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POLLUTION AND PURIFICATION

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"...with hands unwashed I dare not pour libation of ruddy wine to Zeus; nor is it in any way possible for a man to make prayer to the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, all befouled with blood and filth." [1]


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Khǽrnips - (Chernips or Lustral Water; Gr. χέρνιψ, ΧΕΡΝΙΨ. Etym. χείρ, "the hand" + νίπτω, "I wash.") 

Khǽrnips is clean, symbolically pure water from which to wash ones hands before ritual or entering a temple. Traditionally, khǽrnips is spring water or ocean water. 

Iphiyǽnia (Iphigenia; Gr. Ἰφιγένεια): First I would cleanse them with ablutions pure.
Thóas (Gr. Θόας): In fountain waters, or the ocean wave?
Iphiyǽnia: All man's pollutions doth the salt sea cleanse. [2]

Ocean water contains salt, which in itself is purifying [3], and which symbolizes the Fire-Aithír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ). 

Khǽrnips is placed near the altar in a vessel called a khærniveion (chernibeion; Gr. χερνῐβεῖον) or an ydrána (hydrana; Gr. δράνᾱ). Sometimes khǽrnips is sprinkled with a wisp (aspergillum) called a pærirrantírion (perirranterion; Gr. περιρραντήριον), to purify or dedicate something or someone.



Purification

Using khǽrnips is symbolic of the Aithír or Water washing away míasma (Gr. μίασμα), pollution. Its use may seem similar to the basin of holy water found near the door of Catholic churches, but khǽrnips represents ritual cleansing, where the Christian holy water has more of a connotation of a blessing. In our tradition, the use of khǽrnips is the general means of simple purification: katharmós (Gr. καθαρμός). The ritual of washing hands is mostly symbolic; it is indicative of a change in attitude, as expounded in the oft-quoted phrase engraved over the entrance to the sanctuary of Asklipiós (Asklepios; Gr. Ἀσκληπιός) at Æpídavros (Epidaurus; Gr. Επίδαυρος):

"Into an odorous temple, he who goes
Should pure and holy be; but to be wise
In what to sanctity pertains, is to be pure." [4]

On one level, we wish to be in an appropriate state when approaching the Gods through ritual, so we literally want to be physically clean and show due respect to the Gods, but ultimately, the act of washing hands is symbolic of attaining a type of purity which cannot be secured by the act alone. Nonetheless, using 
khǽrnips is a skillful tool to help us change our attitude. At the very least, we try, we attempt to be pure of heart, even if we cannot quite accomplish this change; our intention is to leave the profane behind. 

"For the impure are not permitted to approach the pure." [5]

Purification is a type of separation (διάκρισις) [6] of the profane from the sacred; therefore, we generally do not conduct ritual until we have washed with khǽrnips.

"...and we ourselves fix boundaries to the sanctuaries and precincts of the Gods, so that nobody may cross them unless he be pure; and when we enter we sprinkle ourselves, not as defiling ourselves thereby, but to wash away any pollution we may have already contracted." [7]

It is inappropriate to approach the Gods when we are unclean, in body or soul:

"Never pour a libation of sparkling wine to Zeus after dawn with unwashen hands, nor to others of the deathless Gods; else they do not hear your prayers but spit them back." [8]


Khǽrnips literally cleanses our body and helps us purify our soul, but it has limitations:

"Religious water is potentially effective in even the tiniest quantity; certain crimes, on the other hand, not all the rivers on earth could wash away." [9]



How to Obtain and Use Khǽrnips in Ritual

How do we acquire khǽrnips? What is the tradition? Distilled water, although very pure, is not quite appropriate. The ideal water would be that which is obtained from an unpolluted, flowing spring or from the ocean in an area where it is clean. If these are unavailable, use bottled spring-water. If you cannot afford bottled spring-water, tap-water is sufficient. In our tradition, we improvise

Light a candle and dedicate this candle to Æstía (Hestia; Gr. Ἑστία). Now, obtain fire from the Æstía-candle using a toothpick or similar; this flame represents the Fire of Life, the possession of the Goddess. Extinguish the fire in the water saying a simple prayer, something like this:

"Come Queen Æstía, Goddess of the Hearth. Remember the offerings we have given to you in the past and make this water khǽrnips!" 

You can also drop a piece of ocean-salt into the water to represent the Fire-Aithír which is the possession of mighty Íphaistos (Hephaestus; Gr. Ἥφαιστος). 

If you have a nice container, you can make and store khǽrnips for future use, or it can be made right before each ritual.

Once you obtain the khǽrnips, pour it into a suitable vessel (ydrána) and wash your hands and face before beginning ritual. If there is more than one participant, it is better that one individual pour the khǽrnips from a pitcher (ὑδρία) or a ladle (Gr. ἐτνήρυσις) over the hands of each person, having a large receptacle to catch the spillage, so that the khǽrnips is clean for each member of the congregation.

Again, a simple prayer may be recited by each participant to help keep in mind the true purpose of the practice:

"With this khǽrnips, I purify my body, my mind, and my soul; I wash my hands and my face, a time-honored custom performed before approaching the Blessed, Deathless Gods. Khærníptomai! (Be purified!)"


The Use of the Pærirrantírion

For special purification, khǽrnips may be sprinkled from a pærirrantírion (a wisp) directly on the object(s) or person(s) who is to be purified; a branch of laurel, purifying in itself, may be used to gather and sprinkle the khǽrnips; such a pærirrantírion is the most traditional and would be ideal, or a branch of olive or pine or any tree would also be appropriate; alternately one could use a brass aspergillum such as those employed by the Catholics or Orthodox in their services.




Concluding Remarks Concerning Khǽrnips, Pollution, and Purification

It is worth repeating that, although we perform this little ritual, using khǽrnips is not magic; it cannot "wash away your sins," so to speak. The use of khǽrnips is an act of piety and should not be an expression of superstition or pretense; it simply represents the change of heart you are attempting to actualize, to be your best for the Gods. And it is valuable to point out that the idea of pollution should be approached with a rational mind. It is easy to develop an unbalanced and paranoid view concerning pollution, feeling that we must constantly be washing our hands or doing some other purificatory practice. But this is superstition and illogical. In ancient times, such an unreasonable approach was not uncommon, as the philosopher Thæóphrastos (Theophrastus; Gr. Θεόφραστος) characterizes in his essay on superstition:

"He would seem to be one of those who are for ever going to the seaside to besprinkle themselves; and if ever he see one of the figures of Hecate at the crossroads wreathed with garlic, he is off home to wash his head and summon the priestess whom he bids purify him..." [10]

One should be clear in one's mind that the Gods are benevolent and highly evolved beings and they are not petty, requiring us to do the absurd.

There are many types of míasma described in antique literature and it must not be assumed that simply because an idea was believed in the ancient world, that it is logical and correct and must be observed in one's modern practice. Míasma is generally of two kinds, one more serious than the other. Firstly, there is the míasma of physical inappropriateness; in other words, we avoid doing ritual in a filthy state of body. Secondly, and much more significant is the míasma of the soul; we avoid doing ritual with an angry mind which is not well-meaning. The use of khǽrnips deals with both types of míasma; we wash ourselves and make ourselves physically suitable for ritual while simultaneously the act should remind us to put away dark thoughts and approach the Gods with a pure heart. All of this is designed to help us place the profane behind and enable us to enter divine space. 

Concerning míasma of a more severe nature, in the case, for instance, of someone who has committed a serious crime, such an act requires purification that lies beyond the efficacy of khǽrnips and such pollution requires a different conversation.



GLOSSARY OF KHǼRNIPS, POLLUTION AND PURIFICATION

Ænayís (enages; Gr. 
ἐναγής, ΕΝΑΓΗΣ. Adjective.) 
Ænayís is an adjective meaning to be under a curse, polluted, in a sacrilegious sense or as related to murder. The word is a adjectival form of ágos. Cf. Ágos.

Agneftírion - (hagneuterion; Gr. ἁγνευτήριον, ΑΓΝΕΥΤΗΡΙΟΝ) Lexicon entry: ἁγνευτήριον, τό, place of purificationsacristy. (L&S p. 11, right column, within the entries beginning with ἁγνεία, edited for simplicity.)

Ágnisma - (hagnisma; Gr. ἅγνισμα, ΑΓΝΙΣΜΑ. Noun.Ágnisma is a purification. Lexicon entry: ἅγνισμα, τό, purification, expiation, ματρῷον ἅ. φόνου, of Orestes, A.Eu.326. (L&S p. 11, right column, edited for simplicity.) 

Agnismós - (hagnismos; Gr. ἁγνισμός, ΑΓΝΙΣΜΟΣ. Noun.) Agnismós is purification, expiation. (L&S p. 11, right column, within the entries beginning with ἅγνισμα, edited for simplicity.)

Agnistǽos - (hagnisteos; Gr. ἁγνιστέος, ΑΓΝΙΣΤΕΟΣ. Verb.) Agnistǽos means to be purified. (L&S p. 11, right column, within the entries beginning with ἅγνισμα, edited for simplicity.)

Agnistís - (hagnistes; Gr. ἁγνιστής, ΑΓΝΙΣΤΗΣ) Agnistís is he who performs the purification, the purifier. (L&S p. 11, right column, within the entries beginning with ἅγνισμα, edited for simplicity.)

Agnízoh - (hagnizo; Gr. ἁγνίζω, ΑΓΝΙΖΩ. Verb.) Lexicon entry: ἁγνίζω, fut. ῐῶ (ἀφ-): —wash off, cleanse away, esp. by water. 2. cleanse, purify:—Med., purify oneself. 3. esp. ἁ. τὸν θανόντα purify the dead by fire. 4. sacrifice. 5. hallow, consecrate. 6. burn up, consume. (L&S p. 11, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Ágos - (Gr. ἄγος, ΑΓΟΣ. Noun.) Ágos is a particular type of míasma, guilt, curse, and danger, connected with sacrilege, violating the sacred. Ágos is a type of pollution which is beyond the human realm and places one under divine curse, therefore, it is connected with sacredness, but in a negative sense; one is under the "protection" of the deity to whom you have offended.
- Lexicon entry: ἄγος (A), [ᾰ], εος, τό, any matter of religious awe: 1. pollution, guilt: in concrete sense, the person or thing accursed. 2. expiation, sacrifice.

Aspergillum - See Pærirrantírion.

Aspersorium - The aspersorium is a situla, a bowl for dipping a pærirrantírion to replenish the internal sponge with khǽrnips.

Diákrisis - (diacrisis; Gr. διάκρισις, ΔΙΑΚΡΙΣΙΣ. Noun.) Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) in Sophistís (The Sophist; Gr. Σοφιστής) at 226d calls purification (katharmós) a type of division, which in Greek is called diákrisis.

Stranger: There is no name for the first kind of separation; of the second, which throws away the worse and preserves the better, I do know a name.
Thæaititos (Theaetetus; Gr. Θεαίτητος): What is it?
Stranger: Every discernment or discrimination of that kind, as I have observed, is called a purification.

And again at 227d:

Stranger: Do we admit that virtue is distinct from vice in the soul?
Thæaititos: Certainly.
Stranger: And purification was to leave the good and to cast out where is bad?
Thæaititos: True

We can say that there are two basic divisions of purification, that of physical cleansing, on the one hand, and on the other we have the purification of the soul, that which casts out vice and leaves Arætí (virtue or arete; Gr. ἀρετή).

Enagis - See Ænayís.

Katharmós - (catharmus; Gr. καθαρμός, ΚΑΘΑΡΜΟΣ. Noun.) Katharmós is purification.
- Lexicon entry: κᾰθαρμός, ὁ, (καθαίρω) cleansing, purification, from guilt, νίψαι καθαρμῷ τήνδε τὴν στέγην S.OT1228: hence, purificatory offering, atonement, expiation. 2. purificatory rite of initiation into Mysteries. (L&S p. 850, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Kátharsis - (catharsis; Gr. κάθαρσις, ΚΑΘΑΡΣΙΣ. Noun.) Lexicon entry: κᾰθαρσις, εως, , Elean κόθαρσιςcleansing from guilt or defilement, purification; cleansing of the universe by fire, Zeno and Chrysipp.Stoic.2.184. 2. clarification. II. Medic., clearing off of morbid humours, etc., evacuation, whether natural or by the use of medicines. b. τραγῳδία . . δι' ἐλέου καὶ φόβου περαίνουσα τὴν τῶν τοιούτων παθημάτων κ. Arist.Po.1449b28, cf. Pol.1341b38. III. pruning of trees. IV. winnowing of grain. V. clearing of land. (L&S p. 851, left column, within the entries beginning with καθάρσιος, edited for simplicity.)

Khǽrnips - (chernips; Gr. χέρνιψ, ΧΕΡΝΙΨ. Noun.) 
- Lexicon entry: Khǽrnips is water for washing the hands, before meals: esp. of holy water used before sacrifices2. freq. in pl. χέρνιβες, purifications with holy water. (L&S p. 1988, right column, edited for simplicity.)

Kheiróniptron (cheironiptron; Gr. χειρόνιπτρον, ΧΕΙΡΟΝΙΠΤΡΟΝ. Noun.) 
- Lexicon entry: A kheiróniptron is a basin for washing hands. (L&S p. 1985, right column, within the entries beginning χειροδάϊκτος, edited for simplicity.) Cf. Khærniveion.

Khærníptomai - (cherniptomae; Gr. χερνίπτομαι, ΧΕΡΝΙΠΤΟΜΑΙ. Verb.) Khærníptomai is washing hands with khǽrnips or sprinkling with khǽrnips to purify or dedicate. This word can also be used as an exclamation while washing one's hands or sprinkling khǽrnips on a person or a thingKhærníptomai! i.e., "Be purified!"
- Lexicon entry: χερνίπτομαι, fut -ψομαι:—wash one's hands with holy water, esp. before sacrifice. 2. sprinkle with holy water, purify or dedicate thereby. (L&S p. 1988, column 2, edited for simplicity.)

Khærniveion - (chernibeion; Gr. χερνιβεῖον, ΧΕΡΝΙΒΕΙΟΝ. Noun.
- Lexicon entry: A kærniveion is vessel for water to wash the hands. (L&S p. 1988, right column, edited for simplicity.).

Khǽrnivon - (chernibon; Gr. χέρνιβον, ΧΕΡΝΙΒΟΝ. Noun.) Khǽrnivon the Homeric form of the word kærniveion.

Miarós - (Gr. μιαρός, ΜΙΑΡΟΣ. Adjective.Miarós is defiledritually impure or morally repugnant.
Lexicon entry: μῐᾰρός, ά, όν, (μιαίνω) stained with blood. 2. defiled with blood; μιαρά, τά, actions resulting in ritual impurity. 3. generally, defiled, polluted; of animals, unclean. 4. in moral sense, abominable, foul(L&S p. 1132, left column, edited for simplicity)

Míasma - (Gr. μίασμα, ΜΙΑΣΜΑ. Noun.) Míasma is pollution.
Lexicon entry: μί-ασμα [ῐ], ατος, τό, (μιαίνω) stain, defilement, esp. by murder or other crime, taint of guilt. II. that which defiles, pollution, of persons. (L&S p. 1132, left column, edited for simplicity)

Pærirrantírion - (perirranterion; Gr. περιρραντήριον, ΠΕΡΙΡΡΑΝΤΉΡΙΟΝ. Noun.) A pærirrantírion is an aspergillum, a whisk with which to sprinkle khǽrnips. The word can also be used to refer to the aspersorium, the basin of khǽrnips itself.
- Lexicon entry: περιρραντἠριον, a utensil for besprinkling, esp. whisk for sprinkling water at sacrifices, or a vessel for lustral water (ed. Khǽrnips) outside of the sanctuary. (L&S p. 1385, column 1, under the heading of περἰρρανσις, edited for simplicity.)

Prostrópaios - (Gr. προστρόπαιος, ΠΡΟΣΤΡΟΠΑΙΟΣ. Adjective.) Lexicon entry: προστρόπαιος, turning oneself towards: hence, 1. of one who has incurred pollution by committing a crime and turns to a God or man to obtain purification, suppliant for purification. b. suppliant for vengeance. 2. of one who has not yet been purified after committing crime, polluted person. 3. of pollution incurred, π. αἷμα blood that cries for vengeance. II. Pass. (= ᾧ ἄν τις προστρέποιτο δεόμενος, Eust.1807.11), the God to whom the murdered person turns for vengeance, avenger.

salt-water - (Gr. ἁλμυρός ὕδωρ) Salt represents the Mystic Fire. Salt-water represents the Divine Æthír (Aether; Gr. Αἰθήρ). This is why salt-water is appropriate for use as Khǽrnips.

"Hence the theurgist who is the leader of the Mysteries of this God begins from purifications and sprinklings:

Αυτος δ' εν πρωτοις ιερευς πυρος εργα κυβερνων,
Κυματι ραινεσθω παγερῳ βαρυηχετος αλμης.

The priest in the first place governing the works of fire, 
Must sprinkle with the cold water of the loud-sounding sea,

...as the Oracle says concerning him." 

(Próklos [Proclus; Gr. ΠρόκλοςThe Theology of Plátohn [Plato; Gr. ΠλάτωνChapter XVII, Book Seven, trans. Thomas Taylor, 1816, as found in the volume entitled Proclus: The Theology of Plato, Vol. VIII or The Thomas Taylor Series, 1999 Prometheus Trust [Somerset, UK], where this quotation may be found on p. 520.)

From Evripídis (Euripides; Gr. Εὐριπίδης) concerning purification: 

"Thóas: 'In the bubbling spring? Or is salt water best?'
Iphiyǽneia: 'The sea is the absorbent of all evil.' "
  
(Evripídis Iphiyǽneia in Távris [Iphigenia in Tauris; Gr. Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Ταύροις] 1191-1192, trans. Witter Bynner, 1956; The Complete Greek Tragedies Vol. III, Univ. of Chicago Press [Chicago, IL USA], where this quotation may be found on p. 395)

At Ælefsís (Eleusis; Gr. Ἐλευσίς) at initiation to the Mystíria (The Mysteries; Gr. Μυστήρια)

"On the day following the assembly came the cry, 'To the sea, O Mystae!' and the candidates for initiation ran down to the sea, there to purify themselves in its salt waves -- a lustration believed to be of greater virtue than that of fresh water."  

(Pagan Regeneration by Harold R. Willoughby, 1929; as found in the 2008 BiblioBazaar edition on p. 42.)

Situla - See Aspersorium.

Water-Fire-Aithír are all Synækhís Ousíacontinuous substance (in contrast to Earth, the Mæristí Ousía or divisible substance). In Orphic literature, the three elements, Water-Fire-Aithír, have certain similar characteristics and are usually simply called Water (Ýdohr; Gr. Ὕδωρ). See Ýdohr.

Ýdohr - (Hydor; Gr. Ὕδωρ, ΥΔΩΡ. Noun.Ýdohr is WaterÝdohr is one of the two basic material kosmogonic substances. Water is a God, characterized as male and formativeÝdohr is the Synækhís Ousíathe continuous substance. The other kosmogonic substance is Earth. Ýdohr is active; Earth is receptive. Ýdohr is continuous; Earth is divisible. Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) calls these two substances the One (Monad) and the Other. In Orphic literature, the word Water usually represents all three types of Synækhís SubstanceWater-Fire-Aithír. See Earth. See Water-Fire-Aithír.

Ydrána - (hydrana; Gr. δράνᾱ, ΥΔΡΑΝΑ. Noun.) 
- Lexicon entry: The ydrána is a vase for lustral water (i.e. khǽrnips). (L&S p. 1844, left column, edited for simplicity.)

Ydría - (hyria; Gr. ὑδρία, ΥΔΡΙΑ) The ydría is a pitcher. If there is more than one person taking part in ritual, one individual should pour the khǽrnips over the hands of each participant with an ydría so that the water is clean for each person. A large receptacle may be used to catch any spillage as the khǽrnips is poured.
- Lexicon entry: ὑδρία, , (ὕδωρwater-pot, pitcher. II. vessel of any kind, e. g. wine-pot; a pot of money (ed. etc.). 2. balloting urn, esp. in law-courts. 3. cinerary urn (ed. cremation urn). 4. water-clock. (L&S p. 1844, right column, edited for simplicity.)


NOTES:
A list of abbreviations can be found on this page: GLOSSARY HOME.

[1] Ómiros (Homer; Gr. Ὅμηρος) Iliás ( The Iliad; Gr. Ἰλιάς) 6.266-268, trans. A. T. Murray, revised by William F. Wyatt, 1924. We are using the 2003 edition entitled Homer: Iliad Books 1-10, LCL 170, published by Harvard Univ. Press (Cambridge, MA USA and London, England UK), where this quotation may be found on p. 295.

[2] Evripídis (Euripides; Gr. Εὐριπίδης) Iphiyǽnia æn Távris (Iphigenia in Taurus; Gr. Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Ταύροις) 1191-1193, trans. Robert Potter, 1780. We are using the 1938 edition published under the name The Complete Greek Drama Vol. 1, Random House (New York, NY USA), where this quotation may be found on p. 1102.

[3] The saying of Aristagóras (Gr. Ἀρισταγόρας), that salt is impure, is absurd:

"To consider salt impure, because, as Aristagoras has said, when it is crystallizing many minute creatures are caught in it and die there, is certainly silly." 

(Ploutarkhos Pærí Ísidos kai Osíridos [Isis and Osiris; Gr. Περὶ Ἴσιδος καὶ Ὀσίριδος] Section 5 [352f]. Trans. Frank Cole Babbitt, 1936, in the volume entitled Plutarch's Moralia in Sixteen Volumes, Vol. V, published by William Heinemann [London, England UK] and Harvard Univ. Press [Cambridge, MA USA]. We are using the 1969 edition where this quotation may be found on p. 15.)

[4] Porphýrios [Porphyry; Gr. Πορφύριος] On Abstinence From Killing Animals, Book II, Section 19, trans.Thomas Taylor, 1823.

[5] Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) Phaidohn [Phaedo; Gr. Φαίδων] 67b; translated by Benjamin Jowett 1892; we are using the 1937 Random House edition entitled The Dialogues of Plato, Vol. I [New York, NY USA] where this quotation may be found on p. 450.

[6] See Plátohn (Plato; Gr. Πλάτων) Sophistís (The Sophist; Gr. Σοφιστής) beginning at 226d, where he discusses how purification is a separation of the better from the worse.

[7] Ἱπποκράτης (Hippocrates) Περὶ ἱερῆς νούσου (The Sacred Disease) 55-60, trans. W. H. S. Jones, 1923. We are using the 1967 edition entitled Hippocrates II, Loeb Classic Library 148, Harvard Univ. Press (Cambridge MA, USA) and William Heinemann LTD (London), where this quotation may be found on pp. 149–151.

[8] Isíodos (Hesiod; Gr. Ἡσίοδος) Works and Days (Gr. Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι) 724-726, trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914. We are using the 1936 edition entitled Hesiod: The Homeric Hymns and Homerica, published by Harvard Univ. Press (Cambridge, MA USA) and William Heinemann (London, England UK), where this quotation may be found on p. 57.

[9] Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion by Robert Parker, 1983, Clarendon Press (Oxford, England UK), p. 227.


[10] Thæóphrastos (Theophrastus; Gr. Θεόφραστος) Ithikí kharaktíræs (Characters; Gr. Ἠθικοὶ χαρακτῆρες) 16.14 Deisidaimonías (On Superstition; Gr. Δεισιδαιμονίας), trans. J. M. Edmonds, 1929, in the book entitled The Characters of Theophrastus, published by William Heineman (London, England, UK) and G. P. Putnam's sons (New York, NY USA) where this quotation may be found on p. 83.


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PLEASE NOTE: Throughout the pages of this HellenicGods.org, you will find fascinating stories. These narratives are known as mythology, the traditional stories of the Gods and Heroes. While these tales are great mystical vehicles containing transcendent truth, they are symbolic and should not be taken literally; a literal reading will frequently yield an erroneous result. The meaning of the myths is often concealed in code. To understand them requires a key. For instance, when a God kills someone, this usually means a transformation of the soul to a higher level. Similarly, sexual union with a God is a transformation.

The story of the birth of the Gods: Orphic Rhapsodic Theogony.
We know the various qualities and characteristics of the Gods based on metaphorical stories: Mythology
Dictionary of terms related to ancient Greek mythology: Glossary of Hellenic Mythology.


SPELLING: HellenicGods.org uses the Reuchlinian method of pronouncing ancient Greek, the system preferred by scholars from Greece itself. An approach was developed to enable the student to easily approximate the Greek words. Consequently, the way we spell words is unique, as this method of transliteration is exclusive to this website. For more information, visit these three pages: 

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