E - An Illustrated Glossary of Hellenic Polytheism

BEING A DICTIONARY OR BRIEF ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HELLENISMOS, THE ANCIENT PAGAN GREEK RELIGION

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PLEASE NOTE:  Throughout the pages of this Glossary, you will find fascinating stories. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result.  The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.


SPELLING:  HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself.  An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website.  For more information, visit these three pages: 

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DISCLAIMER:  The inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) with the views of HellenicGods.org by the external sources from which they were obtained.

Further, the inclusion of images, quotations, and links from outside sources does not in any way imply agreement (or disagreement), approval (or disapproval) by HellenicGods.org of the contents or views of any external sources from which they were obtained.

ABBREVIATIONS: A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE


Ε, ε (Ǽpsilon or Epsilon; Gr. έψιλον, ΕΨΙΛΟΝ) - When the Greek letter Ǽpsilon is not part of a diphthong, it always sounds like the a in cake, make, or day. This sound is represented on this website by the grapheme called the Ash: Æ and æ.  With the exceptions noted below, words beginning with Ǽpsilon will eventually be listed in the Glossary under A, not E, and then grouped together under the Ash (Æ and æ). The use of the Ash to represent Ǽpsilon is not entirely unique for it was customarily used so in the Middle Ages; we are reviving its use because the Ash is always pronounced in English as Ǽpsilon should be pronounced.

When the Greek word uses the diphthong αι (Álpha-Iόhta), we are spelling this ai, even though αι has the identical sound to the Ǽpsilon. Why? Because typically ai in English is pronounced as αι (Álpha-Iόhta) in Greek, so by imitating the Greek spelling, the reader will pronounce the word correctly but can also perceive that in the original Greek the αι was used. 

The diphthong ει (Ǽpsilon-Iόhta) incorporates an Ǽpsilon but the pronunciation is different: this diphthong sounds like the ee in beet or seem. We are spelling this ei, because it mimics the Greek spelling yet the reader will pronounce the word correctly, because in English ei it is usually pronounced like the ee in beet or seem, and, simultaneously, the reader can also assume that ει has been transliterated from the original Greek word.

The diphthong ευ (Ǽpsilon-Ýpsilon) incorporates an Ǽpsilon but again the pronunciation is different: Please see Ef and Ev.

See Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.

Earth - See Yaia.

Easun - Easun is the Etruscan word for Iason (Jason). 

Ebdomaion - See Ævdomaion.

Echidna - See Ǽkhidna.

Ecpyrosis - See Ækpýrohsis.

Ef or efThe English letters ef are used on this website to represent the Greek diphthong ευ-ΕΥ (Ǽpsilon-Ýpsilon) when the diphthong is found at the end of a word or before the following consonants: θ κ ξ π σ τ φ χ ψ. This sounds like the ef in effort

- When the diphthong Ǽpsilon-Ýpsilon is found before a vowel or the following consonants: β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ, it sounds like the ev in every or evolution (and we are spelling it ev). 

Please note that these are all short e, using the American pronunciation.

- Please visit this page: Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.

Efkleia - (Eucleia; Gr. Εὐκλεία, ΕΥΚΛΕΙΑ) Efkleia is the Goddess of Glory, one of the younger Kháritæs (Charities; Gr. Χάριτες). Efkleia is called the personification of the victory of the Battle of Marathon (Gr. Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος). Ploutarkhos (Plutarch; Gr. Πλούταρχος) remarks (Life of Ἀριστείδης 20) that Efkleia was a surname of Ártæmis (Artemis; Gr. Ἄρτεμις) while stating that other sources describe her as the daughter of Iraklís (Heracles or Hercules; Gr. Ἡρακλῆς) and Myrtóh (Myrto; Gr. Μυρτώ). In the Orphic Rhapsodies she is called the daughter of Íphaistos (Hephaestus; Gr. Ἥφαιστος) and Aglaia (Gr. Ἀγλαΐα). Efkleia, as a quality or virtue, denotes human excellence and the good reputation which accompanies it, as implied in a fragment (Frag. 13 as numbered in the trans. of Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) of Vakkhylídis (Bacchylides; Gr. Βακχυλίδης).

Efklís - (Eucles; Gr. Εὐκλῆς, ΕΥΚΛΗΣ) 
Efklís is .

- "Eukles, 'the fair-famed', is Hades or Pluto, as Hesychius (ed. grammarian, 5th century CE) says" (Orpheus and Greek Religion by W.K.C. Guthrie, 1952; found in the 1993 Princeton Univ. Press edition [Princeton, NJ USA], p. 179)
-
 "Most scholars agree in identifying Eucles, whose name literally means 'of good fame,' with Hades, who in cult is sometimes referred to euphemistically as 'Klymenos' or "famous.' " (Ritual Texts for the Afterlife by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnston, 2007, Routledge [London and New York], p. 123).

Efphimía - (euphemia; Gr. εὐϕημία, ΕΥΦΗΜΙΑ. Noun.) Efphimía is the use of words of good omen. In contrast to efphimía is vlasphimía (blaspheme; Gr. βλασφημία), words of evil omen.

- Lexicon entry: εὐϕημίαuse of words of good omen: I. abstinence from inauspicious language, religious silenceII. in positive sense, auspiciousness;  III. prayer and praise, worship, offered to the Gods. 2. honour, good repute enjoyed by men.  (L&S pp. 736-737, within the entries beginning with εὐϕημέω, edited for simplicity.)
- "
It (ed. efphimía) entails on the one hand the scrupulous avoidance of any word or expression which, because it has dire or dismal associations, might exert an untoward influence, or which, being inappropriate, might offend the divine ear. On the other hand it enjoins that the language used by the worshiper should be auspicious and seemly; through the careful selection of titles, narratives etc., he should suggest that the deity was a being of grace and favour in every way qualified to grant what is required."  (from the paper Greek Hymns by William D. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer)

Efphrosýni - (Euphrosyne; Gr. Εὐφροσύνη, ΕΥΦΡΟΣΥΝΗ) Efphrosýni is one of the three Graces, the Goddess of Joy and Mirth.
- Lexicon entry: εὐφροσύνη, Ep. ἐϋφρ-, ἡ, (εὔφρων) mirth, merriment; esp. of a banquet, good cheer, festivity; festivities. II. pr. n., Euphrosyne, one of the Graces, Hes.Th.909, etc. (L&S p. 737, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Efsǽvia - (Eusebeia; Gr. Εὐσέβεια, ΕΥΣΕΒΕΙΑ) Efsǽvia, commonly translated as piety, is the basic practice of our religion, fundamental in every way. Efsǽvia is the attitude and practice of showing respect and reverence to the Gods and parents. The Delphic Maxims say "Follow God" (Έπου θεώ), "Worship the Gods" (Θεούς σέβου), and "Respect Your Parents" (Γονείς αίδου).
- Lexicon entry: εὐσἐβεια, reverence towards the Gods or parents, piety of filial respect; 2. loyalty. 3. = Latin Pietas. 4. credit or character for piety. (L&S p. 731, right column)
- "...he who takes care to desire as he ought and to avoid as he ought, at the same time also cares after piety. But to make libations and to sacrifice and to offer first-fruits according to the custom of our fathers, purely and not meanly nor carelessly nor scantily nor above our ability, is a thing which belongs to all to do."
(The Discourses of Epictetus: Encheiridion XXXI, translated by George Long, 1877; found in a more recent edition with no publication dates, Peter Pauper Press [Mt. Vernon], p. 21.)

Eftǽrpi - (Euterpe; Gr. Εὐτέρπη, ΕΥΤΕΡΠΗ) Eftǽrpi is one of the nine Mousai (Muses; Gr. Μοῦσαι). She is the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Mnimosýni (Mnemosyne; Gr. Μνημοσύνη) and the mother of King Rísos (Rhesos; Gr. Ῥῆσος) of Thráki (Thrace; Gr. Θρᾴκη) and who fought on the side of the Trojans in the Iliás (Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς) of Ómiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος).. Eftǽrpi is the Muse of Lyric Poetry. In iconography, she plays the aflós (aulos; Gr. αὐλός), a type of flute.

Eggs - 1. the egg is a major symbol in Hellenic religion, being symbolic for the three parts of the soul. 2. For a brief article on eating eggs, please see visit the glossary entry for animal products.


Ego - The etymological root for the English word ego is the ancient Greek ἐγώ, the pronoun of the first person. When we use the word ego in Ællinismόs (Hellenismos; Gr. Ἑλληνισμός), the ancient Greek religion, we are not using it in the Freudian sense, but rather in the more common sense. The simplest and most befitting definition: ego is self-deception, and as such, there is no degree of ego which is acceptable. Ego is a distortion of reality, an exaggerated view of one's own value, ego is conceit, but the implications of this particular conceit can be very subtle. For instance, poor self-esteem is another trick of ego. The ego causes us to lose an accurate perspective of our relationship with the world and to make decisions which places the fulfillment of one's own selfish desires ahead of the needs of other people and the needs of society as a whole. The ego is represented in mythology by the Lærnaian Ýdra (Lernaean Hydra; Gr. Λερναία Ὕδρα), the serpentine beast which Iraklís (Heracles or Hercules; Gr. Ἡρακλῆς) slew as the second of his mighty Labors. The ýdra is a snake with many heads; when one head is destroyed, two grow in its place. The ýdra is symbolic of the endless deceptions of ego which continuously distort the perspective of one's relationship to the phenomenal world. The ego deceives us into thinking that selfishness is the only intelligent way to conduct one's life. This is why the ego is compared to the ýdra, because the ýdra is very clever; we think of the ego as our servant, but in reality, we are its slave. It is only when we try to escape from ego, that we face the great predicament, the realization that its entanglements are extremely difficult to undo. Indeed, the defeat of the deceptions of ego is one of the greatest accomplishments possible for a human being and it is synonymous with the acquisition of genuine virtue.


EI or eiThe English digraph (i.e., two successive letters representing one sound) EI is being used on this website to represent the Greek digraph Ǽpsilon-Iόhta (Gr. ει, ΕΙ). This digraph always sounds like a long double ee, like the double ee in feeknee, or see. 

It should be noted that the digraph Ǽpsilon-Iόhta has the identical sound to Iόhta (Iota; Gr. Ιώτα, ΙΩΤΑ). Since the English digraph ei is typically pronounced like the long double ee and since it looks identical to the Greek Ǽpsilon-Iόhta, we are retaining it rather than using a simple letter i in transliterations. We are using various different spellings to enable the student to more easily reconstruct the ancient Greek words from which these letters were derived, as is practical, while still allowing for an easy pronunciation by non-scholars. 

See Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.

Eidohlolatria - (idololatria; Gr. εἰδωλολατρία, ΕΙΔΩΛΟΛΑΤΡΙΑ) Eidohlolatria is a Christian word meaning idolatry, the worship of images. The word was used against our religion because of the use of Agálmata (statues; Gr. Αγάλματα) to represent Gods. This accusation is not accepted because it is clear that the image represents the God but is not itself the God.

Eidolikohs - (Gr.  εἶδολικως, ΕΙΔΟΛΙΚΩΣEidolikohs, or rendered in English idolically, means adumbratively. (TTS XV p. 10) Adumbrate is defined thus: to produce a faint image or resemblance of; to outline or sketch. Cf. eidos.

Eidos - (Gr. εἶδος, ΕΙΔΟΣ; Etym. εἴδω, ἰδεῖν "to see"Eidos means formshapeappearancenature or type. Plato speaks of archetypal intelligible eidos from which all things are formed, sensible eidos which are imperfect copies, the most primordial and perfect intelligible eidos being Agathos, the Good. These are the Forms, the great theory of forms that is found in the Phaidohn (Phaedo; Gr. Φαίδων), Politeia (The Republic: Gr. Πολιτεία), and other dialogues of Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων).
- Lexicon entry: 
εἶδος, εος, τό, (εἴδω A) that which is seen: form, shape, freq. in Hom., of the human form or figure. b. esp. of beauty of person, comeliness. c. Medic., physique, habit of body, constitution: more freq. in pl. 2. generally, shape; in pl., shapes, i.e. various kinds of atoms (cf. ἰδέα). b. Geom., δύο εἴδη τῷ εἴδει δεδομένα two figures given in species; esp. in central conics, rectangle formed by a transverse diameter and the corresponding parameter; also, species of numbers, of the terms in an algebraical expression involving different powers of the unknown quantity. II. form, kind, or nature. III. class, kind, πᾶν τὸ τῶν πίστεων εἶδος: freq. in Pl., περὶ παντὸς τοῦ εἴδους . . ἐν ᾧ . . Tht. 178a; ἑνὶ εἴδει περιλαβεῖν ib.148d; εἰς ταὐτὸν ἐμπέπτωκεν εἶδος ib. 205d, etc. 2. = ἰδέα, Pl.Phd.103e, R.596a, Arist.Metaph.990b9, al., etc. 3. form, opp. matter (ὕλη): hence, formal cause, essence. IV. in later Gr., wares of different kinds, goods: hence, payments in kind, opp. χρυσίον (ed. coinage or gold). (L&S p. 482, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Eikasía - (Gr. εἰκᾰσία, ΕΙΚΑΣΙΑ; Etym. εἰκών, image) Eikasía is an understanding acquired by the observation of images, one of two states of the comprehension of the phenomenal world which are defined as opinion. In the Politeia (The Republic: Gr. Πολιτεία) of Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων), as described in the analogy of the divided line (Πολιτεία 509e-511e), eikasía is likened to the lowest part of the line and is not categorized as æpistími (episteme; Gr. ἐπιστήμη), true knowledge, but is one of two defined mental states which are defined as opinion. These two states of opinion are: 1. eikasía, the apprehension of images, or an understanding gained by means of eikónæs (Gr. εικόνες, images, plural of εικόνα.), images or shadows of sensible things, and 2. pístis (Gr. πίστις), the (actual) perception of sensible things. The word eikasmós ( Gr. εἰκασμός) means "guessing." Cf. Pístis.
- Lexicon entry: εἰκᾰσία, likeness, representation. II. comparison; estimate. III. conjecture, Pl.Sis.390c, Ph.2.91; doubt. IV. apprehension of or by means of images or shadows, Pl.R.511e, 534a. (L&S p. 484, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Eikóhn - (icon; Gr. εἰκών, ΕΙΚΩΝ) Lexicon entry: εἰκών, ἡ:—likeness, image, whether picture or statue. 2. image in a mirror. 3. personal description. 4. metaph., living image, representation. II. semblance, phantom; imaginary form, Pl.R.588b. III. similitude, comparison, Pl.Phd.87b, Men.80c, Men.536.1; δι' εἰκόνος λέγεσθαι Pl.R.487e, cf. Arist.Rh.1407a11. IV. pattern, archetype. (L&S p. 485, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Eikonikós - (iconicus; Gr. εικονικός, ΕΙΚΟΝΙΚΟΣ. Taylor is spelling this εικονικώς.) Eikonikós means iconically
- "A thing is said to subsist iconically, when it subsists after the manner of an image." (TTS XV p. 9)
- Lexicon entry: εἰκονικός, ή, όν, representing a figure, copied from it; of actor's masks. II. counterfeited, pretended. III. belonging to or employing images, φαντασία Plot. 3.6.18; διάκοσμος Dam.Pr.284, cf. 423 (Comp.). Adv. -κῶς Procl. Inst.65, in Euc.p.16 F., Dam.Pr.330. (L&S p. 484, right column, within the entries beginning with 
εἰκονίδιον.)

Eiræsióhni - (Eiresione) Please visit this page: Eiræsióhni.

Eirene
 - See 
 Eiríni.

Eiresione Please visit this page: Eiræsióhni.

Eiríni - (Eirene; Gr. Εἰρήνη, ΕΙΡΗΝΗ) Eiríni is the daughter of Zefs (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς) and Thǽmis (Themis; Gr. Θέμις). Eiríni is one of the three Órai (Horai; Gr. Ὧραι). She is associated with Spring and Peace. Eiríni is often depicted in art with the infant Ploutos (Gr. Πλοῦτος) in her arms.

Ekklesia - See Ækklisía.

Ektheosis - Please visit this page: Ækthǽohsis.

Electron - See Ílæktron.

Elektron - See Ílæktron.

Eleleus - See Ælæléfs.

Elements, The Classical - The elements (Gr. στοιχεῖα, plural) enumerated by the theologian Orphéfs (Orpheus; Gr. Ὀρφεύς) are Yi or Yaia (Ge or Earth; Gr. Γῆ or Γαῖα) and Ýdohr (Hydor or Water; Gr. Ὕδωρ); these are the primary material substance of which everything which exists consists. It is the interaction of Earth and Water which creates the soul, both of the Kózmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος) as well as the soul of every being. Earth is a divisible substance (Gr. Μεριστή Οὐσία) while Water is a continuous substance (Gr. Συνεχής Οὐσία). Because Pyr (Fire; Gr. Πῦρ) and Aithír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ) are also continuous substance, they are grouped together with Water. This gives us four elements organized as follows: Earth and Water-Fire-Aithír. To this list, may be added Air (Aer; Gr. Ἀήρ), comprising the five classical elements of antiquity, an understanding which was viewed as scientific through the medieval era and beyond. While these ideas must be approached as antique, they retain a validity, for they are the foundation of modern physics, a view of the universe as consisting of material substances rather than unknowable "spiritual" elements.

Elenchos - See Ǽlængkhos.

Elenctic MethodSee Ǽlængkhos.

Eleni - See Ælǽni

Elenifori - See Ælæniphóri.

EleosǼlæos (Gr. Ἔλεος) = Compassion.

Eleusinian Mysteries
 - Please visit this page: 
Ælefsínia Mystíria. For an extensive list of terms associated with these Mysteries, please visit: Glossary of the Ælefsínia Mystíria.

EleutheriaVisit this page: Ælefthæría.

Eleuthernae tablet -  See Æléfthærnai Tablet.

Elysium - See Ilýsion.

Emotions, the - See Páthos.

Empedocles - Visit this page: Æmbædoklís.

Empiricism - ( L. empiricus, < Gr. ἐμπειρικὀς, empeirikos < ἐμπειρία, empeiria = experience, < ἔμπειρος, empeiros = experienced, < ἐν, en = in, + πεῖρα, peira = trial, experiment) Empiricism is a philosophical term indicating an epistemological method of discovery using experience only as the basis for knowledge, i.e. the use of the senses (a posteriori) and observation rather than reason (rationalism, a priori).
- Lexicon entry: ἐμπειρία, , experience. 2. c. gen. rei, experience in, acquaintance with. II. practice, without knowledge of principles, esp. in Medicine, empiricism. 2. craft. (L&S p. 544, left column, within the entries beginning with εμπειράζω, edited for simplicity.)

Empyrios Ether - See Æmbýrios Aithír.

Energeia - See Ænǽryeia.

Energy - See Ænǽryeia.

Eniaios - See Æniaiohs.

Entheastically - See Ænthæastikóhs.

Entheastikos - See Ænthæastikóhs.

Enthousiazo - See Ænthousiázo.

Enthusiazo - See Ænthousiázo.

EntonEnegitikotita - See Ǽntoni Ænæryitikótis.

Eorti - See Æortí.

Eos - See Ióhs.

Eosforos - See Æöhsphóros.

Eosphoros - See Æöhsphóros.

Epea - See Ǽpæa.

Epheboleipsia (not ephibophilia) - See Æphivolipsía.

Ephebos - See Ǽphivos.  

Ephor - See Æphoros.

Ephoros - See Ǽphoros.

Epibole, Noera - See Noærá æpivolí.

Epic Poetry - See Ǽpæa.

Epibaterion - See Æpivatírion.

Epiphenomenalism - While the subject involves many levels of understanding, epiphenomenalism is the thesis that the mind, (or for our purposes the soul), is a bi-product of the body, that the body creates mental states, but that the mind creates nothing.

Episteme = Epistemology. See Æpistími.

Epistemology - See Æpistími.

Epistrophe - See Æpistrophí.

Epos - See Ǽpos.

Equinox - An equinox is a day in which the daylight hours are equal to the evening hours. There are two such days every year and they occur on September 21 and March 21. The Greek word for equinox is isimæría (Gr. ἰσημερία), the plural being isimæríæs (Gr. ισημερίες). There are four times every year when it is said that the Gates to Divinity are open: the spring and summer equinox and the summer and winter solstice.

Equinox, Sacred Autumn - See Phthinopohriní Isimæría. 

Erasmian Method of Pronouncing Ancient Greek: There are two predominant schools regarding the pronunciation of ancient Greek: the Reuchlinian and the Erasmian. The Reuchlinian method utilizes modern Greek pronunciation and is preferred by scholars living in Greece itself and Greek practitioners of the ancient religion. Scholars in universities outside of Greece generally use the Erasmian method, a system inspired by Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (1466-1536 CE). This website prefers the Reuchlinian method as the theology presented on its pages is the result of the hospitality and generosity of the Greek teachers who have shared it with us. Please visit these pages: Pronunciation of Ancient GreekTransliteration of Ancient Greek, Pronouncing the Names of the Gods in Ællinismós.

Erato - See Æratóh

Erebos - See Ǽrævos.

Ergon - See Ǽrgon.

Erinyes - See  Evmænídæs.

Eripheios - See Ærípheios.

Eriphos - See Ǽriphos.

Eris - See Ǽris.

Ermaphrothitos - (HermaphroditusSee Ærmaphróditos.

Eros - Please visit this page: Ǽrohs.  

Erotes - See Æ

roht

æ

s


Erotidia - See Ærohtídia.

Erus - Erus is the Etruscan word for Ǽrohs (Eros). Please visit this page: Ǽrohs.

Eschatology - (Etym. ἔσχατος [of time] "last" + λόγος "reckoning") Eschatology is the study of the final result of things and of ends in general, such as the end of life, the end of the world, the end of the K
ózmos (Cosmos; Gr. Κόσμος), the end result or purpose of religious practice.

E
sculapius - Roman name for Asklipiós.

Esplace - Etruscan name for Asklipiós.

Eterokiniton, to - See Ætærokíniton, to.

Ether (Aether) - See Aithír.

Etherial Chiton - See Aithǽrios Khitóhn.

Ethics - See Ithikí.

Ethike - See Ithikí.

Ethos - See íthos.

Etiology - See Aitioloyía.

Eucles - See Efklís.

Eudaimonia - See Evdaimonía.

Eucles - See Efklís.

Euion - The word euion can be found in line 6 (line 4 of the original ancient Greek) of Thomas Taylor's translation of Orphic hymn No. 30 Diónysos:

"Two-horn'd, with ivy crown'd, euion, pure."

If one examines the ancient Greek text, you can see that he simply did not translate the word: εὔιον (the Greeks pronounce the word: évion).  

The word can also be found in Taylor's translation of the Hymn to the Sun by Próklos (Proclus; Gr. Πρόκλος) in line 33. He places a note on the word, describing 'euion' as an epithet of Dionysos:

"Thee too they celebrate in sacred hymns
Th' illustrious source whence mighty Bacchus came;
And thee in matter's utmost stormy depths
Euion Ate they for ever sing." (lines 30-33)


A
thanassakis translates εὔιον as 'howling.' Both εὔιον and Évios (Gr. Εὔἱος)the epithet of Diónysos (Dionysus; Gr. Διόνυσος), are derived from "Evai! Eví!" (Gr. Εὐαἴ! Εὐοἴ!), the Vakkhic howl.

Eukleia - See Efkleia.

Eukles - See Efklís.

Eumenides - See Evmænídæs.

Eumolpidae -  See Evmolpídai.

Euphemia - See Efphimía.

Euphrosyne - See Efphrosýni.

Eurypylus - See Evrýpylos.

Eusebeia - See Efsǽvia, Osiótis, and Pietas.

Euterpe - See Eftǽrpi.


Ev or ev - The English letters ev are being used on this website to represent the Greek diphthong Ǽpsilon-Ýpsilon (Gr. ΕΥ, ευ) when this diphthong is found before a vowel or the following consonants: β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ. This sounds like the ev in evolution

- When the Greek diphthong Ǽpsilon-Ýpsilon is found before the following consonants: θ κ ξ π σ τ φ χ ψ or at the end of a word, it sounds like the ef in effort (and we are spelling it ef). 

Please note that these are all short e, using the American pronunciation.

See Pronunciation of Ancient Greek and Transliteration of Ancient Greek.


Evai! or Eví! - (euai! or euoi!; Gr. εὐαἴ, also εὐοἴ) Evai! Eví! is the cry of the worshippers of Diónysos (Bacchus or Vákkhos). (L&S, p. 705)

Evdaimonía - (Eudaemonia; Gr. εὐδαιμονία, ΕΥΔΑΙΜΟΝΙΑ) Evdaimonía, in its genuine philosophical sense, is true happiness, created by living life in justice (dikaiosýni; Gr. δικαιοσύνη) and with virtue (arætí or arete; Gr. ἀρετή). It is not dependent on possessions and wealth but is the property of the soul (Dimókritos [Democritus; Gr. Δημόκριτος] B171). Evdaimonía is the life that is the most worthy of pursuing.
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Lexicon entry: εὐδαιμονία, Ion. -ιη, prosperitygood fortuneopulence2. true, full happinessb. personified as a divinity. (L&S p.708, right column; within the entries beginning with εὐδαιμονέω, edited for simplicity.) Cf. Makaría.

Evmænídæs - (Eumenides; Gr. Εὐμενίδες, ΕΥΜΕΝΙΔΕΣ) Evmænídæs is another name of the Ærinýæs (Erinyes; Gr. Ἐρινύες), the Furies. According to Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος), Thæogonía 176, the Evmænídæs are three Goddesses born from the union of Yaia (Gaia; Gr. Γαῖα) and the blood of the severed genitals of Ouranós (Uranus; Gr. Οὐρανός)In the Orphic hymn 70 Evmænídæs they are the progeny of Pærsæphoni (Persephone; Gr. Περσεφόνη) and Zefs Khthónios (Zeus; Gr. Ζεύς Χθόνιος), who is Ploutohn (Pluto; Gr. Πλούτων)The Evmænídæs avenge crimes against the natural order, such as murder, but particularly murder within the family, crimes such as patricide. The Evmænídæs are associated with the conscience. Madness was a typical punishment dealt out by them.

Evmolpídai - (Eumolpidae; Gr. Εὐμολπίδαι) The Evmolpídai were the descendants of Évmolpos through his second son, Kíryx (Keryx; Gr. Κήρυξ), and one of the two hereditary families of priests who presided over the Ælefsínia Mystíria. The other family was called the Kírykæs (Kerykes; Gr. Κήρυκες). 

Evolution -  See Próödos.

Evrýpylos - (Eurypylus; Gr. Εὐρύπυλος, ΕΥΡΥΠΥΛΟΣ) Evrýpylos is the son of Poseidohn (Poseidon; Gr. Ποσειδῶν) and Kælainóh (Celeno; Gr. Κελαινώ, one of the Πλειάδες), although there are differing opinions of his parentage. According to one version of the myth, Evrýpylos was the prehistoric king of Livýï (Libya; Gr. Λιβύη), who offered his kingdom to anyone who should slay the lion which was ravaging his land. Kyríni (Kyrene; Gr. Κυρήνη) slew the lion and so won the kingdom.
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 Smith's Dictionary entry: A son of Euaemon and Ops. (Hygin. Fab. 81.) He appears in the different traditions about him, as a hero of Ormenion, or Hyria, or as a king of Cyrene. In the Iliad he is represented as having led the men of Ormenion and other places to Troy with forty ships, and he is one of those who offer to fight with Hector. (ii. 734, vii. 167.) He slew many a Trojan, and when he himself was wounded by Paris, he was nursed and cured by Patroclus. (xi. 841, xv. 390; comp. Apollod. iii. 10. § 8 ; Hygin. Fab. 97; Ov. Met. xiii. 357.) According to a genealogy of the heroes of Ormenion he was a son of Hyperochus, and the father of Ormenus. (Schol. ad. Pind. Ol. vii. 42.) Among the heroes of Hyria, he is mentioned as a son of Poseidon and Celaeno, and went to Libya before Cyrene who fought against the lion that attacked his flocks, and in Libya he became connected with the Argonauts. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1561; Tzetz. ad Lycoph.902.) He is said to have been married to Sterope, the daughter of Helios, by whom he became the father of Lycaon and Leucippus. (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iv. 57; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 886.) The tradition which connects him with the legends about Dionysus, is given under AESYMNETES, and Eurypylus as connected with Dionysus, dedicated a sanctuary to Soteria at Patrae (Paus. vii. 21. § 2), which also contained a monument of him, and where sacrifices were offered to him every year after the festival of Dionysus (vii. 19. §§ 1, 3, ix. 41. § 1.) From Pausanias we learn that Eurypylus was called by some a son of Dexamenus. (Comp. Müller, Orchom. p. 341, &c., 2nd edit.) (Note: Smith goes on to identify other personages with this name, but this entry only concerns the Evrýpylos connected with Livýï (Libya; Gr. Λιβύη).

Evvoulía - (euboulia; Gr. εὐβουλία, ΕΥΒΟΥΛΙΑ) Evvoulía is good deliberation, soundness of judgment, prudence. 2. Pythagorean name for three. (L&S p. 707, right column; within the entries beginning εὐβουλεύς, edited for simplicity.)

Exclusivism - Please visit this page: Exclusivism and Hellenismos.

Exegesis - See Æxíyisis.


ABBREVIATIONS:  A list of abbreviations used in the glossary can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME PAGE


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