, we do not use darkness to symbolize them, but Nyx is an exception. In this case, darkness does not symbolize "evil" or delusion, but here darkness simply means "unknown." Similarly, the Goddess Ækáti (Hecate, Ἑκάτη) is also associated with darkness, and this is often misunderstood to mean evil, but Ækáti, like all the Gods, is a being of great light. Her parents are stars, which are actually suns, great bodies of light. She abounds in virtue, and her darkness, like that of Nyx, refers to a field of reality which is unknown or hidden, not evil. Similarly, Nyx is known by the epithet astæroómmatos (asteroömmatus, ἀστεροόμματος), "with eyes of stars," for there is light within her "darkness" as the evening sky is filled with stars.

Like Phánîs (Phanês, Φάνης), Nyx is not a personal deity; in other words, she has no consciousness. The mythology describes her dwelling in a dark Cave (ἄντρον or σπέος). You cannot see in the dark. The darkness of the Cave of Nyx is symbolic of a field of reality in which the potential of everything exists, but has yet to become manifest. 

Nyx is called the nurse (τροφός) of the Gods for she holds a significant position in nurturing the Six Kings, of which she is the second. Although there is not a great deal of mythology concerning her reign as one of these Kings, Nyx plays pivotal roles in the mythology of those who follow her.


Nyx and 
Phánîs

The First-Born God Phánîs produces the Kózmos (Cosmos, Κόσμος) from his seat within the Cave of Nyx
[1]  who is described in the Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony as his daughter [2]. Phánîs is "he who reveals," like light. Phánîs goes into the Cave of Nyx and reveals what pre-exists, thus "creating" or revealing the universe thus making possible what is revealed to develop to its potential.


The reign of Nyx

Phánîs created a mighty scepter which he gave to Nyx [3] and he bestowed upon her the gift of prophecy [4]


Nyx and Ouranós

Nyx gave the scepter to her son Ouranós (Uranus or Sky, Οὐρανός[5]Ouranós married Yaia (Gaia or Earth, Γαῖα), this being the first marriage. Yaia now produced children by Ouranós, the Kýklôpæs (Cyclôpes, Κύκλωπες) and Ækatónkheiræs (Hekatonkheires = "hundred-handed-ones,"  Ἑκατόνχειρες). These children were hated by their father who pushed them deep into the recesses of earth. This act angered Yaia who then secretly gave birth to the Titánæs (Titans, Τιτᾶνες). The greatest of the Titans, Krónos (Cronus, Κρόνος), was cherished and reared by Nyx [6]Krónos became the leader of the TitánæsYaia pleaded with her sons to conspire against Ouranós, and when he came to lie with her, Krónos and his brothers bound and castrated him [7].


Nyx and Krónos

Krónos now held the generative power and was king along with his sister Rǽa (Rhea, Ῥέα). Krónos received a prophecy that one of his progeny will usurp him. To prevent the prophecy to come to fruition, Krónos began swallowing his children. When mighty Zefs (Ζεὺς) was born, his mother became Dîmítîr (Dêmêtêr, Δημήτηρ[8]. Krónos was deceived by Dîmítîr, who gave him a rock wrapped in swaddling cloth, and who told him it was the newborn son Zefs. Krónos swallowed the rock and this caused all the children to be vomited up [9]. As this was taking place, Zefs was rushed to the Cave of Nyx. 

When Zefs grew in strength he conferred with Nyx as to how to proceed. She instructed him to inebriate Krónos with honey and bind him in the oaken forest [10].  Zefs informed his mother of the oracles Nyx had given him. Dîmítîr then held a great feast for Krónos and when he became drunk with honey he wandered off into the oaken wood where he was bound and castrated by Zefs, just as Krónos had done to his own father [11].


Nyx and Zefs

Zefs now returned to the Cave of Nyx and sought her advice as to how to proceed [12]. She encouraged him to surround the entire Kózmos in the Aithír (Aethêr, Αἰθήρ) [13]. Zefs swallowed Irikæpaios (Ericapaeus, Ἠρικεπαῖος), the First-born, and created all things in the universe anew [14]. Zefs is now the king of the Kózmos forever and he rules in conjunction with his sister Íra (Hêra, Ήρα) who is his equal [15].

Nyx is the second Vasiléfs

Nyx is a constituent of the evolutionary progression of Aithír known as the dynasty of the Six Vasileis (Basileis = Kings, Βασιλεῖς [Βασιλεύς is singular]): Phanîs, Nyx, Ouranos, KronosZefs, and Dionysos. Please visit this page for the mythology of the Six Kings: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.

The Orphic Hymn to Nyx 
[16]

3. Νυκτός, θυμίαμα δαλούς.

Νύκτα θεῶν γενέτειραν ἀείσομαι ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν.
Νὺξ γένεσις πάντων, ἣν καὶ Κύπριν καλέσωμεν
κλῦθι, μάκαιρα θεά, κυαναυγής, ἀστεροφεγγής,
ἡσυχίῃι χαίρουσα καὶ ἠρεμίῃι πολυύπνωι,
εὐφροσύνη, τερπνή, φιλοπάννυχε, μῆτερ ὀνείρων,
ληθομέριμν' ἀγαθή τε πόνων ἀνάπαυσιν ἔχουσα,
ὑπνοδότειρα, φίλη πάντων, ἐλάσιππε, νυχαυγής,
ἡμιτελής, χθονία ἠδ' οὐρανία πάλιν αὐτή,
ἐγκυκλία, παίκτειρα διώγμασιν ἠεροφοίτοις,
ἣ φάος ἐκπέμπεις ὑπὸ νέρτερα καὶ πάλι φεύγεις
εἰς Ἀίδην δεινὴ γὰρ ἀνάγκη πάντα κρατύνει.
νῦν δε, μάκαιρα, (καλ)ῶ, πολυόλβιε, πᾶσι ποθεινή,
εὐάντητε, κλύουσα ἱκετηρίδα φωνὴν
ἔλθοις εὐμενέουσα, φόβους δ' ἀπόπε
μπε νυχαυγεῖς.

Nyx [16]

Night, parent Goddess, source of sweet repose, 
From whom at first both Gods and men arose, 
Hear, blessed Venus, deck'd with starry light, 
In sleep's deep silence dwelling Ebon night! 
Dreams and soft case attend thy dusky train, 
Pleas'd with the length'ned gloom and feastful strain. 
Dissolving anxious care, the friend of Mirth, 
With darkling coursers riding round the earth. 
Goddess of phantoms and of shadowy play, 
Whose drowsy pow'r divides the nat'ral day: 
By Fate's decree you constant send the light 
To deepest hell, remote from mortal sight; 
For dire Necessity which nought withstands, 
Invests the world with adamantine bands. 
Be present, Goddess, to thy suppliant's pray'r, 
Desir'd by all, whom all alike revere, 
Blessed, benevolent, with friendly aid 
Dispell the fears of Twilight's dreadful shade. 


EPITHETS OF NYX (under construction)

Astæroómmatos - (asteroömmatus; Gr. ἀστεροόμματος, ΑΣΤΕΡΟΟΜΜΑΤΟΣ. Adjective.) Nyx (Νύξ) is the Greek word for "night" and as the night sky is filled with stars, Nyx is said to be star-eyed.  Orph.H.34.13. 

Nurse of the Gods - See Trophós.

Trophós - (Gr. τροφός, ΤΡΟΦΟΣ. Noun.) Nyx is called the Nurse (τροφός) of the Gods. Orphic fragment 106:

θεῶν γὰρ τροφὸς ἀμβροσίη Νὺξ λέγεται

For the nurse of the Gods is said to be amvrosial (ambrosial) Nyx (trans. by the author)


NOTES: 

[1] Orphic frag. 97. (84) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος (I 312, 5 Diehl):

ταῦτα ρατὴρ ποίησε κατὰ σπέος (cave) ἠεροειδές.

"These the Father produced down in the murky cave." (trans. by the author)

Orphic literature talks about three Nights: Orphic frag. 99. (60) σχόλιον Ἑρμείου επί Φαίδρου Πλάτωνος 247d p. 154, 15 Couvr.:

τριῶν γὰρ παραδεδομένων Νυκτῶν παρ’ Ὀρφεῖ, τῆς μὲν ἐν ἑαυτῷ μενούσης τῆς πρώτης, τῆς δὲ τρίτης ἔξω προελθούσης, τῆς δὲ μέσης τούτων, τὴν μὲν πρώτην μαντεύειν φησίν, ὅ ἐστι τῆς ἐπιστήμης, τὴν δὲ μέσην αἰδοίαν καλεῖ, ὅ ἐστι τῆς σωφροσύνης, τὴν δὲ τρίτην ἀποτίκτειν φησὶ τὴν Δικαιοσύνην.

“...the same writer (Ἑρμείας) tells us that of the three Nights, Orpheus ascribes to the first the gift of prophecy, but the middle [Night] he calls humility, and the third, he says, gave birth to righteousness.” (Orpheus by G. R. S. Mead, 1895.)


[2] Orphic frag. 98. (73) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 31a (I 450, 22 Diehl):

ὁ δέ γε Φάνης μόνος τε πρόεισι καὶ ὁ αὐτὸς ἀνυμνεῖται θῆλυς καὶ  γενέτωρ (fr. 81), 
παράγει δὲ τὰς Νύκτας, καὶ τῆι μέσηι σύνεστιν ὡς πατήρ·

αὐτὸς ἑῆς γὰρ παιδὸς ἀφείλετο κούριον ἄνθος.

“For he himself (Φάνηςdespoiled the youthful flower of his daughter.” (trans. by the author)
 
[3] Orphic frag. 101. (86) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 396b (54, 21 Pasqu.):

σκῆπτρον δ' ἀριδείκετον εἷο χέρεσσιν θῆκε θεᾶς Νυκτὸς ἑκούσης ὑποδέχεται τὴν ἐπικράτειαν τῶν ὅλων.

"He laid his glorious staff in the hands of the Goddess Nyx, that she undertake the entire dominion." (trans. by the author)

Orphic frag. 102. (87) σχόλιον Ἀλεξάνδρου του Ἀφροδισιεύς επί τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά Ἀριστοτέλους N 4 p. 1091 b 4 (821, 19 Hayd.):

μεθ' ὃν (sc. Ἠρικεπαῖον fr. 107) Νύξ· σκῆπτρον ἔχουσ' ἐν χερσὶν ἀριπρεπὲς Ἠρικεπαίου.

“...holding in her (Νύξ) hands the brilliant scepter of Irikæpaios (who is Phánis).” (trans. by the author)
 
Orphic frag. 107. (85) The local Gods that are extantσχόλιον Ἀλεξάνδρου του Ἀφροδισιεύς επί τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά Ἀριστοτέλους. N 1091 b 4 (821, 5 Hayd.): 

....πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ 'Βασίλευσε περίκλυτος Ἠρικεπαῖος' (fr. 108) φησὶν ἡ ποίησις, μεθ' ὃν Νὺξ 'σκῆπτρον ἔχους' ἐν χερσὶν ἀριπρεπὲς Ἠρικεπαίου (fr. 102) μεθ' ἣν Οὑρανός, 'ὃς πρώτος βασίλευσε θεῶν μετὰ μητέρα Νύκτα (fr. 111) 

“ First indeed is the 'reign of glorious Irikæpaios,' as declared in the poem, with Nyx holding in her hand the brilliant scepter of Irikæpaios, and then Ouranós, the first of the Gods to reign after Nyx." (trans. by the author)

[4] Orphic frag. 103. (88) σχόλιον Ἑρμείου επί Φαίδρου Πλάτωνος 247c p. 147, 20 Couvr.

μαντοσύνην δ' οἱ δῶκεν ἔχειν ἀψευδέα πάντηι. καὶ αὕτη λέγεται μαντεύειν τοῖς θεοῖς.

"He granted that she (Νύξ) have the gift of prophecy true in every way. And this recounted by oracle to the Gods." (trans. by the author)

[5] Orphic frag. 111. (85) σχόλιον Ἀλεξάνδρου του Ἀφροδισιεύς επί τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά Ἀριστοτέλους. N 1091 b 4 (821, 19 Hayd.):

ὃς πρῶτος βασίλευσε θεῶν μετὰ Νύκτα

“Who (Οὐρανόςfirst reigned over the Gods after Nyx.” (trans. by the author)

[6] Orphic frag. 129. (99) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 396b. c p. 62, 3 Pasqu.: 

ἐκ πάντων δὲ Κρόνον Νὺξ ἔτρεφεν ἠδ' ἀτίταλλεν.

"But of them all, Nyx nursed and cared for Krónos." (trans. by the author) 

[7] Orphic frag. 58. (41) Πρεσβεία περί των Χριστιανών Ἀθηναγόρου 20 p.22, 10 Schw.:

Κρόνος μὲν ὡς ἐξέτεμεν τὰ αἰδοῖα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κατέρριψεν αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος καὶ ὡς ἐτεκνοκτόνει καταπίνων τῶν παίδων τοὺς ἄρσενας,

"how Kronos, for instance, mutilated his father, and hurled him down from his chariot, and how he murdered his children, and swallowed the males of them;" (trans. Rev. B. P. Pratten, 1885.)

[8] Orphic frag. 145. (106. 128) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Κρατύλου Πλάτωνος 403e, (90, 28 Pasqu.):

Ῥείη τὸ πρὶν ἐοῦσα, ἐπεὶ Διὸς ἔπλετο μήτηρ, Δημήτηρ γέγονε.

“Formerly she was Rhea, but when she came to be the mother of Zefs (Ζεὺς), she became Dîmítîr (Δημήτηρ).” (trans. by the author)

[9] Orphic frag. 56b. Tyrannius Rufinus’ trans. of Recognitiones (pseudo-Clement) X 19 (Ed. Basil. 156, Migne PG 1, 1429) (The author of the text is Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς or pseudo-Clement, from a Latin translation by Rufinus.):

Sed cum ex uteri imminutione intellexisset pater editum partum, expetebat ad devorandum; tune Rhea lapidem ei offerens magnum, huac genui, inquit. At ille accipiens absorbuit, et lapis devoratus eos quos primo absorbuerat filios, trusit et coegit exire. Primus ergo procedens descendit Orcus, et inferiora, hoc est inferna occupat loca. Secundus utpote illo superior super aquas detruditur, is quem Neptunum vocant. Tertius qui arte matris Rheae superfuit, ab ipsa caprae superpositus in coelum emissus est.

"But when he understood from the lessening of her belly that her child was born, he demanded it, that he might devour it; then Rhea presented him with a large stone, and told him that that was what she had brought forth. And he took it, and swallowed it; and the stone, when it was devoured, pushed and drove forth those sons whom he had formerly swallowed. Therefore Orcus (Hades, ᾍδης), coming forth first, descended, and occupies the lower, that is, the infernal regions. The second, being above him...he whom they call Neptune (Ποσειδῶν), is thrust forth upon the waters. The third (Ζεὺς), who survived by the artifice of his mother Rhea, she put upon a she-goat and sent into heaven.” (trans. Rev. Thomas Smith, 1867. Anti-Nicene Fathers.)

[10] Orphic frag. 154. (114) Περί του εν Ὀδυσσεία τῶν νυμφών ἄντρου Πορφυρίου. 16 p. 67, 21 Nauck

εὖτ' ἂν δή μιν ἴδηαι ὑπὸ δρυσὶν ὑψικόμοισιν 
ἔργοισιν μεθύοντα μελισσάων ἐριβόμβων,
Αὔτικά μιν δῆσον.

"When stretch'd beneath the lofty oaks you view
(Οὐρανός), with honey by the bees produc'd
Sunk in ebriety (intoxication), fast bind the God." (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823)

[11] Orphic frag. 154. (114) Περί του εν Ὀδυσσεία τῶν νυμφών ἄντρου Πορφυρίου. 16 p. 67, 21 Nauck:

ὃ καὶ πάσχει ὁ Κρόνος καὶ δεθεὶς ἐκτέμνεται ὡς ὁ Οὐρανός

"This therefore, takes place, and Saturn (Κρόνος) being bound is emasculated in the same manner as Heaven (Οὐρανός)" (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1823)

[12] Orphic frag.164. (117) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος B prooem (I 206, 26 Diehl):

μαῖα, θεῶν ὑπάτη, Νὺξ ἄμβροτε, πῶς, τάδε φράζε, πῶς χρή μ' ἀθανάτων ἀρχὴν κρατερόφρονα θέσθαι; καὶ ἀκούει παρ' αὐτῆς

“(Zeus speaks to Nyx) Good mother, highest of the Gods, immortal Nyx, show me this, how am I to set up my stout-hearted rule among the Deathless Ones? and she hears him” (trans. by the author)

[13] Orphic frag. 165. (122) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος I 28c (I 313, 31 Diehl):

πῶς δέ μοι ἕν τε τὰ πάντ' ἔσται καὶ χωρίς ἕκαστον; αἰθέρι πάντα πέριξ ἀφάτωι λάβε, τῶι δ' ἐνὶ μέσσωι οὐρανόν, ἐν δέ τε γαῖαν ἀπείριτον, ἐν δὲ θάλασσαν, ἐν δὲ τὰ τείρεα πάντα τά τ' οὐρανὸς ἐστεφάνωται.

(Zeus speaks to Night):

“How can I have all things one yet each one apart? (Nyx answers:) ‘Take hold round about all things with the unutterable Aithír, and in its midst place the vault of heaven, the immense earth, the sea, and all the constellations crowning heaven.’ ”
(trans. by the author)

166. Orphic frag. (122) σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος I 28c (II 24, 23 Diehl):  

αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δεσμὸν κρατερὸν περὶ πάντα τανύσσηις σειρὴν χρυσειην ἐξ αἰθέρος ἀρτήσαντα.

(Nyx says to Zefs:) “But thereupon you will bind a mighty yoke around all things, suspending a golden rope from the Aithír.” (trans. by the author)


[14] Orphic frag.167. (120. 121) 
σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος I 29a (I 324, 14 Diehl):

ὣς τότε πρωτογόνειο χαδὼν μένος Ἠρικεπαίου
τῶν πάντων δέμας εἶχεν ἑῆι ἐνὶ γαστέρι κοίληι,
μεῖξε δ' ἑοῖς μελέεσσι θεοῦ δύναμίν τε καὶ ἀλκήν,
τοὔνεκα σὺν τῶι πάντα Διὸς πάλιν ἐντὸς ἐτύχθη.

“Thus then taking hold of the power of first-born Irikæpaios (Ἠρικεπαῖος)
He carried the form of all things in the hollow of his own belly,
He mingled his own limbs with the power and strength of the God,
for that reason with him all things within Zefs were made new."
(trans. by the author)

σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 28c (I 312, 26 Diehl):

αἰθέρος εὐρείης ἠδ' οὐρανοῦ άγλαὸν ὕψος,
πόντου τ' ἀτρυγέτου γαίης τ' ἐρικυδέος ἕδρη,
Ὠκεανός τε μέγας καὶ νείατα Τάρταρα γαίης
καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ πόντος ἀπείριτος ἄλλα τε πάντα
πάντες τ' ἀθάνατοι μάκαρες θεοί ἠδὲ θέαιναι,
ὅσσα τ' ἔην γεγαῶτα καὶ ὕστερον ὁππός' ἔμελλεν,
(v. fr. 169)
ἐνγένετο, Ζηνὸς δ' ἐνὶ γαστέρι σύρρα πεφύκει.

“The luminous summit of immense aithír and heaven,
The seat of the barren sea and illustrious earth,
Great Ocean and deep Tártaros (
Τάρταρος) beneath the earth,
And rivers and the limitless sea and all other,
All the deathless happy Gods and Goddesses,
All that existed and all that will come to be,
All come about and bestrewn in the belly of Zefs (
Ζεὺς).” (trans. by the author)

[15] Orphic frag.163. σχόλιον Πρόκλου επί Τιμαίου Πλάτωνος 31a (I 450, 20 Diehl):

ὁ δὲ δημιουγὸς αὐτός, ὁ μέγιστος Ζεύς, συζογεῖ τῆι Ἥραι· διὸ καὶ ἰσοτελὴς αὐτῶι καλεῖται, καὶ ἐκ τῶν αὐτῶν προεληλύθασι πατέρων.

“But the Demiurgus, who is the great Jupiter (Ζεὺς), is conjoined with Juno (Ἥρα). Hence also, she is said to be of equal rank with him, and proceeds from the same fathers.” (trans. Thomas Taylor, 1820)

[16] Trans. Thomas Taylor, 1792.


The story of the birth of the GodsOrphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.

Introduction to the Thæí (the Gods): The Nature of the Gods.
How do we know there are Gods? Experiencing Gods.


The logo to the left is the principal symbol of this website. It is called the CESS logo, i.e. the Children of the Earth and the Starry Sky. The Pætilía (Petelia, Πετηλία) and other golden tablets having this phrase (Γῆς παῖς εἰμί καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος) are the inspiration for the symbol. The image represents this idea: Earth (divisible substance) and the Sky (continuous substance) are the two kozmogonic substances. The twelve stars represent the Natural Laws, the dominions of the Olympian Gods. In front of these symbols is the seven-stringed kithára (cithara, κιθάρα), the lyre of Apóllohn (Apollo, Ἀπόλλων). It (here) represents the bond between Gods and mortals and is representative that we are the children of Orphéfs (Orpheus, Ὀρφεύς).



PLEASE NOTE:  Throughout the pages of this Glossary, you will find fascinating stories.  These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes.  While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result.  The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code.  To understand them requires a key.  For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level.  Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation

.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.
 

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